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Turbotax Free State Filing

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Turbotax Free State Filing

Turbotax free state filing Publication 531 - Introductory Material Table of Contents Future Developments What's New Reminder IntroductionOrdering forms and publications. Turbotax free state filing Tax questions. Turbotax free state filing Future Developments For the latest information about developments related to Publication 531, such as legislation enacted after this publication was published, go to www. Turbotax free state filing irs. Turbotax free state filing gov/pub531. Turbotax free state filing What's New Additional Medicare Tax. Turbotax free state filing  Beginning in 2013, a 0. Turbotax free state filing 9% Additional Medicare Tax applies to Medicare wages, Railroad Retirement Tax Act (RRTA) compensation, and self-employment income that are more than: $125,000 if married filing separately, $250,000 if married filing jointly, or $200,000 for any other filing status. Turbotax free state filing An employer is required to withhold Additional Medicare Tax on any Medicare wages or RRTA compensation it pays to an employee in excess of $200,000 in a calendar year without regard to the employee's filing status. Turbotax free state filing An employer is required to begin withholding Additional Medicare Tax in the pay period in which it pays wages or compensation in excess of $200,000 to an employee and continue to withhold it until the end of the calendar year. Turbotax free state filing Additional Medicare Tax is only imposed on the employee. Turbotax free state filing There is no employer share of Additional Medicare Tax. Turbotax free state filing All wages and compensation that are subject to Medicare tax are subject to Additional Medicare Tax withholding if paid in excess of the $200,000 withholding threshold. Turbotax free state filing Tips are subject to Additional Medicare Tax withholding, if, in combination with other wages paid by the employer, they exceed the $200,000 withholding threshold. Turbotax free state filing Similarly, tips are subject to Additional Medicare Tax withholding, if, in combination with other RRTA compensation paid by the employer, they exceed the $200,000 withholding threshold. Turbotax free state filing For more information on Additional Medicare Tax, go to www. Turbotax free state filing irs. Turbotax free state filing gov and enter “Additional Medicare Tax” in the search box. Turbotax free state filing Reminder Photographs of missing children. Turbotax free state filing  The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Turbotax free state filing Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. Turbotax free state filing You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child. Turbotax free state filing Introduction This publication is for employees who receive tips. Turbotax free state filing All tips you receive are income and are subject to federal income tax. Turbotax free state filing You must include in gross income all tips you receive directly, charged tips paid to you by your employer, and your share of any tips you receive under a tip-splitting or tip-pooling arrangement. Turbotax free state filing The value of noncash tips, such as tickets, passes, or other items of value, is also income and subject to tax. Turbotax free state filing Reporting your tip income correctly is not difficult. Turbotax free state filing You must do three things. Turbotax free state filing Keep a daily tip record. Turbotax free state filing Report tips to your employer. Turbotax free state filing Report all your tips on your income tax return. Turbotax free state filing  This publication will explain these three things and show you what to do on your tax return if you have not done the first two. Turbotax free state filing This publication will also show you how to treat allocated tips. Turbotax free state filing Comments and suggestions. Turbotax free state filing   We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions. Turbotax free state filing   You can write to us at the following address: Internal Revenue Service Tax Forms and Publications Division 1111 Constitution Ave. Turbotax free state filing NW, IR-6526 Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. Turbotax free state filing Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. Turbotax free state filing   You can send your comments from www. Turbotax free state filing irs. Turbotax free state filing gov/formspubs/. Turbotax free state filing Click on “More Information” and then on “Comment on Tax Forms and Publications”. Turbotax free state filing   Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products. Turbotax free state filing Ordering forms and publications. Turbotax free state filing   Visit www. Turbotax free state filing irs. Turbotax free state filing gov/formspubs/ to download forms and publications, call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676), or write to the address below and receive a response within 10 days after your request is received. Turbotax free state filing Internal Revenue Service 1201 N. Turbotax free state filing Mitsubishi Motorway Bloomington, IL 61705-6613 Tax questions. Turbotax free state filing   If you have a tax question, check the information available on IRS. Turbotax free state filing gov or call 1-800-829-1040. Turbotax free state filing We cannot answer tax questions sent to either of the above addresses. Turbotax free state filing Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Contact My Local Office in Wisconsin

Face-to-face Tax Help

IRS Taxpayer Assistance Centers (TACs) are your source for personal tax help when you believe your tax issue can only be handled face-to-face. No appointment is necessary.

Keep in mind, many questions can be resolved online without waiting in line. Through IRS.gov you can:
• Set up a payment plan.
• Get a transcript of your tax return.
• Make a payment.
• Check on your refund.
• Find answers to many of your tax questions.

We are now referring all requests for tax return preparation services to other available resources. You can take advantage of free tax preparation through Free File, Free File Fillable Forms or through a volunteer site in your community. To find the nearest volunteer site location or to get more information about Free File, go to the top of the page and enter “Free Tax Help” in the Search box.

If you have a tax account issues and feel that it requires talking with someone face-to-face, visit your local TAC.

Caution:  Many of our offices are located in Federal Office Buildings. These buildings may not allow visitors to bring in cell phones with camera capabilities.

Multilingual assistance is available in every office. Hours of operation are subject to change.

Before visiting your local office click on "Services Provided" in the chart below to see what services are available. Services are limited and not all services are available at every TAC office and may vary from site to site. You can get these services on a walk-in basis.

City  Street Address  Days/Hours of Service  Telephone* 
Appleton  1901B East Capitol Dr.
Appleton, WI 54911 

Monday-Friday - 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m.
(Closed for lunch 12:00 noon - 1:00 p.m.)

 

Services Provided

(920) 996-4860 
Eau Claire  2403 Folsom St.
Eau Claire, WI  54703

Monday-Friday - 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m.
(Closed for lunch 12:00 noon - 1:00 p.m.)

 

**This office will open at 1:00 p.m. on 3/31**

 

**This office will close at 12:00 noon on 4/4**

 

Services Provided

(715) 836-8750 
Green Bay  440 Security  Boulevard
Green Bay, WI 54313 

Tuesday and Thursday-8:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m.
(Closed for lunch 12:00 noon - 1:00 p.m.)

 

Services Provided

(920) 662-5999 
LaCrosse  425 State St.
LaCrosse, WI 54601 

Monday-Friday - 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m.
(Closed for lunch 12:00 noon - 1:00 p.m.)

 

**This office will be closed on 3/31**

 

    Services Provided

(608) 785-0246 
Madison  1242 Fourier Drive  
Suite 200
Madison, WI 53717 

Monday-Friday - 8:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m.
(Closed for lunch 12:00 noon - 1:00 p.m.)

 

Services Provided

(608) 829-5827 
Milwaukee  211 W. Wisconsin Ave.
Milwaukee, WI 53203 

Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m.- 4:30 p.m.

 

Services Provided

(414) 231-2100 
Rothschild  10208 Park Plaza
Rothschild, WI 54474 

Monday-Friday 8:30 a.m.- 3:30 p.m.

 

Services Provided

(715) 355-4447 

* Note: The phone numbers in the chart above are not toll-free for all locations. When you call, you will reach a recorded business message with information about office hours, locations and services provided in that office. If face-to-face assistance is not a priority for you, you may also get help with IRS letters or resolve tax account issues by phone, toll free at 1-800-829-1040 (individuals) or 1-800-829-4933 (businesses).

For information on where to file your tax return please see Where to File Addresses.

The Taxpayer Advocate Service: Call (414) 231-2390 in Milwaukee or 1-877-777-4778 elsewhere, or see  Publication 1546, The Taxpayer Advocate Service of the IRS.

For further information, see  Tax Topic 104

Partnerships

IRS and organizations all over the country are partnering to assist taxpayers. Through these partnerships, organizations are also achieving their own goals. These mutually beneficial partnerships are strengthening outreach efforts and bringing education and assistance to millions.

For more information about these programs for individuals and families, contact the Stakeholder Partnerships, Education and Communication Office at:

Internal Revenue Service
211 W. Wisconsin Ave.
Stop 4312 
Milwaukee, WI  53203

For more information about these programs for businesses, your local Stakeholder Liaison office establishes relationships with organizations representing small business and self-employed taxpayers. They provide information about the policies, practices and procedures the IRS uses to ensure compliance with the tax laws. To establish a relationship with us, use this list to find a contact in your state:

Stakeholder Liaison (SL) Phone Numbers for Organizations Representing Small Businesses and Self-employed Taxpayers.

Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 31-Mar-2014

The Turbotax Free State Filing

Turbotax free state filing 17. Turbotax free state filing   Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs) Table of Contents What's New Reminders Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Traditional IRAsWho Can Open a Traditional IRA? When and How Can a Traditional IRA Be Opened? How Much Can Be Contributed? When Can Contributions Be Made? How Much Can You Deduct? Nondeductible Contributions Inherited IRAs Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? When Can You Withdraw or Use IRA Assets? When Must You Withdraw IRA Assets? (Required Minimum Distributions) Are Distributions Taxable? What Acts Result in Penalties or Additional Taxes? Roth IRAsWhat Is a Roth IRA? When Can a Roth IRA Be Opened? Can You Contribute to a Roth IRA? Can You Move Amounts Into a Roth IRA? Are Distributions Taxable? What's New Traditional IRA contribution and deduction limit. Turbotax free state filing  The contribution limit to your traditional IRA for 2013 will be increased to the smaller of the following amounts: $5,500, or Your taxable compensation for the year. Turbotax free state filing If you were age 50 or older before 2014, the most that can be contributed to your traditional IRA for 2013 will be the smaller of the following amounts: $6,500, or Your taxable compensation for the year. Turbotax free state filing For more information, see How Much Can Be Contributed? later. Turbotax free state filing Roth IRA contribution limit. Turbotax free state filing  If contributions on your behalf are made only to Roth IRAs, your contribution limit for 2013 will generally be the lesser of: $5,500, or Your taxable compensation for the year. Turbotax free state filing If you were age 50 or older before 2014 and contributions on your behalf were made only to Roth IRAs, your contribution limit for 2013 will generally be the lesser of: $6,500, or Your taxable compensation for the year. Turbotax free state filing However, if your modified adjusted gross income (AGI) is above a certain amount, your contribution limit may be reduced. Turbotax free state filing For more information, see How Much Can Be Contributed? under Can You Contribute to a Roth IRA? later. Turbotax free state filing Modified AGI limit for traditional IRA contributions increased. Turbotax free state filing  For 2013, if you were covered by a retirement plan at work, your deduction for contributions to a traditional IRA is reduced (phased out) if your modified AGI is: More than $95,000 but less than $115,000 for a married couple filing a joint return or a qualifying widow(er), More than $59,000 but less than $69,000 for a single individual or head of household, or Less than $10,000 for a married individual filing a separate return. Turbotax free state filing If you either lived with your spouse or file a joint return, and your spouse was covered by a retirement plan at work, but you were not, your deduction is phased out if your modified AGI is more than $178,000 but less than $188,000. Turbotax free state filing If your modified AGI is $188,000 or more, you cannot take a deduction for contributions to a traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing See How Much Can You Deduct , later. Turbotax free state filing Modified AGI limit for Roth IRA contributions increased. Turbotax free state filing  For 2013, your Roth IRA contribution limit is reduced (phased out) in the following situations. Turbotax free state filing Your filing status is married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er) and your modified AGI is at least $178,000. Turbotax free state filing You cannot make a Roth IRA contribution if your modified AGI is $188,000 or more. Turbotax free state filing Your filing status is single, head of household, or married filing separately and you did not live with your spouse at any time in 2013 and your modified AGI is at least $112,000. Turbotax free state filing You cannot make a Roth IRA contribution if your modified AGI is $127,000 or more. Turbotax free state filing Your filing status is married filing separately, you lived with your spouse at any time during the year, and your modified AGI is more than -0-. Turbotax free state filing You cannot make a Roth IRA contribution if your modified AGI is $10,000 or more. Turbotax free state filing See Can You Contribute to a Roth IRA , later. Turbotax free state filing Net Investment Income Tax. Turbotax free state filing   For purposes of the Net Investment Income Tax (NIIT), net investment income does not include distributions from a qualified retirement plan including IRAs (for example; 401(a), 403(a), 403(b), 408, 408A, or 457(b) plans). Turbotax free state filing However, these distributions are taken into account when determining the modified adjusted gross income threshold. Turbotax free state filing Distributions from a nonqualified retirement plan are included in net investment income. Turbotax free state filing See Form 8960, Net Investment Income Tax - Individuals, Estates, and Trusts, and its instructions for more information. Turbotax free state filing Name change. Turbotax free state filing  All spousal IRAs have been renamed Kay Bailey Hutchison Spousal IRAs. Turbotax free state filing There are no changes to the rules regarding these IRAs. Turbotax free state filing See Kay Bailey Hutchison Spousal IRA Limit , later, for more information. Turbotax free state filing Reminders 2014 limits. Turbotax free state filing   You can find information about the 2014 contribution and AGI limits in Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Contributions to both traditional and Roth IRAs. Turbotax free state filing   For information on your combined contribution limit if you contribute to both traditional and Roth IRAs, see Roth IRAs and traditional IRAs under How Much Can Be Contributed? in Roth IRAs, later. Turbotax free state filing Statement of required minimum distribution. Turbotax free state filing  If a minimum distribution from your IRA is required, the trustee, custodian, or issuer that held the IRA at the end of the preceding year must either report the amount of the required minimum distribution to you, or offer to calculate it for you. Turbotax free state filing The report or offer must include the date by which the amount must be distributed. Turbotax free state filing The report is due January 31 of the year in which the minimum distribution is required. Turbotax free state filing It can be provided with the year-end fair market value statement that you normally get each year. Turbotax free state filing No report is required for IRAs of owners who have died. Turbotax free state filing IRA interest. Turbotax free state filing  Although interest earned from your IRA is generally not taxed in the year earned, it is not tax-exempt interest. Turbotax free state filing Tax on your traditional IRA is generally deferred until you take a distribution. Turbotax free state filing Do not report this interest on your tax return as tax-exempt interest. Turbotax free state filing Form 8606. Turbotax free state filing   To designate contributions as nondeductible, you must file Form 8606, Nondeductible IRAs. Turbotax free state filing The term “50 or older” is used several times in this chapter. Turbotax free state filing It refers to an IRA owner who is age 50 or older by the end of the tax year. Turbotax free state filing Introduction An individual retirement arrangement (IRA) is a personal savings plan that gives you tax advantages for setting aside money for your retirement. Turbotax free state filing This chapter discusses the following topics. Turbotax free state filing The rules for a traditional IRA (any IRA that is not a Roth or SIMPLE IRA). Turbotax free state filing The Roth IRA, which features nondeductible contributions and tax-free distributions. Turbotax free state filing Simplified Employee Pensions (SEPs) and Savings Incentive Match Plans for Employees (SIMPLEs) are not discussed in this chapter. Turbotax free state filing For more information on these plans and employees' SEP IRAs and SIMPLE IRAs that are part of these plans, see Publications 560 and 590. Turbotax free state filing For information about contributions, deductions, withdrawals, transfers, rollovers, and other transactions, see Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 560 Retirement Plans for Small Business 590 Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs) Form (and Instructions) 5329 Additional Taxes on Qualified Plans (including IRAs) and Other Tax-Favored Accounts 8606 Nondeductible IRAs Traditional IRAs In this chapter, the original IRA (sometimes called an ordinary or regular IRA) is referred to as a “traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing ” A traditional IRA is any IRA that is not a Roth IRA or a SIMPLE IRA. Turbotax free state filing Two advantages of a traditional IRA are: You may be able to deduct some or all of your contributions to it, depending on your circumstances, and Generally, amounts in your IRA, including earnings and gains, are not taxed until they are distributed. Turbotax free state filing Who Can Open a Traditional IRA? You can open and make contributions to a traditional IRA if: You (or, if you file a joint return, your spouse) received taxable compensation during the year, and You were not age 70½ by the end of the year. Turbotax free state filing What is compensation?   Generally, compensation is what you earn from working. Turbotax free state filing Compensation includes wages, salaries, tips, professional fees, bonuses, and other amounts you receive for providing personal services. Turbotax free state filing The IRS treats as compensation any amount properly shown in box 1 (Wages, tips, other compensation) of Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, provided that amount is reduced by any amount properly shown in box 11 (Nonqualified plans). Turbotax free state filing   Scholarship and fellowship payments are compensation for this purpose only if shown in box 1 of Form W-2. Turbotax free state filing   Compensation also includes commissions and taxable alimony and separate maintenance payments. Turbotax free state filing Self-employment income. Turbotax free state filing   If you are self-employed (a sole proprietor or a partner), compensation is the net earnings from your trade or business (provided your personal services are a material income-producing factor) reduced by the total of: The deduction for contributions made on your behalf to retirement plans, and The deductible part of your self-employment tax. Turbotax free state filing   Compensation includes earnings from self-employment even if they are not subject to self-employment tax because of your religious beliefs. Turbotax free state filing Nontaxable combat pay. Turbotax free state filing   For IRA purposes, if you were a member of the U. Turbotax free state filing S. Turbotax free state filing Armed Forces, your compensation includes any nontaxable combat pay you receive. Turbotax free state filing What is not compensation?   Compensation does not include any of the following items. Turbotax free state filing Earnings and profits from property, such as rental income, interest income, and dividend income. Turbotax free state filing Pension or annuity income. Turbotax free state filing Deferred compensation received (compensation payments postponed from a past year). Turbotax free state filing Income from a partnership for which you do not provide services that are a material income-producing factor. Turbotax free state filing Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments reported on Schedule SE (Form 1040), line 1b. Turbotax free state filing Any amounts (other than combat pay) you exclude from income, such as foreign earned income and housing costs. Turbotax free state filing When and How Can a Traditional IRA Be Opened? You can open a traditional IRA at any time. Turbotax free state filing However, the time for making contributions for any year is limited. Turbotax free state filing See When Can Contributions Be Made , later. Turbotax free state filing You can open different kinds of IRAs with a variety of organizations. Turbotax free state filing You can open an IRA at a bank or other financial institution or with a mutual fund or life insurance company. Turbotax free state filing You can also open an IRA through your stockbroker. Turbotax free state filing Any IRA must meet Internal Revenue Code requirements. Turbotax free state filing Kinds of traditional IRAs. Turbotax free state filing   Your traditional IRA can be an individual retirement account or annuity. Turbotax free state filing It can be part of either a simplified employee pension (SEP) or an employer or employee association trust account. Turbotax free state filing How Much Can Be Contributed? There are limits and other rules that affect the amount that can be contributed to a traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing These limits and other rules are explained below. Turbotax free state filing Community property laws. Turbotax free state filing   Except as discussed later under Kay Bailey Hutchison Spousal IRA limit , each spouse figures his or her limit separately, using his or her own compensation. Turbotax free state filing This is the rule even in states with community property laws. Turbotax free state filing Brokers' commissions. Turbotax free state filing   Brokers' commissions paid in connection with your traditional IRA are subject to the contribution limit. Turbotax free state filing Trustees' fees. Turbotax free state filing   Trustees' administrative fees are not subject to the contribution limit. Turbotax free state filing Qualified reservist repayments. Turbotax free state filing   If you are (or were) a member of a reserve component and you were ordered or called to active duty after September 11, 2001, you may be able to contribute (repay) to an IRA amounts equal to any qualified reservist distributions you received. Turbotax free state filing You can make these repayment contributions even if they would cause your total contributions to the IRA to be more than the general limit on contributions. Turbotax free state filing To be eligible to make these repayment contributions, you must have received a qualified reservist distribution from an IRA or from a section 401(k) or 403(b) plan or similar arrangement. Turbotax free state filing   For more information, see Qualified reservist repayments under How Much Can Be Contributed? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Contributions on your behalf to a traditional IRA reduce your limit for contributions to a Roth IRA. Turbotax free state filing (See Roth IRAs, later. Turbotax free state filing ) General limit. Turbotax free state filing   For 2013, the most that can be contributed to your traditional IRA generally is the smaller of the following amounts. Turbotax free state filing $5,500 ($6,500 if you are 50 or older). Turbotax free state filing Your taxable compensation (defined earlier) for the year. Turbotax free state filing This is the most that can be contributed regardless of whether the contributions are to one or more traditional IRAs or whether all or part of the contributions are nondeductible. Turbotax free state filing (See Nondeductible Contributions , later. Turbotax free state filing ) Qualified reservist repayments do not affect this limit. Turbotax free state filing Example 1. Turbotax free state filing Betty, who is 34 years old and single, earned $24,000 in 2013. Turbotax free state filing Her IRA contributions for 2013 are limited to $5,500. Turbotax free state filing Example 2. Turbotax free state filing John, an unmarried college student working part time, earned $3,500 in 2013. Turbotax free state filing His IRA contributions for 2013 are limited to $3,500, the amount of his compensation. Turbotax free state filing Kay Bailey Hutchison Spousal IRA limit. Turbotax free state filing   For 2013, if you file a joint return and your taxable compensation is less than that of your spouse, the most that can be contributed for the year to your IRA is the smaller of the following amounts. Turbotax free state filing $5,500 ($6,500 if you are 50 or older). Turbotax free state filing The total compensation includible in the gross income of both you and your spouse for the year, reduced by the following two amounts. Turbotax free state filing Your spouse's IRA contribution for the year to a traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing Any contribution for the year to a Roth IRA on behalf of your spouse. Turbotax free state filing This means that the total combined contributions that can be made for the year to your IRA and your spouse's IRA can be as much as $11,000 ($12,000 if only one of you is 50 or older, or $13,000 if both of you are 50 or older). Turbotax free state filing When Can Contributions Be Made? As soon as you open your traditional IRA, contributions can be made to it through your chosen sponsor (trustee or other administrator). Turbotax free state filing Contributions must be in the form of money (cash, check, or money order). Turbotax free state filing Property cannot be contributed. Turbotax free state filing Contributions must be made by due date. Turbotax free state filing   Contributions can be made to your traditional IRA for a year at any time during the year or by the due date for filing your return for that year, not including extensions. Turbotax free state filing Age 70½ rule. Turbotax free state filing   Contributions cannot be made to your traditional IRA for the year in which you reach age 70½ or for any later year. Turbotax free state filing   You attain age 70½ on the date that is 6 calendar months after the 70th anniversary of your birth. Turbotax free state filing If you were born on or before June 30, 1943, you cannot contribute for 2013 or any later year. Turbotax free state filing Designating year for which contribution is made. Turbotax free state filing   If an amount is contributed to your traditional IRA between January 1 and April 15, you should tell the sponsor which year (the current year or the previous year) the contribution is for. Turbotax free state filing If you do not tell the sponsor which year it is for, the sponsor can assume, and report to the IRS, that the contribution is for the current year (the year the sponsor received it). Turbotax free state filing Filing before a contribution is made. Turbotax free state filing   You can file your return claiming a traditional IRA contribution before the contribution is actually made. Turbotax free state filing Generally, the contribution must be made by the due date of your return, not including extensions. Turbotax free state filing Contributions not required. Turbotax free state filing   You do not have to contribute to your traditional IRA for every tax year, even if you can. Turbotax free state filing How Much Can You Deduct? Generally, you can deduct the lesser of: The contributions to your traditional IRA for the year, or The general limit (or the Kay Bailey Hutchison Spousal IRA limit, if it applies). Turbotax free state filing However, if you or your spouse was covered by an employer retirement plan, you may not be able to deduct this amount. Turbotax free state filing See Limit If Covered by Employer Plan , later. Turbotax free state filing You may be able to claim a credit for contributions to your traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing For more information, see chapter 37. Turbotax free state filing Trustees' fees. Turbotax free state filing   Trustees' administrative fees that are billed separately and paid in connection with your traditional IRA are not deductible as IRA contributions. Turbotax free state filing However, they may be deductible as a miscellaneous itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040). Turbotax free state filing See chapter 28. Turbotax free state filing Brokers' commissions. Turbotax free state filing   Brokers' commissions are part of your IRA contribution and, as such, are deductible subject to the limits. Turbotax free state filing Full deduction. Turbotax free state filing   If neither you nor your spouse was covered for any part of the year by an employer retirement plan, you can take a deduction for total contributions to one or more traditional IRAs of up to the lesser of: $5,500 ($6,500 if you are age 50 or older in 2013). Turbotax free state filing 100% of your compensation. Turbotax free state filing This limit is reduced by any contributions made to a 501(c)(18) plan on your behalf. Turbotax free state filing Kay Bailey Hutchison Spousal IRA. Turbotax free state filing   In the case of a married couple with unequal compensation who file a joint return, the deduction for contributions to the traditional IRA of the spouse with less compensation is limited to the lesser of the following amounts. Turbotax free state filing $5,500 ($6,500 if the spouse with the lower compensation is age 50 or older in 2013). Turbotax free state filing The total compensation includible in the gross income of both spouses for the year reduced by the following three amounts. Turbotax free state filing The IRA deduction for the year of the spouse with the greater compensation. Turbotax free state filing Any designated nondeductible contribution for the year made on behalf of the spouse with the greater compensation. Turbotax free state filing Any contributions for the year to a Roth IRA on behalf of the spouse with the greater compensation. Turbotax free state filing This limit is reduced by any contributions to a 501(c)(18) plan on behalf of the spouse with the lesser compensation. Turbotax free state filing Note. Turbotax free state filing If you were divorced or legally separated (and did not remarry) before the end of the year, you cannot deduct any contributions to your spouse's IRA. Turbotax free state filing After a divorce or legal separation, you can deduct only contributions to your own IRA. Turbotax free state filing Your deductions are subject to the rules for single individuals. Turbotax free state filing Covered by an employer retirement plan. Turbotax free state filing   If you or your spouse was covered by an employer retirement plan at any time during the year for which contributions were made, your deduction may be further limited. Turbotax free state filing This is discussed later under Limit If Covered by Employer Plan . Turbotax free state filing Limits on the amount you can deduct do not affect the amount that can be contributed. Turbotax free state filing See Nondeductible Contributions , later. Turbotax free state filing Are You Covered by an Employer Plan? The Form W-2 you receive from your employer has a box used to indicate whether you were covered for the year. Turbotax free state filing The “Retirement plan” box should be checked if you were covered. Turbotax free state filing Reservists and volunteer firefighters should also see Situations in Which You Are Not Covered by an Employer Plan , later. Turbotax free state filing If you are not certain whether you were covered by your employer's retirement plan, you should ask your employer. Turbotax free state filing Federal judges. Turbotax free state filing   For purposes of the IRA deduction, federal judges are covered by an employer retirement plan. Turbotax free state filing For Which Year(s) Are You Covered by an Employer Plan? Special rules apply to determine the tax years for which you are covered by an employer plan. Turbotax free state filing These rules differ depending on whether the plan is a defined contribution plan or a defined benefit plan. Turbotax free state filing Tax year. Turbotax free state filing   Your tax year is the annual accounting period you use to keep records and report income and expenses on your income tax return. Turbotax free state filing For almost all people, the tax year is the calendar year. Turbotax free state filing Defined contribution plan. Turbotax free state filing   Generally, you are covered by a defined contribution plan for a tax year if amounts are contributed or allocated to your account for the plan year that ends with or within that tax year. Turbotax free state filing   A defined contribution plan is a plan that provides for a separate account for each person covered by the plan. Turbotax free state filing Types of defined contribution plans include profit-sharing plans, stock bonus plans, and money purchase pension plans. Turbotax free state filing Defined benefit plan. Turbotax free state filing   If you are eligible to participate in your employer's defined benefit plan for the plan year that ends within your tax year, you are covered by the plan. Turbotax free state filing This rule applies even if you: Declined to participate in the plan, Did not make a required contribution, or Did not perform the minimum service required to accrue a benefit for the year. Turbotax free state filing   A defined benefit plan is any plan that is not a defined contribution plan. Turbotax free state filing Defined benefit plans include pension plans and annuity plans. Turbotax free state filing No vested interest. Turbotax free state filing   If you accrue a benefit for a plan year, you are covered by that plan even if you have no vested interest in (legal right to) the accrual. Turbotax free state filing Situations in Which You Are Not Covered by an Employer Plan Unless you are covered under another employer plan, you are not covered by an employer plan if you are in one of the situations described below. Turbotax free state filing Social security or railroad retirement. Turbotax free state filing   Coverage under social security or railroad retirement is not coverage under an employer retirement plan. Turbotax free state filing Benefits from a previous employer's plan. Turbotax free state filing   If you receive retirement benefits from a previous employer's plan, you are not covered by that plan. Turbotax free state filing Reservists. Turbotax free state filing   If the only reason you participate in a plan is because you are a member of a reserve unit of the armed forces, you may not be covered by the plan. Turbotax free state filing You are not covered by the plan if both of the following conditions are met. Turbotax free state filing The plan you participate in is established for its employees by: The United States, A state or political subdivision of a state, or An instrumentality of either (a) or (b) above. Turbotax free state filing You did not serve more than 90 days on active duty during the year (not counting duty for training). Turbotax free state filing Volunteer firefighters. Turbotax free state filing   If the only reason you participate in a plan is because you are a volunteer firefighter, you may not be covered by the plan. Turbotax free state filing You are not covered by the plan if both of the following conditions are met. Turbotax free state filing The plan you participate in is established for its employees by: The United States, A state or political subdivision of a state, or An instrumentality of either (a) or (b) above. Turbotax free state filing Your accrued retirement benefits at the beginning of the year will not provide more than $1,800 per year at retirement. Turbotax free state filing Limit If Covered by Employer Plan If either you or your spouse was covered by an employer retirement plan, you may be entitled to only a partial (reduced) deduction or no deduction at all, depending on your income and your filing status. Turbotax free state filing Your deduction begins to decrease (phase out) when your income rises above a certain amount and is eliminated altogether when it reaches a higher amount. Turbotax free state filing These amounts vary depending on your filing status. Turbotax free state filing To determine if your deduction is subject to phaseout, you must determine your modified adjusted gross income (AGI) and your filing status. Turbotax free state filing See Filing status and Modified adjusted gross income (AGI) , later. Turbotax free state filing Then use Table 17-1 or 17-2 to determine if the phaseout applies. Turbotax free state filing Social security recipients. Turbotax free state filing   Instead of using Table 17-1 or Table 17-2, use the worksheets in Appendix B of Publication 590 if, for the year, all of the following apply. Turbotax free state filing You received social security benefits. Turbotax free state filing You received taxable compensation. Turbotax free state filing Contributions were made to your traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing You or your spouse was covered by an employer retirement plan. Turbotax free state filing Use those worksheets to figure your IRA deduction, your nondeductible contribution, and the taxable portion, if any, of your social security benefits. Turbotax free state filing Deduction phaseout. Turbotax free state filing   If you were covered by an employer retirement plan and you did not receive any social security retirement benefits, your IRA deduction may be reduced or eliminated depending on your filing status and modified AGI as shown in Table 17-1. Turbotax free state filing Table 17-1. Turbotax free state filing Effect of Modified AGI1 on Deduction if You Are Covered by Retirement Plan at Work If you are covered by a retirement plan at work, use this table to determine if your modified AGI affects the amount of your deduction. Turbotax free state filing IF your filing status is. Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing   AND your modified AGI is. Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing   THEN you can take. Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing single   or  head of household   $59,000 or less   a full deduction. Turbotax free state filing   more than $59,000 but less than $69,000   a partial deduction. Turbotax free state filing   $69,000 or more   no deduction. Turbotax free state filing married filing jointly   or  qualifying widow(er)   $95,000 or less   a full deduction. Turbotax free state filing   more than $95,000 but less than $115,000   a partial deduction. Turbotax free state filing   $115,000 or more   no deduction. Turbotax free state filing married filing separately2   less than $10,000   a partial deduction. Turbotax free state filing   $10,000 or more   no deduction. Turbotax free state filing 1Modified AGI (adjusted gross income). Turbotax free state filing See Modified adjusted gross income (AGI) . Turbotax free state filing 2If you did not live with your spouse at any time during the year, your filing status is considered Single for this purpose (therefore, your IRA deduction is determined under the “Single” column). Turbotax free state filing If your spouse is covered. Turbotax free state filing   If you are not covered by an employer retirement plan, but your spouse is, and you did not receive any social security benefits, your IRA deduction may be reduced or eliminated entirely depending on your filing status and modified AGI as shown in Table 17-2. Turbotax free state filing Filing status. Turbotax free state filing   Your filing status depends primarily on your marital status. Turbotax free state filing For this purpose, you need to know if your filing status is single or head of household, married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er), or married filing separately. Turbotax free state filing If you need more information on filing status, see chapter 2. Turbotax free state filing Lived apart from spouse. Turbotax free state filing   If you did not live with your spouse at any time during the year and you file a separate return, your filing status, for this purpose, is single. Turbotax free state filing Table 17-2. Turbotax free state filing Effect of Modified AGI1 on Deduction if You Are NOT Covered by Retirement Plan at Work If you are not covered by a retirement plan at work, use this table to determine if your modified AGI affects the amount of your deduction. Turbotax free state filing IF your filing status is. Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing   AND your modified AGI is. Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing   THEN you can take. Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing . Turbotax free state filing single, head of household, or qualifying widow(er)   any amount   a full deduction. Turbotax free state filing married filing jointly or separately with a spouse who is not covered by a plan at work   any amount   a full deduction. Turbotax free state filing married filing jointly with a spouse who is covered by a plan at work   $178,000 or less   a full deduction. Turbotax free state filing   more than $178,000 but less than $188,000   a partial deduction. Turbotax free state filing   $188,000 or more   no deduction. Turbotax free state filing married filing separately with a spouse who is covered by a plan at work2   less than $10,000   a partial deduction. Turbotax free state filing   $10,000 or more   no deduction. Turbotax free state filing 1Modified AGI (adjusted gross income). Turbotax free state filing See Modified adjusted gross income (AGI) . Turbotax free state filing 2You are entitled to the full deduction if you did not live with your spouse at any time during the year. Turbotax free state filing Modified adjusted gross income (AGI). Turbotax free state filing   How you figure your modified AGI depends on whether you are filing Form 1040 or Form 1040A. Turbotax free state filing If you made contributions to your IRA for 2013 and received a distribution from your IRA in 2013, see Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing You may be able to use Worksheet 17-1 to figure your modified AGI. Turbotax free state filing    Do not assume that your modified AGI is the same as your compensation. Turbotax free state filing Your modified AGI may include income in addition to your compensation (discussed earlier), such as interest, dividends, and income from IRA distributions. Turbotax free state filing Form 1040. Turbotax free state filing   If you file Form 1040, refigure the amount on the page 1 “adjusted gross income” line without taking into account any of the following eight amounts. Turbotax free state filing IRA deduction. Turbotax free state filing Student loan interest deduction. Turbotax free state filing Tuition and fees deduction. Turbotax free state filing Domestic production activities deduction. Turbotax free state filing Foreign earned income exclusion. Turbotax free state filing Foreign housing exclusion or deduction. Turbotax free state filing Exclusion of qualified savings bond interest shown on Form 8815, Exclusion of Interest From Series EE and I U. Turbotax free state filing S. Turbotax free state filing Savings Bonds Issued After 1989. Turbotax free state filing Exclusion of employer-provided adoption benefits shown on Form 8839, Qualified Adoption Expenses. Turbotax free state filing This is your modified AGI. Turbotax free state filing Form 1040A. Turbotax free state filing   If you file Form 1040A, refigure the amount on the page 1 “adjusted gross income” line without taking into account any of the following amounts. Turbotax free state filing IRA deduction. Turbotax free state filing Student loan interest deduction. Turbotax free state filing Tuition and fees deduction. Turbotax free state filing Exclusion of qualified savings bond interest shown on Form 8815. Turbotax free state filing This is your modified AGI. Turbotax free state filing Both contributions for 2013 and distributions in 2013. Turbotax free state filing   If all three of the following apply, any IRA distributions you received in 2013 may be partly tax free and partly taxable. Turbotax free state filing You received distributions in 2013 from one or more traditional IRAs. Turbotax free state filing You made contributions to a traditional IRA for 2013. Turbotax free state filing Some of those contributions may be nondeductible contributions. Turbotax free state filing If this is your situation, you must figure the taxable part of the traditional IRA distribution before you can figure your modified AGI. Turbotax free state filing To do this, you can use Worksheet 1-5, Figuring the Taxable Part of Your IRA Distribution, in Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing   If at least one of the above does not apply, figure your modified AGI using Worksheet 17-1, later. Turbotax free state filing    How to figure your reduced IRA deduction. Turbotax free state filing   You can figure your reduced IRA deduction for either Form 1040 or Form 1040A by using the worksheets in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Also, the instructions for Form 1040 and Form 1040A include similar worksheets that you may be able to use instead. Turbotax free state filing Worksheet 17-1. Turbotax free state filing Figuring Your Modified AGI Use this worksheet to figure your modified adjusted gross income for traditional IRA purposes. Turbotax free state filing 1. Turbotax free state filing Enter your adjusted gross income (AGI) from Form 1040, line 38, or Form 1040A, line 22, figured without taking into account the amount from Form 1040, line 32, or Form 1040A, line 17 1. Turbotax free state filing   2. Turbotax free state filing Enter any student loan interest deduction from Form 1040, line 33, or Form 1040A, line 18 2. Turbotax free state filing   3. Turbotax free state filing Enter any tuition and fees deduction from Form 1040, line 34, or Form 1040A, line 19 3. Turbotax free state filing   4. Turbotax free state filing Enter any domestic production activities deduction from Form 1040, line 35 4. Turbotax free state filing   5. Turbotax free state filing Enter any foreign earned income and/or housing exclusion from Form 2555, line 45, or Form 2555-EZ, line 18 5. Turbotax free state filing   6. Turbotax free state filing Enter any foreign housing deduction from Form 2555, line 50 6. Turbotax free state filing   7. Turbotax free state filing Enter any excludable savings bond interest from Form 8815, line 14 7. Turbotax free state filing   8. Turbotax free state filing Enter any excluded employer-provided adoption benefits from Form 8839, line 28 8. Turbotax free state filing   9. Turbotax free state filing Add lines 1 through 8. Turbotax free state filing This is your Modified AGI for traditional IRA purposes 9. Turbotax free state filing   Reporting Deductible Contributions If you file Form 1040, enter your IRA deduction on line 32 of that form. Turbotax free state filing If you file Form 1040A, enter your IRA deduction on line 17. Turbotax free state filing You cannot deduct IRA contributions on Form 1040EZ. Turbotax free state filing Nondeductible Contributions Although your deduction for IRA contributions may be reduced or eliminated, contributions can be made to your IRA up to the general limit or, if it applies, the Kay Bailey Hutchison Spousal IRA limit. Turbotax free state filing The difference between your total permitted contributions and your IRA deduction, if any, is your nondeductible contribution. Turbotax free state filing Example. Turbotax free state filing Mike is 28 years old and single. Turbotax free state filing In 2013, he was covered by a retirement plan at work. Turbotax free state filing His salary was $57,312. Turbotax free state filing His modified AGI was $70,000. Turbotax free state filing Mike made a $5,500 IRA contribution for 2013. Turbotax free state filing Because he was covered by a retirement plan and his modified AGI was over $69,000, he cannot deduct his $5,500 IRA contribution. Turbotax free state filing He must designate this contribution as a nondeductible contribution by reporting it on Form 8606, as explained next. Turbotax free state filing Form 8606. Turbotax free state filing   To designate contributions as nondeductible, you must file Form 8606. Turbotax free state filing   You do not have to designate a contribution as nondeductible until you file your tax return. Turbotax free state filing When you file, you can even designate otherwise deductible contributions as nondeductible. Turbotax free state filing   You must file Form 8606 to report nondeductible contributions even if you do not have to file a tax return for the year. Turbotax free state filing A Form 8606 is not used for the year that you make a rollover from a qualified retirement plan to a traditional IRA and the rollover includes nontaxable amounts. Turbotax free state filing In those situations, a Form 8606 is completed for the year you take a distribution from that IRA. Turbotax free state filing See Form 8606 under Distributions Fully or Partly Taxable, later. Turbotax free state filing Failure to report nondeductible contributions. Turbotax free state filing   If you do not report nondeductible contributions, all of the contributions to your traditional IRA will be treated as deductible contributions when withdrawn. Turbotax free state filing All distributions from your IRA will be taxed unless you can show, with satisfactory evidence, that nondeductible contributions were made. Turbotax free state filing Penalty for overstatement. Turbotax free state filing   If you overstate the amount of nondeductible contributions on your Form 8606 for any tax year, you must pay a penalty of $100 for each overstatement, unless it was due to reasonable cause. Turbotax free state filing Penalty for failure to file Form 8606. Turbotax free state filing   You will have to pay a $50 penalty if you do not file a required Form 8606, unless you can prove that the failure was due to reasonable cause. Turbotax free state filing    Tax on earnings on nondeductible contributions. Turbotax free state filing   As long as contributions are within the contribution limits, none of the earnings or gains on contributions (deductible or nondeductible) will be taxed until they are distributed. Turbotax free state filing See When Can You Withdraw or Use IRA Assets , later. Turbotax free state filing Cost basis. Turbotax free state filing   You will have a cost basis in your traditional IRA if you made any nondeductible contributions. Turbotax free state filing Your cost basis is the sum of the nondeductible contributions to your IRA minus any withdrawals or distributions of nondeductible contributions. Turbotax free state filing Inherited IRAs If you inherit a traditional IRA, you are called a beneficiary. Turbotax free state filing A beneficiary can be any person or entity the owner chooses to receive the benefits of the IRA after he or she dies. Turbotax free state filing Beneficiaries of a traditional IRA must include in their gross income any taxable distributions they receive. Turbotax free state filing Inherited from spouse. Turbotax free state filing   If you inherit a traditional IRA from your spouse, you generally have the following three choices. Turbotax free state filing You can: Treat it as your own IRA by designating yourself as the account owner. Turbotax free state filing Treat it as your own by rolling it over into your IRA, or to the extent it is taxable, into a: Qualified employer plan, Qualified employee annuity plan (section 403(a) plan), Tax-sheltered annuity plan (section 403(b) plan), or Deferred compensation plan of a state or local government (section 457 plan). Turbotax free state filing Treat yourself as the beneficiary rather than treating the IRA as your own. Turbotax free state filing Treating it as your own. Turbotax free state filing   You will be considered to have chosen to treat the IRA as your own if: Contributions (including rollover contributions) are made to the inherited IRA, or You do not take the required minimum distribution for a year as a beneficiary of the IRA. Turbotax free state filing You will only be considered to have chosen to treat the IRA as your own if: You are the sole beneficiary of the IRA, and You have an unlimited right to withdraw amounts from it. Turbotax free state filing   However, if you receive a distribution from your deceased spouse's IRA, you can roll that distribution over into your own IRA within the 60-day time limit, as long as the distribution is not a required distribution, even if you are not the sole beneficiary of your deceased spouse's IRA. Turbotax free state filing Inherited from someone other than spouse. Turbotax free state filing   If you inherit a traditional IRA from anyone other than your deceased spouse, you cannot treat the inherited IRA as your own. Turbotax free state filing This means that you cannot make any contributions to the IRA. Turbotax free state filing It also means you cannot roll over any amounts into or out of the inherited IRA. Turbotax free state filing However, you can make a trustee-to-trustee transfer as long as the IRA into which amounts are being moved is set up and maintained in the name of the deceased IRA owner for the benefit of you as beneficiary. Turbotax free state filing For more information, see the discussion of inherited IRAs under Rollover From One IRA Into Another, later. Turbotax free state filing Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? You can transfer, tax free, assets (money or property) from other retirement plans (including traditional IRAs) to a traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing You can make the following kinds of transfers. Turbotax free state filing Transfers from one trustee to another. Turbotax free state filing Rollovers. Turbotax free state filing Transfers incident to a divorce. Turbotax free state filing Transfers to Roth IRAs. Turbotax free state filing   Under certain conditions, you can move assets from a traditional IRA or from a designated Roth account to a Roth IRA. Turbotax free state filing You can also move assets from a qualified retirement plan to a Roth IRA. Turbotax free state filing See Can You Move Amounts Into a Roth IRA? under Roth IRAs, later. Turbotax free state filing Trustee-to-Trustee Transfer A transfer of funds in your traditional IRA from one trustee directly to another, either at your request or at the trustee's request, is not a rollover. Turbotax free state filing Because there is no distribution to you, the transfer is tax free. Turbotax free state filing Because it is not a rollover, it is not affected by the 1-year waiting period required between rollovers, discussed later under Rollover From One IRA Into Another . Turbotax free state filing For information about direct transfers to IRAs from retirement plans other than IRAs, see Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? in chapter 1 and Can You Move Amounts Into a Roth IRA? in chapter 2 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Rollovers Generally, a rollover is a tax-free distribution to you of cash or other assets from one retirement plan that you contribute (roll over) to another retirement plan. Turbotax free state filing The contribution to the second retirement plan is called a “rollover contribution. Turbotax free state filing ” Note. Turbotax free state filing An amount rolled over tax free from one retirement plan to another is generally includible in income when it is distributed from the second plan. Turbotax free state filing Kinds of rollovers to a traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing   You can roll over amounts from the following plans into a traditional IRA: A traditional IRA, An employer's qualified retirement plan for its employees, A deferred compensation plan of a state or local government (section 457 plan), or A tax-sheltered annuity plan (section 403(b) plan). Turbotax free state filing Treatment of rollovers. Turbotax free state filing   You cannot deduct a rollover contribution, but you must report the rollover distribution on your tax return as discussed later under Reporting rollovers from IRAs and under Reporting rollovers from employer plans . Turbotax free state filing Kinds of rollovers from a traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing   You may be able to roll over, tax free, a distribution from your traditional IRA into a qualified plan. Turbotax free state filing These plans include the federal Thrift Savings Fund (for federal employees), deferred compensation plans of state or local governments (section 457 plans), and tax-sheltered annuity plans (section 403(b) plans). Turbotax free state filing The part of the distribution that you can roll over is the part that would otherwise be taxable (includible in your income). Turbotax free state filing Qualified plans may, but are not required to, accept such rollovers. Turbotax free state filing Time limit for making a rollover contribution. Turbotax free state filing   You generally must make the rollover contribution by the 60th day after the day you receive the distribution from your traditional IRA or your employer's plan. Turbotax free state filing The IRS may waive the 60-day requirement where the failure to do so would be against equity or good conscience, such as in the event of a casualty, disaster, or other event beyond your reasonable control. Turbotax free state filing For more information, see Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Extension of rollover period. Turbotax free state filing   If an amount distributed to you from a traditional IRA or a qualified employer retirement plan is a frozen deposit at any time during the 60-day period allowed for a rollover, special rules extend the rollover period. Turbotax free state filing For more information, see Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing More information. Turbotax free state filing   For more information on rollovers, see Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Rollover From One IRA Into Another You can withdraw, tax free, all or part of the assets from one traditional IRA if you reinvest them within 60 days in the same or another traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing Because this is a rollover, you cannot deduct the amount that you reinvest in an IRA. Turbotax free state filing Waiting period between rollovers. Turbotax free state filing   Generally, if you make a tax-free rollover of any part of a distribution from a traditional IRA, you cannot, within a 1-year period, make a tax-free rollover of any later distribution from that same IRA. Turbotax free state filing You also cannot make a tax-free rollover of any amount distributed, within the same 1-year period, from the IRA into which you made the tax-free rollover. Turbotax free state filing   The 1-year period begins on the date you receive the IRA distribution, not on the date you roll it over into an IRA. Turbotax free state filing Example. Turbotax free state filing You have two traditional IRAs, IRA-1 and IRA-2. Turbotax free state filing You make a tax-free rollover of a distribution from IRA-1 into a new traditional IRA (IRA-3). Turbotax free state filing You cannot, within 1 year of the distribution from IRA-1, make a tax-free rollover of any distribution from either IRA-1 or IRA-3 into another traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing However, the rollover from IRA-1 into IRA-3 does not prevent you from making a tax-free rollover from IRA-2 into any other traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing This is because you have not, within the last year, rolled over, tax free, any distribution from IRA-2 or made a tax-free rollover into IRA-2. Turbotax free state filing Exception. Turbotax free state filing   For an exception for distributions from failed financial institutions, see Rollover From One IRA Into Another under Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Partial rollovers. Turbotax free state filing   If you withdraw assets from a traditional IRA, you can roll over part of the withdrawal tax free and keep the rest of it. Turbotax free state filing The amount you keep will generally be taxable (except for the part that is a return of nondeductible contributions). Turbotax free state filing The amount you keep may be subject to the 10% additional tax on early distributions, discussed later under What Acts Result in Penalties or Additional Taxes? . Turbotax free state filing Required distributions. Turbotax free state filing   Amounts that must be distributed during a particular year under the required distribution rules (discussed later) are not eligible for rollover treatment. Turbotax free state filing Inherited IRAs. Turbotax free state filing   If you inherit a traditional IRA from your spouse, you generally can roll it over, or you can choose to make the inherited IRA your own. Turbotax free state filing See Treating it as your own , earlier. Turbotax free state filing Not inherited from spouse. Turbotax free state filing   If you inherit a traditional IRA from someone other than your spouse, you cannot roll it over or allow it to receive a rollover contribution. Turbotax free state filing You must withdraw the IRA assets within a certain period. Turbotax free state filing For more information, see When Must You Withdraw Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Reporting rollovers from IRAs. Turbotax free state filing   Report any rollover from one traditional IRA to the same or another traditional IRA on lines 15a and 15b, Form 1040, or lines 11a and 11b, Form 1040A, as follows. Turbotax free state filing   Enter the total amount of the distribution on Form 1040, line 15a, or Form 1040A, line 11a. Turbotax free state filing If the total amount on Form 1040, line 15a, or Form 1040A, line 11a, was rolled over, enter zero on Form 1040, line 15b, or Form 1040A, line 11b. Turbotax free state filing If the total distribution was not rolled over, enter the taxable portion of the part that was not rolled over on Form 1040, line 15b, or Form 1040A, line 11b. Turbotax free state filing Put “Rollover” next to Form 1040, line 15b, or Form 1040A, line 11b. Turbotax free state filing See your tax return instructions. Turbotax free state filing   If you rolled over the distribution into a qualified plan (other than an IRA) or you make the rollover in 2014, attach a statement explaining what you did. Turbotax free state filing Rollover From Employer's Plan Into an IRA You can roll over into a traditional IRA all or part of an eligible rollover distribution you receive from your (or your deceased spouse's): Employer's qualified pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan; Annuity plan; Tax-sheltered annuity plan (section 403(b) plan); or Governmental deferred compensation plan (section 457 plan). Turbotax free state filing A qualified plan is one that meets the requirements of the Internal Revenue Code. Turbotax free state filing Eligible rollover distribution. Turbotax free state filing   Generally, an eligible rollover distribution is any distribution of all or part of the balance to your credit in a qualified retirement plan except the following. Turbotax free state filing A required minimum distribution (explained later under When Must You Withdraw IRA Assets? (Required Minimum Distributions) ). Turbotax free state filing A hardship distribution. Turbotax free state filing Any of a series of substantially equal periodic distributions paid at least once a year over: Your lifetime or life expectancy, The lifetimes or life expectancies of you and your beneficiary, or A period of 10 years or more. Turbotax free state filing Corrective distributions of excess contributions or excess deferrals, and any income allocable to the excess, or of excess annual additions and any allocable gains. Turbotax free state filing A loan treated as a distribution because it does not satisfy certain requirements either when made or later (such as upon default), unless the participant's accrued benefits are reduced (offset) to repay the loan. Turbotax free state filing Dividends on employer securities. Turbotax free state filing The cost of life insurance coverage. Turbotax free state filing Any nontaxable amounts that you roll over into your traditional IRA become part of your basis (cost) in your IRAs. Turbotax free state filing To recover your basis when you take distributions from your IRA, you must complete Form 8606 for the year of the distribution. Turbotax free state filing See Form 8606 under Distributions Fully or Partly Taxable, later. Turbotax free state filing Rollover by nonspouse beneficiary. Turbotax free state filing   A direct transfer from a deceased employee's qualified pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan; annuity plan; tax-sheltered annuity (section 403(b)) plan; or governmental deferred compensation (section 457) plan to an IRA set up to receive the distribution on your behalf can be treated as an eligible rollover distribution if you are the designated beneficiary of the plan and not the employee's spouse. Turbotax free state filing The IRA is treated as an inherited IRA. Turbotax free state filing For more information about inherited IRAs, see Inherited IRAs , earlier. Turbotax free state filing Reporting rollovers from employer plans. Turbotax free state filing    Enter the total distribution (before income tax or other deductions were withheld) on Form 1040, line 16a, or Form 1040A, line 12a. Turbotax free state filing This amount should be shown in box 1 of Form 1099-R. Turbotax free state filing From this amount, subtract any contributions (usually shown in box 5 of Form 1099-R) that were taxable to you when made. Turbotax free state filing From that result, subtract the amount that was rolled over either directly or within 60 days of receiving the distribution. Turbotax free state filing Enter the remaining amount, even if zero, on Form 1040, line 16b, or Form 1040A, line 12b. Turbotax free state filing Also, enter "Rollover" next to Form 1040, line 16b, or Form 1040A, line 12b. Turbotax free state filing Transfers Incident to Divorce If an interest in a traditional IRA is transferred from your spouse or former spouse to you by a divorce or separate maintenance decree or a written document related to such a decree, the interest in the IRA, starting from the date of the transfer, is treated as your IRA. Turbotax free state filing The transfer is tax free. Turbotax free state filing For detailed information, see Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Converting From Any Traditional IRA to a Roth IRA Allowable conversions. Turbotax free state filing   You can withdraw all or part of the assets from a traditional IRA and reinvest them (within 60 days) in a Roth IRA. Turbotax free state filing The amount that you withdraw and timely contribute (convert) to the Roth IRA is called a conversion contribution. Turbotax free state filing If properly (and timely) rolled over, the 10% additional tax on early distributions will not apply. Turbotax free state filing However, a part or all of the conversion contribution from your traditional IRA is included in your gross income. Turbotax free state filing Required distributions. Turbotax free state filing   You cannot convert amounts that must be distributed from your traditional IRA for a particular year (including the calendar year in which you reach age 70½) under the required distribution rules (discussed later). Turbotax free state filing Income. Turbotax free state filing   You must include in your gross income distributions from a traditional IRA that you would have had to include in income if you had not converted them into a Roth IRA. Turbotax free state filing These amounts are normally included in income on your return for the year that you converted them from a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA. Turbotax free state filing   You do not include in gross income any part of a distribution from a traditional IRA that is a return of your basis, as discussed later. Turbotax free state filing   You must file Form 8606 to report 2013 conversions from traditional, SEP, or SIMPLE IRAs to a Roth IRA in 2013 (unless you recharacterized the entire amount) and to figure the amount to include in income. Turbotax free state filing   If you must include any amount in your gross income, you may have to increase your withholding or make estimated tax payments. Turbotax free state filing See chapter 4. Turbotax free state filing Recharacterizations You may be able to treat a contribution made to one type of IRA as having been made to a different type of IRA. Turbotax free state filing This is called recharacterizing the contribution. Turbotax free state filing See Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590 for more detailed information. Turbotax free state filing How to recharacterize a contribution. Turbotax free state filing   To recharacterize a contribution, you generally must have the contribution transferred from the first IRA (the one to which it was made) to the second IRA in a trustee-to-trustee transfer. Turbotax free state filing If the transfer is made by the due date (including extensions) for your tax return for the year during which the contribution was made, you can elect to treat the contribution as having been originally made to the second IRA instead of to the first IRA. Turbotax free state filing If you recharacterize your contribution, you must do all three of the following. Turbotax free state filing Include in the transfer any net income allocable to the contribution. Turbotax free state filing If there was a loss, the net income you must transfer may be a negative amount. Turbotax free state filing Report the recharacterization on your tax return for the year during which the contribution was made. Turbotax free state filing Treat the contribution as having been made to the second IRA on the date that it was actually made to the first IRA. Turbotax free state filing No deduction allowed. Turbotax free state filing   You cannot deduct the contribution to the first IRA. Turbotax free state filing Any net income you transfer with the recharacterized contribution is treated as earned in the second IRA. Turbotax free state filing Required notifications. Turbotax free state filing   To recharacterize a contribution, you must notify both the trustee of the first IRA (the one to which the contribution was actually made) and the trustee of the second IRA (the one to which the contribution is being moved) that you have elected to treat the contribution as having been made to the second IRA rather than the first. Turbotax free state filing You must make the notifications by the date of the transfer. Turbotax free state filing Only one notification is required if both IRAs are maintained by the same trustee. Turbotax free state filing The notification(s) must include all of the following information. Turbotax free state filing The type and amount of the contribution to the first IRA that is to be recharacterized. Turbotax free state filing The date on which the contribution was made to the first IRA and the year for which it was made. Turbotax free state filing A direction to the trustee of the first IRA to transfer in a trustee-to-trustee transfer the amount of the contribution and any net income (or loss) allocable to the contribution to the trustee of the second IRA. Turbotax free state filing The name of the trustee of the first IRA and the name of the trustee of the second IRA. Turbotax free state filing Any additional information needed to make the transfer. Turbotax free state filing Reporting a recharacterization. Turbotax free state filing   If you elect to recharacterize a contribution to one IRA as a contribution to another IRA, you must report the recharacterization on your tax return as directed by Form 8606 and its instructions. Turbotax free state filing You must treat the contribution as having been made to the second IRA. Turbotax free state filing When Can You Withdraw or Use IRA Assets? There are rules limiting use of your IRA assets and distributions from it. Turbotax free state filing Violation of the rules generally results in additional taxes in the year of violation. Turbotax free state filing See What Acts Result in Penalties or Additional Taxes , later. Turbotax free state filing Contributions returned before the due date of return. Turbotax free state filing   If you made IRA contributions in 2013, you can withdraw them tax free by the due date of your return. Turbotax free state filing If you have an extension of time to file your return, you can withdraw them tax free by the extended due date. Turbotax free state filing You can do this if, for each contribution you withdraw, both of the following conditions apply. Turbotax free state filing You did not take a deduction for the contribution. Turbotax free state filing You withdraw any interest or other income earned on the contribution. Turbotax free state filing You can take into account any loss on the contribution while it was in the IRA when calculating the amount that must be withdrawn. Turbotax free state filing If there was a loss, the net income earned on the contribution may be a negative amount. Turbotax free state filing Note. Turbotax free state filing To calculate the amount you must withdraw, see Worksheet 1-4 under When Can You Withdraw or Use Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Earnings includible in income. Turbotax free state filing   You must include in income any earnings on the contributions you withdraw. Turbotax free state filing Include the earnings in income for the year in which you made the contributions, not in the year in which you withdraw them. Turbotax free state filing Generally, except for any part of a withdrawal that is a return of nondeductible contributions (basis), any withdrawal of your contributions after the due date (or extended due date) of your return will be treated as a taxable distribution. Turbotax free state filing Excess contributions can also be recovered tax free as discussed under What Acts Result in Penalties or Additional Taxes?, later. Turbotax free state filing    Early distributions tax. Turbotax free state filing   The 10% additional tax on distributions made before you reach age 59½ does not apply to these tax-free withdrawals of your contributions. Turbotax free state filing However, the distribution of interest or other income must be reported on Form 5329 and, unless the distribution qualifies as an exception to the age 59½ rule, it will be subject to this tax. Turbotax free state filing When Must You Withdraw IRA Assets? (Required Minimum Distributions) You cannot keep funds in a traditional IRA indefinitely. Turbotax free state filing Eventually they must be distributed. Turbotax free state filing If there are no distributions, or if the distributions are not large enough, you may have to pay a 50% excise tax on the amount not distributed as required. Turbotax free state filing See Excess Accumulations (Insufficient Distributions) , later. Turbotax free state filing The requirements for distributing IRA funds differ depending on whether you are the IRA owner or the beneficiary of a decedent's IRA. Turbotax free state filing Required minimum distribution. Turbotax free state filing   The amount that must be distributed each year is referred to as the required minimum distribution. Turbotax free state filing Required distributions not eligible for rollover. Turbotax free state filing   Amounts that must be distributed (required minimum distributions) during a particular year are not eligible for rollover treatment. Turbotax free state filing IRA owners. Turbotax free state filing   If you are the owner of a traditional IRA, you must generally start receiving distributions from your IRA by April 1 of the year following the year in which you reach age 70½. Turbotax free state filing April 1 of the year following the year in which you reach age 70½ is referred to as the required beginning date. Turbotax free state filing Distributions by the required beginning date. Turbotax free state filing   You must receive at least a minimum amount for each year starting with the year you reach age 70½ (your 70½ year). Turbotax free state filing If you do not (or did not) receive that minimum amount in your 70½ year, then you must receive distributions for your 70½ year by April 1 of the next year. Turbotax free state filing   If an IRA owner dies after reaching age 70½, but before April 1 of the next year, no minimum distribution is required because death occurred before the required beginning date. Turbotax free state filing Even if you begin receiving distributions before you attain age 70½, you must begin calculating and receiving required minimum distributions by your required beginning date. Turbotax free state filing Distributions after the required beginning date. Turbotax free state filing   The required minimum distribution for any year after the year you turn 70½ must be made by December 31 of that later year. Turbotax free state filing    Beneficiaries. Turbotax free state filing   If you are the beneficiary of a decedent's traditional IRA, the requirements for distributions from that IRA generally depend on whether the IRA owner died before or after the required beginning date for distributions. Turbotax free state filing More information. Turbotax free state filing   For more information, including how to figure your minimum required distribution each year and how to figure your required distribution if you are a beneficiary of a decedent's IRA, see When Must You Withdraw Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Are Distributions Taxable? In general, distributions from a traditional IRA are taxable in the year you receive them. Turbotax free state filing Exceptions. Turbotax free state filing   Exceptions to distributions from traditional IRAs being taxable in the year you receive them are: Rollovers, Qualified charitable distributions (QCD), discussed later, Tax-free withdrawals of contributions, discussed earlier, and The return of nondeductible contributions, discussed later under Distributions Fully or Partly Taxable . Turbotax free state filing    Although a conversion of a traditional IRA is considered a rollover for Roth IRA purposes, it is not an exception to the rule that distributions from a traditional IRA are taxable in the year you receive them. Turbotax free state filing Conversion distributions are includible in your gross income subject to this rule and the special rules for conversions explained in Converting From Any Traditional IRA Into a Roth IRA under Can You Move Retirement Plan Assets? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Qualified charitable distributions (QCD). Turbotax free state filing   A QCD is generally a nontaxable distribution made directly by the trustee of your IRA to an organization eligible to receive tax-deductible contributions. Turbotax free state filing Special rules apply if you made a qualified charitable distribution in January 2013 that you elected to treat as made in 2012. Turbotax free state filing See Qualified Charitable Distributions in Publication 590 for more information. Turbotax free state filing Ordinary income. Turbotax free state filing   Distributions from traditional IRAs that you include in income are taxed as ordinary income. Turbotax free state filing No special treatment. Turbotax free state filing   In figuring your tax, you cannot use the 10-year tax option or capital gain treatment that applies to lump-sum distributions from qualified retirement plans. Turbotax free state filing Distributions Fully or Partly Taxable Distributions from your traditional IRA may be fully or partly taxable, depending on whether your IRA includes any nondeductible contributions. Turbotax free state filing Fully taxable. Turbotax free state filing   If only deductible contributions were made to your traditional IRA (or IRAs, if you have more than one), you have no basis in your IRA. Turbotax free state filing Because you have no basis in your IRA, any distributions are fully taxable when received. Turbotax free state filing See Reporting taxable distributions on your return , later. Turbotax free state filing Partly taxable. Turbotax free state filing    If you made nondeductible contributions or rolled over any after-tax amounts to any of your traditional IRAs, you have a cost basis (investment in the contract) equal to the amount of those contributions. Turbotax free state filing These nondeductible contributions are not taxed when they are distributed to you. Turbotax free state filing They are a return of your investment in your IRA. Turbotax free state filing   Only the part of the distribution that represents nondeductible contributions and rolled over after-tax amounts (your cost basis) is tax free. Turbotax free state filing If nondeductible contributions have been made or after-tax amounts have been rolled over to your IRA, distributions consist partly of nondeductible contributions (basis) and partly of deductible contributions, earnings, and gains (if there are any). Turbotax free state filing Until all of your basis has been distributed, each distribution is partly nontaxable and partly taxable. Turbotax free state filing Form 8606. Turbotax free state filing   You must complete Form 8606 and attach it to your return if you receive a distribution from a traditional IRA and have ever made nondeductible contributions or rolled over after-tax amounts to any of your traditional IRAs. Turbotax free state filing Using the form, you will figure the nontaxable distributions for 2013 and your total IRA basis for 2013 and earlier years. Turbotax free state filing Note. Turbotax free state filing If you are required to file Form 8606, but you are not required to file an income tax return, you still must file Form 8606. Turbotax free state filing Send it to the IRS at the time and place you would otherwise file an income tax return. Turbotax free state filing Distributions reported on Form 1099-R. Turbotax free state filing   If you receive a distribution from your traditional IRA, you will receive Form 1099-R, Distributions From Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts, etc. Turbotax free state filing , or a similar statement. Turbotax free state filing IRA distributions are shown in boxes 1 and 2a of Form 1099-R. Turbotax free state filing A number or letter code in box 7 tells you what type of distribution you received from your IRA. Turbotax free state filing Withholding. Turbotax free state filing   Federal income tax is withheld from distributions from traditional IRAs unless you choose not to have tax withheld. Turbotax free state filing See chapter 4. Turbotax free state filing IRA distributions delivered outside the United States. Turbotax free state filing   In general, if you are a U. Turbotax free state filing S. Turbotax free state filing citizen or resident alien and your home address is outside the United States or its possessions, you cannot choose exemption from withholding on distributions from your traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing Reporting taxable distributions on your return. Turbotax free state filing    Report fully taxable distributions, including early distributions on Form 1040, line 15b, or Form 1040A, line 11b (no entry is required on Form 1040, line 15a, or Form 1040A, line 11a). Turbotax free state filing If only part of the distribution is taxable, enter the total amount on Form 1040, line 15a, or Form 1040A, line 11a, and the taxable part on Form 1040, line 15b, or Form 1040A, line 11b. Turbotax free state filing You cannot report distributions on Form 1040EZ. Turbotax free state filing What Acts Result in Penalties or Additional Taxes? The tax advantages of using traditional IRAs for retirement savings can be offset by additional taxes and penalties if you do not follow the rules. Turbotax free state filing There are additions to the regular tax for using your IRA funds in prohibited transactions. Turbotax free state filing There are also additional taxes for the following activities. Turbotax free state filing Investing in collectibles. Turbotax free state filing Making excess contributions. Turbotax free state filing Taking early distributions. Turbotax free state filing Allowing excess amounts to accumulate (failing to take required distributions). Turbotax free state filing There are penalties for overstating the amount of nondeductible contributions and for failure to file a Form 8606, if required. Turbotax free state filing Prohibited Transactions Generally, a prohibited transaction is any improper use of your traditional IRA by you, your beneficiary, or any disqualified person. Turbotax free state filing Disqualified persons include your fiduciary and members of your family (spouse, ancestor, lineal descendent, and any spouse of a lineal descendent). Turbotax free state filing The following are examples of prohibited transactions with a traditional IRA. Turbotax free state filing Borrowing money from it. Turbotax free state filing Selling property to it. Turbotax free state filing Receiving unreasonable compensation for managing it. Turbotax free state filing Using it as security for a loan. Turbotax free state filing Buying property for personal use (present or future) with IRA funds. Turbotax free state filing Effect on an IRA account. Turbotax free state filing   Generally, if you or your beneficiary engages in a prohibited transaction in connection with your traditional IRA account at any time during the year, the account stops being an IRA as of the first day of that year. Turbotax free state filing Effect on you or your beneficiary. Turbotax free state filing   If your account stops being an IRA because you or your beneficiary engaged in a prohibited transaction, the account is treated as distributing all its assets to you at their fair market values on the first day of the year. Turbotax free state filing If the total of those values is more than your basis in the IRA, you will have a taxable gain that is includible in your income. Turbotax free state filing For information on figuring your gain and reporting it in income, see Are Distributions Taxable , earlier. Turbotax free state filing The distribution may be subject to additional taxes or penalties. Turbotax free state filing Taxes on prohibited transactions. Turbotax free state filing   If someone other than the owner or beneficiary of a traditional IRA engages in a prohibited transaction, that person may be liable for certain taxes. Turbotax free state filing In general, there is a 15% tax on the amount of the prohibited transaction and a 100% additional tax if the transaction is not corrected. Turbotax free state filing More information. Turbotax free state filing   For more information on prohibited transactions, see What Acts Result in Penalties or Additional Taxes? in chapter 1 of Publication 590. Turbotax free state filing Investment in Collectibles If your traditional IRA invests in collectibles, the amount invested is considered distributed to you in the year invested. Turbotax free state filing You may have to pay the 10% additional tax on early distributions, discussed later. Turbotax free state filing Collectibles. Turbotax free state filing   These include: Artworks, Rugs, Antiques, Metals, Gems, Stamps, Coins, Alcoholic beverages, and Certain other tangible personal property. Turbotax free state filing Exception. Turbotax free state filing    Your IRA can invest in one, one-half, one-quarter, or one-tenth ounce U. Turbotax free state filing S. Turbotax free state filing gold coins, or one-ounce silver coins minted by the Treasury Department. Turbotax free state filing It can also invest in certain platinum coins and certain gold, silver, palladium, and platinum bullion. Turbotax free state filing Excess Contributions Generally, an excess contribution is the amount contributed to your traditional IRA(s) for the year that is more than the smaller of: The maximum deductible amount for the year. Turbotax free state filing For 2013, this is $5,500 ($6,500 if you are 50 or older), or Your taxable compensation for the year. Turbotax free state filing Tax on excess contributions. Turbotax free state filing   In general, if the excess contributions for a year are not withdrawn by the date your return for the year is due (including extensions), you are subject to a 6% tax. Turbotax free state filing You must pay the 6% tax each year on excess amounts that remain in your traditional IRA at the end of your tax year. Turbotax free state filing The tax cannot be more than 6% of the combined value of all your IRAs as of the end of your tax year. Turbotax free state filing Excess contributions withdrawn by due date of return. Turbotax free state filing   You will not have to pay the 6% tax if you withdraw an excess contribution made during a tax year and you also withdraw interest or other income earned on the excess contribution. Turbotax free state filing You must complete your withdrawal by the date your tax return for that year is due, including extensions. Turbotax free state filing How to treat withdrawn contributions. Turbotax free state filing   Do not include in your gross income an excess contribution that you withdraw from your traditional IRA before your tax return is due if both the following conditions are met. Turbotax free state filing No deduction was allowed for the excess contribution. Turbotax free state filing You withdraw the interest or other income earned on the excess contribution. Turbotax free state filing You can take into account any loss on the contribution while it was in the IRA when calculating the amount that must be withdrawn. Turbotax free state filing If there was a loss, the net income you must withdraw may be a negative amount. Turbotax free state filing How to treat withdrawn interest or other income. Turbotax free state filing   You must include in your gross income the interest or other income that was earned on the excess contribution. Turbotax free state filing Report it on your return for the year in which the excess contribution was made. Turbotax free state filing Your withdrawal of interest or other income may be subject to an additional 10% tax on early distributions, discus