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Www irs govlefile Publication 971 - Main Content Table of Contents How To Request ReliefException for agreements relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings. Www irs govlefile The IRS Must Contact Your Spouse or Former Spouse Tax Court Review of Request Community Property LawsRelief for Married Persons Who Did Not File Joint Returns Innocent Spouse ReliefUnderstated Tax Erroneous Items Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief Separation of Liability ReliefLimitations on Relief Equitable ReliefConditions for Getting Equitable Relief Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief RefundsProof Required Refunds Under Equitable Relief Limit on Amount of Refund Filled-in Form 8857 Flowcharts How To Request Relief File Form 8857 to ask the IRS for the types of relief discussed in this publication. Www irs govlefile If you are requesting relief for more than three tax years, you must file an additional Form 8857. Www irs govlefile The IRS will review your Form 8857 and let you know if you qualify. Www irs govlefile A completed Form 8857 is shown later. Www irs govlefile When to file Form 8857. Www irs govlefile   You should file Form 8857 as soon as you become aware of a tax liability for which you believe only your spouse or former spouse should be held responsible. Www irs govlefile The following are some of the ways you may become aware of such a liability. Www irs govlefile The IRS is examining your tax return and proposing to increase your tax liability. Www irs govlefile The IRS sends you a notice. Www irs govlefile   You must file Form 8857 no later than two years after the date on which the IRS first attempted to collect the tax from you that occurs after July 22, 1998. Www irs govlefile (But see the exceptions below for different filing deadlines that apply. Www irs govlefile ) For this reason, do not delay filing because you do not have all the documentation. Www irs govlefile   Collection activities that may start the 2-year period are: The IRS offset your income tax refund against an amount you owed on a joint return for another year and the IRS informed you about your right to file Form 8857. Www irs govlefile The filing of a claim by the IRS in a court proceeding in which you were a party or the filing of a claim in a proceeding that involves your property. Www irs govlefile This includes the filing of a proof of claim in a bankruptcy proceeding. Www irs govlefile The filing of a suit by the United States against you to collect the joint liability. Www irs govlefile The issuance of a section 6330 notice, which notifies you of the IRS' intent to levy and your right to a collection due process (CDP) hearing. Www irs govlefile The collection-related notices include, but are not limited to, Letter 11 and Letter 1058. Www irs govlefile Exception for equitable relief. Www irs govlefile   On July 25, 2011, the IRS issued Notice 2011-70 (available at www. Www irs govlefile irs. Www irs govlefile gov/irb/2011-32_IRB/ar11. Www irs govlefile html) expanding the amount of time to request equitable relief. Www irs govlefile The amount of time to request equitable relief depends on whether you are seeking relief from a balance due, seeking a credit or refund, or both: Balance Due – Generally, you must file your request within the time period the IRS has to collect the tax. Www irs govlefile Generally, the IRS has 10 years from the date the tax liability was assessed to collect the tax. Www irs govlefile In certain cases, the 10-year period is suspended. Www irs govlefile The amount of time the suspension is in effect will extend the time the IRS has to collect the tax. Www irs govlefile See Pub. Www irs govlefile 594, The IRS Collection Process, for details. Www irs govlefile Credit or Refund – Generally, you must file your request within 3 years after the date the original return was filed or within 2 years after the date the tax was paid, whichever is later. Www irs govlefile But you may have more time to file if you live in a federally declared disaster area or you are physically or mentally unable to manage your financial affairs. Www irs govlefile See Pub. Www irs govlefile 556, Examination of Returns, Appeal Rights, and Claims for Refund, for details. Www irs govlefile Both a Balance Due and a Credit or Refund – If you are seeking a refund of amounts you paid and relief from a balance due over and above what you have paid, the time period for credit or refund will apply to any payments you have made, and the time period for collection of a balance due amount will apply to any unpaid liability. Www irs govlefile Exception for relief based on community property laws. Www irs govlefile   If you are requesting relief based on community property laws, a different filing deadline applies. Www irs govlefile See Relief from liability arising from community property law discussed later under Community Property Laws . Www irs govlefile Form 8857 filed by or on behalf of a decedent. Www irs govlefile   An executor (including any other duly appointed representative) may pursue a Form 8857 filed during the decedent's lifetime. Www irs govlefile An executor (including any other duly appointed representative) may also file Form 8857 as long as the decedent satisfied the eligibility requirements while alive. Www irs govlefile For purposes of separation of liability relief (discussed later), the decedent's marital status is determined on the earlier of the date relief was requested or the date of death. Www irs govlefile Situations in which you are not entitled to relief. Www irs govlefile   You are not entitled to innocent spouse relief for any tax year to which the following situations apply. Www irs govlefile In a final decision dated after July 22, 1998, a court considered whether to grant you relief from joint liability and decided not to do so. Www irs govlefile In a final decision dated after July 22, 1998, a court did not consider whether to grant you relief from joint liability, but you meaningfully participated in the proceeding and could have asked for relief. Www irs govlefile You entered into an offer in compromise with the IRS. Www irs govlefile You entered into a closing agreement with the IRS that disposed of the same liability for which you want to seek relief. Www irs govlefile Exception for agreements relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings. Www irs govlefile   You may be entitled to relief, discussed in (4) earlier, if you entered into a closing agreement for both partnership items and nonpartnership items, while you were a party to a pending TEFRA partnership proceeding. Www irs govlefile (TEFRA is an acronym that refers to the “Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982” that prescribed the tax treatment of partnership items. Www irs govlefile ) You are not entitled to relief for the nonpartnership items, but you will be entitled to relief for the partnership items (if you otherwise qualify). Www irs govlefile Transferee liability not affected by innocent spouse relief provisions. Www irs govlefile   The innocent spouse relief provisions do not affect tax liabilities that arise under federal or state transferee liability or property laws. Www irs govlefile Therefore, even if you are relieved of the tax liability under the innocent spouse relief provisions, you may remain liable for the unpaid tax, interest, and penalties to the extent provided by these laws. Www irs govlefile Example. Www irs govlefile Herb and Wanda timely filed their 2008 joint income tax return on April 15, 2009. Www irs govlefile Herb died in March 2010, and the executor of Herb's will transferred all of the estate's assets to Wanda. Www irs govlefile In August 2010, the IRS assessed a deficiency for the 2008 return. Www irs govlefile The items causing the deficiency belong to Herb. Www irs govlefile Wanda is relieved of the deficiency under the innocent spouse relief provisions, and Herb's estate remains solely liable for it. Www irs govlefile However, the IRS may collect the deficiency from Wanda to the extent permitted under federal or state transferee liability or property laws. Www irs govlefile The IRS Must Contact Your Spouse or Former Spouse By law, the IRS must contact your spouse or former spouse. Www irs govlefile There are no exceptions, even for victims of spousal abuse or domestic violence. Www irs govlefile We will inform your spouse or former spouse that you filed Form 8857 and will allow him or her to participate in the process. Www irs govlefile If you are requesting relief from joint and several liability on a joint return, the IRS must also inform him or her of its preliminary and final determinations regarding your request for relief. Www irs govlefile However, to protect your privacy, the IRS will not disclose your personal information (for example, your current name, address, phone number(s), information about your employer, your income or assets) or any other information that does not relate to making a determination about your request for relief from liability. Www irs govlefile If you petition the Tax Court (explained below), your spouse or former spouse may see your personal information. Www irs govlefile Tax Court Review of Request After you file Form 8857, you may be able to petition (ask) the United States Tax Court to review your request for relief in the following two situations. Www irs govlefile The IRS sends you a final determination letter regarding your request for relief. Www irs govlefile You do not receive a final determination letter from the IRS within six months from the date you filed Form 8857. Www irs govlefile If you seek equitable relief for an underpaid tax, you will be able to get a Tax Court review of your request only if the tax arose or remained unpaid on or after December 20, 2006. Www irs govlefile The United States Tax Court is an independent judicial body and is not part of the IRS. Www irs govlefile You must file a petition with the United States Tax Court in order for it to review your request for relief. Www irs govlefile You must file the petition no later than the 90th day after the date the IRS mails its final determination notice to you. Www irs govlefile If you do not file a petition, or you file it late, the Tax Court cannot review your request for relief. Www irs govlefile You can get a copy of the rules for filing a petition by writing to the Tax Court at the following address:    United States Tax Court 400 Second Street, NW Washington, DC 20217 Or you can visit the Tax Court's website at www. Www irs govlefile ustaxcourt. Www irs govlefile gov Community Property Laws You must generally follow community property laws when filing a tax return if you are married and live in a community property state. Www irs govlefile Community property states are Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Www irs govlefile Generally, community property laws require you to allocate community income and expenses equally between both spouses. Www irs govlefile However, community property laws are not taken into account in determining whether an item belongs to you or to your spouse (or former spouse) for purposes of requesting any relief from liability. Www irs govlefile Relief for Married Persons Who Did Not File Joint Returns Married persons who live in community property states, but who did not file joint returns, have two ways to get relief. Www irs govlefile Relief From Liability Arising From Community Property Law You are not responsible for the tax relating to an item of community income if all the following conditions exist. Www irs govlefile You did not file a joint return for the tax year. Www irs govlefile You did not include the item of community income in gross income. Www irs govlefile The item of community income you did not include is one of the following: Wages, salaries, and other compensation your spouse (or former spouse) received for services he or she performed as an employee. Www irs govlefile Income your spouse (or former spouse) derived from a trade or business he or she operated as a sole proprietor. Www irs govlefile Your spouse's (or former spouse's) distributive share of partnership income. Www irs govlefile Income from your spouse's (or former spouse's) separate property (other than income described in (a), (b), or (c)). Www irs govlefile Use the appropriate community property law to determine what is separate property. Www irs govlefile Any other income that belongs to your spouse (or former spouse) under community property law. Www irs govlefile You establish that you did not know of, and had no reason to know of, that community income. Www irs govlefile See  Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know , below. Www irs govlefile Under all facts and circumstances, it would not be fair to include the item of community income in your gross income. Www irs govlefile See Indications of unfairness for liability arising from community property law, later. Www irs govlefile Actual knowledge or reason to know. Www irs govlefile   You knew or had reason to know of an item of community income if: You actually knew of the item of community income, or A reasonable person in similar circumstances would have known of the item of community income. Www irs govlefile Amount of community income unknown. Www irs govlefile   If you are aware of the source of the item of community income or the income-producing activity, but are unaware of the specific amount, you are considered to know or have reason to know of the item of community income. Www irs govlefile Not knowing the specific amount is not a basis for relief. Www irs govlefile Reason to know. Www irs govlefile   The IRS will consider all facts and circumstances in determining whether you had reason to know of an item of community income. Www irs govlefile The facts and circumstances include: The nature of the item of community income and the amount of the item relative to other income items. Www irs govlefile The financial situation of you and your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile Your educational background and business experience. Www irs govlefile Whether the item of community income represented a departure from a recurring pattern reflected in prior years' returns (for example, omitted income from an investment regularly reported on prior years' returns). Www irs govlefile Indications of unfairness for liability arising from community property law. Www irs govlefile   The IRS will consider all of the facts and circumstances of the case in order to determine whether it is unfair to hold you responsible for the understated tax due to the item of community income. Www irs govlefile   The following are examples of factors the IRS will consider. Www irs govlefile Whether you received a benefit, either directly or indirectly, from the omitted item of community income (defined below). Www irs govlefile Whether your spouse (or former spouse) deserted you. Www irs govlefile Whether you and your spouse have been divorced or separated. Www irs govlefile  For other factors see Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief later. Www irs govlefile Benefit from omitted item of community income. Www irs govlefile   A benefit includes normal support, but does not include de minimis (small) amounts. Www irs govlefile Evidence of a direct or indirect benefit may consist of transfers of property or rights to property, including transfers received several years after the filing of the return. Www irs govlefile   For example, if you receive property, including life insurance proceeds, from your spouse (or former spouse) and the property is traceable to omitted items of community income attributable to your spouse (or former spouse), you are considered to have benefitted from those omitted items of community income. Www irs govlefile Equitable Relief If you do not qualify for the relief described above and are now liable for an underpaid or understated tax you believe should be paid only by your spouse (or former spouse), you may request equitable relief (discussed later). Www irs govlefile How and When To Request Relief You request relief by filing Form 8857, as discussed earlier. Www irs govlefile Fill in Form 8857 according to the instructions. Www irs govlefile For relief from liability arising from community property law, you must file Form 8857 no later than 6 months before the expiration of the period of limitations on assessment (including extensions) against your spouse for the tax year for which you are requesting relief. Www irs govlefile However, if the IRS begins an examination of your return during that 6-month period, the latest time for requesting relief is 30 days after the date the IRS' initial contact letter to you. Www irs govlefile The period of limitation on assessment is the amount of time, generally three years, that the IRS has from the date you filed the return to assess taxes that you owe. Www irs govlefile Innocent Spouse Relief By requesting innocent spouse relief, you can be relieved of responsibility for paying tax, interest, and penalties if your spouse (or former spouse) improperly reported items or omitted items on your tax return. Www irs govlefile Generally, the tax, interest, and penalties that qualify for relief can only be collected from your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile However, you are jointly and individually responsible for any tax, interest, and penalties that do not qualify for relief. Www irs govlefile The IRS can collect these amounts from either you or your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile You must meet all of the following conditions to qualify for innocent spouse relief. Www irs govlefile You filed a joint return. Www irs govlefile There is an understated tax on the return that is due to erroneous items (defined later) of your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile You can show that when you signed the joint return you did not know, and had no reason to know, that the understated tax existed (or the extent to which the understated tax existed). Www irs govlefile See Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know, later. Www irs govlefile Taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it would be unfair to hold you liable for the understated tax. Www irs govlefile See Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief , later. Www irs govlefile Innocent spouse relief will not be granted if the IRS proves that you and your spouse (or former spouse) transferred property to one another as part of a fraudulent scheme. Www irs govlefile A fraudulent scheme includes a scheme to defraud the IRS or another third party, such as a creditor, former spouse, or business partner. Www irs govlefile Understated Tax You have an understated tax if the IRS determined that your total tax should be more than the amount that was actually shown on your return. Www irs govlefile Erroneous Items Erroneous items are either of the following. Www irs govlefile Unreported income. Www irs govlefile This is any gross income item received by your spouse (or former spouse) that is not reported. Www irs govlefile Incorrect deduction, credit, or basis. Www irs govlefile This is any improper deduction, credit, or property basis claimed by your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile The following are examples of erroneous items. Www irs govlefile The expense for which the deduction is taken was never paid or incurred. Www irs govlefile For example, your spouse, a cash-basis taxpayer, deducted $10,000 of advertising expenses on Schedule C of your joint Form 1040, but never paid for any advertising. Www irs govlefile The expense does not qualify as a deductible expense. Www irs govlefile For example, your spouse claimed a business fee deduction of $10,000 that was for the payment of state fines. Www irs govlefile Fines are not deductible. Www irs govlefile No factual argument can be made to support the deductibility of the expense. Www irs govlefile For example, your spouse claimed $4,000 for security costs related to a home office, which were actually veterinary and food costs for your family's two dogs. Www irs govlefile Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know You knew or had reason to know of an understated tax if: You actually knew of the understated tax, or A reasonable person in similar circumstances would have known of the understated tax. Www irs govlefile Actual knowledge. Www irs govlefile   If you actually knew about an erroneous item that belongs to your spouse (or former spouse), the relief discussed here does not apply to any part of the understated tax due to that item. Www irs govlefile You and your spouse (or former spouse) remain jointly liable for that part of the understated tax. Www irs govlefile For information about the criteria for determining whether you actually knew about an erroneous item, see Actual Knowledge later under Separation of Liability Relief. Www irs govlefile Reason to know. Www irs govlefile   If you had reason to know about an erroneous item that belongs to your spouse (or former spouse), the relief discussed here does not apply to any part of the understated tax due to that item. Www irs govlefile You and your spouse (or former spouse) remain jointly liable for that part of the understated tax. Www irs govlefile   The IRS will consider all facts and circumstances in determining whether you had reason to know of an understated tax due to an erroneous item. Www irs govlefile The facts and circumstances include: The nature of the erroneous item and the amount of the erroneous item relative to other items. Www irs govlefile The financial situation of you and your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile Your educational background and business experience. Www irs govlefile The extent of your participation in the activity that resulted in the erroneous item. Www irs govlefile Whether you failed to ask, at or before the time the return was signed, about items on the return or omitted from the return that a reasonable person would question. Www irs govlefile Whether the erroneous item represented a departure from a recurring pattern reflected in prior years' returns (for example, omitted income from an investment regularly reported on prior years' returns). Www irs govlefile Partial relief when a portion of erroneous item is unknown. Www irs govlefile   You may qualify for partial relief if, at the time you filed your return, you had no knowledge or reason to know of only a portion of an erroneous item. Www irs govlefile You will be relieved of the understated tax due to that portion of the item if all other requirements are met for that portion. Www irs govlefile Example. Www irs govlefile At the time you signed your joint return, you knew that your spouse did not report $5,000 of gambling winnings. Www irs govlefile The IRS examined your tax return several months after you filed it and determined that your spouse's unreported gambling winnings were actually $25,000. Www irs govlefile You established that you did not know about, and had no reason to know about, the additional $20,000 because of the way your spouse handled gambling winnings. Www irs govlefile The understated tax due to the $20,000 will qualify for innocent spouse relief if you meet the other requirements. Www irs govlefile The understated tax due to the $5,000 of gambling winnings you knew about will not qualify for relief. Www irs govlefile Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief The IRS will consider all of the facts and circumstances of the case in order to determine whether it is unfair to hold you responsible for the understated tax. Www irs govlefile The following are examples of factors the IRS will consider. Www irs govlefile Whether you received a significant benefit (defined below), either directly or indirectly, from the understated tax. Www irs govlefile Whether your spouse (or former spouse) deserted you. Www irs govlefile Whether you and your spouse have been divorced or separated. Www irs govlefile Whether you received a benefit on the return from the understated tax. Www irs govlefile For other factors, see Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief later under Equitable Relief. Www irs govlefile Significant benefit. Www irs govlefile   A significant benefit is any benefit in excess of normal support. Www irs govlefile Normal support depends on your particular circumstances. Www irs govlefile Evidence of a direct or indirect benefit may consist of transfers of property or rights to property, including transfers that may be received several years after the year of the understated tax. Www irs govlefile Example. Www irs govlefile You receive money from your spouse that is beyond normal support. Www irs govlefile The money can be traced to your spouse's lottery winnings that were not reported on your joint return. Www irs govlefile You will be considered to have received a significant benefit from that income. Www irs govlefile This is true even if your spouse gives you the money several years after he or she received it. Www irs govlefile Separation of Liability Relief Under this type of relief, the understated tax (plus interest and penalties) on your joint return is allocated between you and your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile The understated tax allocated to you is generally the amount you are responsible for. Www irs govlefile This type of relief is available only for unpaid liabilities resulting from the understated tax. Www irs govlefile Refunds are not allowed. Www irs govlefile To request separation of liability relief, you must have filed a joint return and meet either of the following requirements at the time you file Form 8857. Www irs govlefile You are no longer married to, or are legally separated from, the spouse with whom you filed the joint return for which you are requesting relief. Www irs govlefile (Under this rule, you are no longer married if you are widowed. Www irs govlefile ) You were not a member of the same household (explained below) as the spouse with whom you filed the joint return at any time during the 12-month per- iod ending on the date you file Form 8857. Www irs govlefile Members of the same household. Www irs govlefile   You and your spouse are not members of the same household if you are living apart and are estranged. Www irs govlefile However, you and your spouse are considered members of the same household if any of the following conditions are met. Www irs govlefile You and your spouse reside in the same dwelling. Www irs govlefile You and your spouse reside in separate dwellings but are not estranged, and one of you is temporarily absent from the other's household as explained in (3) below. Www irs govlefile Either spouse is temporarily absent from the household and it is reasonable to assume that the absent spouse will return to the household, and the household or a substantially equivalent household is maintained in anticipation of the absent spouse's return. Www irs govlefile Examples of temporary absences include absence due to imprisonment, illness, business, vacation, military service, or education. Www irs govlefile Burden of proof. Www irs govlefile   You must be able to prove that you meet all of the requirements for separation of liability relief (except actual knowledge) and that you did not transfer property to avoid tax (discussed later). Www irs govlefile You must also establish the basis for allocating the erroneous items. Www irs govlefile Limitations on Relief Even if you meet the requirements discussed previously, separation of liability relief will not be granted in the following situations. Www irs govlefile The IRS proves that you and your spouse (or former spouse) transferred assets to one another as part of a fraudulent scheme. Www irs govlefile A fraudulent scheme includes a scheme to defraud the IRS or another third party, such as a creditor, former spouse, or business partner. Www irs govlefile The IRS proves that at the time you signed your joint return, you had actual knowledge (explained below) of any erroneous items giving rise to the deficiency that were allocable to your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile For the definition of erroneous items, see Erroneous Items earlier under Innocent Spouse Relief. Www irs govlefile Your spouse (or former spouse) transferred property to you to avoid tax or the payment of tax. Www irs govlefile See Transfers of Property To Avoid Tax , later. Www irs govlefile Actual Knowledge The relief discussed here does not apply to any part of the understated tax due to your spouse's (or former spouse's) erroneous items of which you had actual knowledge. Www irs govlefile You and your spouse (or former spouse) remain jointly and severally liable for this part of the understated tax. Www irs govlefile If you had actual knowledge of only a portion of an erroneous item, the IRS will not grant relief for that portion of the item. Www irs govlefile You had actual knowledge of an erroneous item if: You knew that an item of unreported income was received. Www irs govlefile (This rule applies whether or not there was a receipt of cash. Www irs govlefile ) You knew of the facts that made an incorrect deduction or credit unallowable. Www irs govlefile For a false or inflated deduction, you knew that the expense was not incurred, or not incurred to the extent shown on the tax return. Www irs govlefile Knowledge of the source of an erroneous item is not sufficient to establish actual knowledge. Www irs govlefile Also, your actual knowledge may not be inferred when you merely had a reason to know of the erroneous item. Www irs govlefile Similarly, the IRS does not have to establish that you knew of the source of an erroneous item in order to establish that you had actual knowledge of the item itself. Www irs govlefile Your actual knowledge of the proper tax treatment of an erroneous item is not relevant for purposes of demonstrating that you had actual knowledge of that item. Www irs govlefile Neither is your actual knowledge of how the erroneous item was treated on the tax return. Www irs govlefile For example, if you knew that your spouse received dividend income, relief is not available for that income even if you did not know it was taxable. Www irs govlefile Example. Www irs govlefile Bill and Karen Green filed a joint return showing Karen's wages of $50,000 and Bill's self-employment income of $10,000. Www irs govlefile The IRS audited their return and found that Bill did not report $20,000 of self-employment income. Www irs govlefile The additional income resulted in a $6,000 understated tax, plus interest and penalties. Www irs govlefile After obtaining a legal separation from Bill, Karen filed Form 8857 to request separation of liability relief. Www irs govlefile The IRS proved that Karen actually knew about the $20,000 of additional income at the time she signed the joint return. Www irs govlefile Bill is liable for all of the understated tax, interest, and penalties because all of it was due to his unreported income. Www irs govlefile Karen is also liable for the understated tax, interest, and penalties due to the $20,000 of unreported income because she actually knew of the item. Www irs govlefile The IRS can collect the entire $6,000 plus interest and penalties from either Karen or Bill because they are jointly and individually liable for it. Www irs govlefile Factors supporting actual knowledge. Www irs govlefile   The IRS may rely on all facts and circumstances in determining whether you actually knew of an erroneous item at the time you signed the return. Www irs govlefile The following are examples of factors the IRS may use. Www irs govlefile Whether you made a deliberate effort to avoid learning about the item in order to be shielded from liability. Www irs govlefile Whether you and your spouse (or former spouse) jointly owned the property that resulted in the erroneous item. Www irs govlefile Exception for spousal abuse or domestic violence. Www irs govlefile   Even if you had actual knowledge, you may still qualify for relief if you establish that: You were the victim of spousal abuse or domestic violence before signing the return, and Because of that abuse, you did not challenge the treatment of any items on the return because you were afraid your spouse (or former spouse) would retaliate against you. Www irs govlefile   If you establish that you signed your joint return under duress (threat of harm or other form of coercion), then it is not a joint return, and you are not liable for any tax shown on that return or any tax deficiency for that return. Www irs govlefile However, you may be required to file a separate return for that tax year. Www irs govlefile For more information about duress, see the instructions for Form 8857. Www irs govlefile Transfers of Property To Avoid Tax If your spouse (or former spouse) transfers property (or the right to property) to you for the main purpose of avoiding tax or payment of tax, the tax liability allocated to you will be increased by the fair market value of the property on the date of the transfer. Www irs govlefile The increase may not be more than the entire amount of the liability. Www irs govlefile A transfer will be presumed to have as its main purpose the avoidance of tax or payment of tax if the transfer is made after the date that is 1 year before the date on which the IRS sent its first letter of proposed deficiency. Www irs govlefile This presumption will not apply if: The transfer was made under a divorce decree, separate maintenance agreement, or a written instrument incident to such an agreement, or You establish that the transfer did not have as its main purpose the avoidance of tax or payment of tax. Www irs govlefile If the presumption does not apply, but the IRS can establish that the purpose of the transfer was the avoidance of tax or payment of tax, the tax liability allocated to you will be increased as explained above. Www irs govlefile Equitable Relief If you do not qualify for innocent spouse relief, separation of liability relief, or relief from liability arising from community property law, you may still be relieved of responsibility for tax, interest, and penalties through equitable relief. Www irs govlefile Unlike innocent spouse relief or separation of liability relief, you can get equitable relief from an understated tax (defined earlier under Innocent Spouse Relief ) or an underpaid tax. Www irs govlefile An underpaid tax is an amount of tax you properly reported on your return but you have not paid. Www irs govlefile For example, your joint 2009 return shows that you and your spouse owed $5,000. Www irs govlefile You paid $2,000 with the return. Www irs govlefile You have an underpaid tax of $3,000. Www irs govlefile Conditions for Getting Equitable Relief You may qualify for equitable relief if you meet all of the following conditions. Www irs govlefile You are not eligible for innocent spouse relief, separation of liability relief, or relief from liability arising from community property law. Www irs govlefile You have an understated tax or an underpaid tax. Www irs govlefile You did not pay the tax. Www irs govlefile However, see Refunds , later, for situations in which you are entitled to a refund of payments you made. Www irs govlefile You establish that, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it would be unfair to hold you liable for the understated or underpaid tax. Www irs govlefile See Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief, later. Www irs govlefile You and your spouse (or former spouse) did not transfer assets to one another as a part of a fraudulent scheme. Www irs govlefile A fraudulent scheme includes a scheme to defraud the IRS or another third party, such as a creditor, former spouse, or business partner. Www irs govlefile Your spouse (or former spouse) did not transfer property to you for the main purpose of avoiding tax or the payment of tax. Www irs govlefile See Transfers of Property To Avoid Tax, earlier, under Separation of Liability Relief. Www irs govlefile You did not file or fail to file your return with the intent to commit fraud. Www irs govlefile The income tax liability from which you seek relief must be attributable to an item of the spouse (or former spouse) with whom you filed the joint return, unless one of the following exceptions applies: The item is attributable or partially attributable to you solely due to the operation of community property law. Www irs govlefile If you meet this exception, that item will be considered attributable to your spouse (or former spouse) for purposes of equitable relief. Www irs govlefile If the item is titled in your name, the item is presumed to be attributable to you. Www irs govlefile However, you can rebut this presumption based on the facts and circumstances. Www irs govlefile You did not know, and had no reason to know, that funds intended for the payment of tax were misappropriated by your spouse (or former spouse) for his or her benefit. Www irs govlefile If you meet this exception, the IRS will consider granting equitable relief although the underpaid tax may be attributable in part or in full to your item, and only to the extent the funds intended for payment were taken by your spouse (or former spouse). Www irs govlefile You establish that you were the victim of spousal abuse or domestic violence before signing the return, and that, as a result of the prior abuse, you did not challenge the treatment of any items on the return for fear of your spouse's (or former spouse's) retaliation. Www irs govlefile If you meet this exception, relief will be considered although the understated tax or underpaid tax may be attributable in part or in full to your item. Www irs govlefile Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief The IRS will consider all of the facts and circumstances in order to determine whether it is unfair to hold you responsible for the understated or underpaid tax. Www irs govlefile The following are examples of factors that the IRS will consider to determine whether to grant equitable relief. Www irs govlefile The IRS will consider all factors and weigh them appropriately. Www irs govlefile Relevant Factors The following are examples of factors that may be relevant to whether the IRS will grant equitable relief. Www irs govlefile Whether you are separated (whether legally or not) or divorced from your spouse. Www irs govlefile A temporary absence, such as an absence due to imprisonment, illness, business, vacation, military service, or education, is not considered separation for this purpose. Www irs govlefile A temporary absence is one where it is reasonable to assume that the absent spouse will return to the household, and the household or a substantially equivalent household is maintained in anticipation of the absent spouse's return. Www irs govlefile Whether you would suffer a significant economic hardship if relief is not granted. Www irs govlefile (In other words, you would not be able to pay your reasonable basic living expenses. Www irs govlefile ) Whether you have a legal obligation under a divorce decree or agreement to pay the tax. Www irs govlefile This factor will not weigh in favor of relief if you knew or had reason to know, when entering into the divorce decree or agreement, that your former spouse would not pay the income tax liability. Www irs govlefile Whether you received a significant benefit (beyond normal support) from the underpaid tax or item causing the understated tax. Www irs govlefile (For a definition of significant benefit, see Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief earlier. Www irs govlefile ) Whether you have made a good faith effort to comply with federal income tax laws for the tax year for which you are requesting relief or the following years. Www irs govlefile Whether you knew or had reason to know about the items causing the understated tax or that the tax would not be paid, as explained next. Www irs govlefile Knowledge or reason to know. Www irs govlefile   In the case of an underpaid tax, the IRS will consider whether you did not know and had no reason to know that your spouse (or former spouse) would not pay the income tax liability. Www irs govlefile   In the case of an income tax liability that arose from an understated tax, the IRS will consider whether you did not know and had no reason to know of the item causing the understated tax. Www irs govlefile Reason to know of the item giving rise to the understated tax will not be weighed more heavily than other factors. Www irs govlefile Actual knowledge of the item giving rise to the understated tax, however, is a strong factor weighing against relief. Www irs govlefile This strong factor may be overcome if the factors in favor of equitable relief are particularly compelling. Www irs govlefile Reason to know. Www irs govlefile   In determining whether you had reason to know, the IRS will consider your level of education, any deceit or evasiveness of your spouse (or former spouse), your degree of involvement in the activity generating the income tax liability, your involvement in business and household financial matters, your business or financial expertise, and any lavish or unusual expenditures compared with past spending levels. Www irs govlefile Example. Www irs govlefile You and your spouse filed a joint 2009 return. Www irs govlefile That return showed you owed $10,000. Www irs govlefile You had $5,000 of your own money and you took out a loan to pay the other $5,000. Www irs govlefile You gave 2 checks for $5,000 each to your spouse to pay the $10,000 liability. Www irs govlefile Without telling you, your spouse took the $5,000 loan and spent it on himself. Www irs govlefile You and your spouse were divorced in 2010. Www irs govlefile In addition, you had no knowledge or reason to know at the time you signed the return that the tax would not be paid. Www irs govlefile These facts indicate to the IRS that it may be unfair to hold you liable for the $5,000 underpaid tax. Www irs govlefile The IRS will consider these facts, together with all of the other facts and circumstances, to determine whether to grant you equitable relief from the $5,000 underpaid tax. Www irs govlefile Factors Weighing in Favor of Equitable Relief The following are examples of factors that will weigh in favor of equitable relief, but will not weigh against equitable relief. Www irs govlefile Whether your spouse (or former spouse) abused you. Www irs govlefile Whether you were in poor mental or physical health on the date you signed the return or at the time you requested relief. Www irs govlefile Refunds If you are granted relief, refunds are: Permitted under innocent spouse relief as explained later under Limit on Amount of Refund . Www irs govlefile Not permitted under separation of liability relief. Www irs govlefile Permitted in limited circumstances under equitable relief, as explained under Refunds Under Equitable Relief. Www irs govlefile Proof Required The IRS will only refund payments you made with your own money. Www irs govlefile However, you must provide proof that you made the payments with your own money. Www irs govlefile Examples of proof are a copy of your bank statement or a canceled check. Www irs govlefile No proof is required if your individual refund was used by the IRS to pay a tax you owed on a joint tax return for another year. Www irs govlefile Refunds Under Equitable Relief In the following situations, you are eligible to receive a refund of certain payments you made. Www irs govlefile Underpaid tax. Www irs govlefile   If you are granted relief for an underpaid tax, you are eligible for a refund of separate payments that you made after July 22, 1998. Www irs govlefile However, you are not eligible for refunds of payments made with the joint return, joint payments, or payments that your spouse (or former spouse) made. Www irs govlefile For example, withholding tax and estimated tax payments cannot be refunded because they are considered made with the joint return. Www irs govlefile   The amount of the refund is subject to the limit discussed later under Limit on Amount of Refund. Www irs govlefile Understated tax. Www irs govlefile   If you are granted relief for an understated tax, you are eligible for a refund of certain payments made under an installment agreement that you entered into with the IRS, if you have not defaulted on the installment agreement. Www irs govlefile You are not in default if the IRS did not issue you a notice of default or take any action to end the installment agreement. Www irs govlefile Only installment payments made after the date you filed Form 8857 are eligible for a refund. Www irs govlefile   The amount of the refund is subject to the limit discussed next. Www irs govlefile Limit on Amount of Refund The amount of your refund is limited. Www irs govlefile Read the following chart to find out the limit. Www irs govlefile IF you file Form 8857. Www irs govlefile . Www irs govlefile . Www irs govlefile THEN the refund cannot be more than. Www irs govlefile . Www irs govlefile . Www irs govlefile Within 3 years after filing your return The part of the tax paid within 3 years (plus any extension of time for filing your return) before you filed Form 8857. Www irs govlefile After the 3-year period, but within 2 years from the time you paid the tax The tax you paid within 2 years immediately before you filed Form 8857. Www irs govlefile Filled-in Form 8857 This part explains how Janie Boulder fills out Form 8857 to request innocent spouse relief. Www irs govlefile Janie and Joe Boulder filed a joint tax return for 2007. Www irs govlefile They claimed one dependency exemption for their son Michael. Www irs govlefile Their return was adjusted by the IRS because Joe did not report a $5,000 award he won that year. Www irs govlefile Janie did not know about the award when the return was filed. Www irs govlefile They agreed to the adjustment but could not pay the additional amount due of $815 ($650 tax + $165 penalty and interest). Www irs govlefile Janie and Joe were divorced on May 13, 2009. Www irs govlefile In February 2010, Janie filed her 2009 federal income tax return as head of household. Www irs govlefile She expected a refund of $1,203. Www irs govlefile In May 2010, she received a notice informing her that the IRS had offset her refund against the $815 owed on her joint 2007 income tax return and that she had a right to file Form 8857. Www irs govlefile Janie applies the conditions listed earlier under Innocent Spouse Relief to see if she qualifies for relief. Www irs govlefile Janie meets the first and second conditions because the joint tax return they filed has an understated tax due to Joe's erroneous item. Www irs govlefile Janie believes she meets the third condition. Www irs govlefile She did not know about the award and had no reason to know about it because of the secretive way Joe conducted his financial affairs. Www irs govlefile Janie believes she meets the fourth condition. Www irs govlefile She believes it would be unfair to be held liable for the tax because she did not benefit from the award. Www irs govlefile Joe spent it on personal items for his use only. Www irs govlefile Because Janie believes she qualifies for innocent spouse relief, she first completes Part I of Form 8857 to determine if she should file the form. Www irs govlefile In Part I, she makes all entries under the Tax Year 1 column because she is requesting relief for only one year. Www irs govlefile Part I Line 1. Www irs govlefile   She enters “2007” on line 1 because this is the tax year for which she is requesting relief. Www irs govlefile Line 2. Www irs govlefile   She checks the box because she wants a refund. Www irs govlefile Note. Www irs govlefile Because the IRS used her individual refund to pay the tax owed on the joint tax return, she does not need to provide proof of payment. Www irs govlefile Line 3. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “No” box because the IRS did not use her share of a joint refund to pay Joe's past-due debts. Www irs govlefile Line 4. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “Yes” box because she filed a joint tax return for tax year 2007. Www irs govlefile Line 5. Www irs govlefile   She skips this line because she checked the “Yes” box on line 4. Www irs govlefile Part II Line 6. Www irs govlefile   She enters her name, address, social security number, county, and best daytime phone number. Www irs govlefile Part III Line 7. Www irs govlefile   She enters Joe's name, address, social security number, and best daytime phone number. Www irs govlefile Line 8. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “divorced since” box and enters the date she was divorced as “05/13/2009. Www irs govlefile ” She attaches a copy of her entire divorce decree (not Illustrated) to the form. Www irs govlefile Line 9. Www irs govlefile   She checks the box for “High school diploma, equivalent, or less,” because she had completed high school when her 2007 joint tax return was filed. Www irs govlefile Line 10. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “No” box because she was not a victim of spousal abuse or domestic violence. Www irs govlefile Line 11. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “No” box because neither she nor Joe incurred any large expenses during the year for which she wants relief. Www irs govlefile Line 12. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “Yes” box because she signed the 2007 joint tax return. Www irs govlefile Line 13. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “No” box because she did not have a mental or physical condition when the return was filed and does not have one now. Www irs govlefile Part IV Line 14. Www irs govlefile   Because she was not involved in preparing the return, she checks the box, “You were not involved in preparing the returns. Www irs govlefile ” Line 15. Www irs govlefile   She checks the box, “You did not know anything was incorrect or missing” because she did not know that Joe had received a $5,000 award. Www irs govlefile She explains this in the space provided. Www irs govlefile Line 16. Www irs govlefile   She checks the box, “You knew that person had income” because she knew Joe had income from wages. Www irs govlefile She also lists Joe's income. Www irs govlefile Under “Type of Income” she enters “wages. Www irs govlefile ” Under “Who paid it to that person,” she enters the name of Joe's employer, “Allied. Www irs govlefile ” Under “Tax Year 1” she enters the amount of Joe's wages, “$40,000. Www irs govlefile ” Because she is only requesting relief for one tax year, she leaves the entry spaces for “Tax Year 2” and “Tax Year 3” blank. Www irs govlefile Line 17. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “No” box because she did not know any amount was owed to the IRS when the 2007 return was signed. Www irs govlefile Line 18. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “No” box because, when the return was signed, she was not having financial problems. Www irs govlefile Line 19. Www irs govlefile   She checks the box, “You were not involved in handling money for the household” because Joe handled all the money for the household. Www irs govlefile She provides additional information in the space provided. Www irs govlefile Line 20. Www irs govlefile   She checks the “No” box because Joe has never transferred money or property to her. Www irs govlefile Part V Line 21. Www irs govlefile   She enters the number “1” on both the line for “Adults” and the line for “Children” because her current household consists of herself and her son. Www irs govlefile Line 22. Www irs govlefile   She enters her average monthly income for her entire household. Www irs govlefile Line 23. Www irs govlefile   She lists her assets, which are $500 for the fair market value of a car, $450 in her checking account, and $100 in her savings account. Www irs govlefile Signing and mailing Form 8857. Www irs govlefile    Janie signs and dates the form. Www irs govlefile She attaches the copy of her divorce decree (not illustrated) required by line 8. Www irs govlefile Finally, she sends the form to the IRS address or fax number shown in the instructions for Form 8857. Www irs govlefile This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Www irs govlefile Please click the link to view the image. Www irs govlefile Boulder's filled-in Form 8857 page 1 This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Www irs govlefile Please click the link to view the image. Www irs govlefile Boulder's filled-in Form 8857 page 2 This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Www irs govlefile Please click the link to view the image. Www irs govlefile Boulder's filled-in Form 8857 page 3 This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Www irs govlefile Please click the link to view the image. Www irs govlefile Boulder's filled-in Form 8857 page 4 Flowcharts The following flowcharts provide a quick way for determining whether you may qualify for relief. Www irs govlefile But do not rely on these flowcharts alone. Www irs govlefile Also read the earlier discussions. Www irs govlefile Figure A. Www irs govlefile Do You Qualify for Innocent Spouse Relief? Please click here for the text description of the image. Www irs govlefile "Do You Qualify for Innocent Spouse Relief?" Figure B. Www irs govlefile Do You Qualify for Separation of Liability Relief? Please click here for the text description of the image. Www irs govlefile "Do You Qualify for Separation of Liability Relief?" Figure C. Www irs govlefile Do You Qualify for Equitable Relief? This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Www irs govlefile Please click the link to view the image. Www irs govlefile "Do You Qualify for Equitable Relief?" Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Www irs govlefile Publication 536 - Introductory Material Table of Contents Reminders IntroductionOrdering forms and publications. Www irs govlefile Tax questions. Www irs govlefile Useful Items - You may want to see: Reminders Future developments. Www irs govlefile  For the latest developments related to Publication 536, such as legislation enacted after we release it, go to www. Www irs govlefile irs. Www irs govlefile gov/pub536. Www irs govlefile Photographs of missing children. Www irs govlefile  The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Www irs govlefile Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. Www irs govlefile You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child. Www irs govlefile Introduction If your deductions for the year are more than your income for the year, you may have a net operating loss (NOL). Www irs govlefile An NOL year is the year in which an NOL occurs. Www irs govlefile You can use an NOL by deducting it from your income in another year or years. Www irs govlefile What this publication covers. Www irs govlefile   This publication discusses NOLs for individuals, estates, and trusts. Www irs govlefile It covers: How to figure an NOL, When to use an NOL, How to claim an NOL deduction, and How to figure an NOL carryover. Www irs govlefile To have an NOL, your loss must generally be caused by deductions from your: Trade or business, Work as an employee, Casualty and theft losses, Moving expenses, or Rental property. Www irs govlefile A loss from operating a business is the most common reason for an NOL. Www irs govlefile Partnerships and S corporations generally cannot use an NOL. Www irs govlefile However, partners or shareholders can use their separate shares of the partnership's or S corporation's business income and business deductions to figure their individual NOLs. Www irs govlefile Keeping records. Www irs govlefile   You should keep records for any tax year that generates an NOL for 3 years after you have used the carryback/carryforward or 3 years after the carryforward expires. Www irs govlefile    You should attach all required documents to the Form 1045 or Form 1040X. Www irs govlefile For details, see the instructions for Form 1045 or Form 1040X. Www irs govlefile What is not covered in this publication?   The following topics are not covered in this publication. Www irs govlefile Bankruptcies. Www irs govlefile See Publication 908, Bankruptcy Tax Guide. Www irs govlefile NOLs of corporations. Www irs govlefile See Publication 542, Corporations. Www irs govlefile Section references. Www irs govlefile   Section references are to the Internal Revenue Code unless otherwise noted. Www irs govlefile Comments and suggestions. Www irs govlefile   We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions. Www irs govlefile   You can write to us at the following address: Internal Revenue Service Tax Forms and Publications Division 1111 Constitution Ave. Www irs govlefile NW, IR-6526 Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. Www irs govlefile Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. Www irs govlefile   You can send your comments from www. Www irs govlefile irs. Www irs govlefile gov/formspubs/. Www irs govlefile Click on “More Information. Www irs govlefile ” and then on “Comment on Tax Forms and Publications. Www irs govlefile ”   Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products. Www irs govlefile Ordering forms and publications. Www irs govlefile   Visit www. Www irs govlefile irs. Www irs govlefile gov/formspubs/ to download forms and publications, call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676), or write to the address below and receive a response within 10 days after your request is received. Www irs govlefile Internal Revenue Service 1201 N. Www irs govlefile Mitsubishi Motorway Bloomington, IL 61705-6613 Tax questions. Www irs govlefile   If you have a tax question, check the information available on IRS. Www irs govlefile gov or call 1-800-829-1040. Www irs govlefile We cannot answer tax questions sent to either of the above addresses. Www irs govlefile Useful Items - You may want to see: Form (and Instructions) 1040X Amended U. Www irs govlefile S. Www irs govlefile Individual Income Tax Return 1045 Application for Tentative Refund   See How To Get Tax Help near the end of this publication for information about getting these forms. Www irs govlefile Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications