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Pa ez form Publication 4492 - Introductory Material Table of Contents Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Introduction This publication explains the major provisions of the Katrina Emergency Tax Relief Act of 2005 and the Gulf Opportunity Zone Act of 2005. Pa ez form Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 526 Charitable Contributions 536 Net Operating Losses (NOLs) for Individuals, Estates, and Trusts 547 Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts 946 How To Depreciate Property Form (and Instructions) 4506Request for Copy of Tax Return 4506-TRequest for Transcript of Tax Return 4684Casualties and Thefts 5884Work Opportunity Credit 5884-ACredits for Employers Affected by Hurricane Katrina, Rita, or Wilma 8863Education Credits (Hope and Lifetime Learning Credits) 8914Exemption Amount for Taxpayers Housing Individuals Displaced by Hurricane Katrina 8915Qualified Hurricane Retirement Plan Distributions and Repayments Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Pa ez form Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) Table of Contents Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: ACRS Defined What Can and Cannot Be Depreciated Under ACRSRecovery Property Nonrecovery Property How To Figure the DeductionUnadjusted Basis Classes of Recovery Property Recovery Periods Alternate ACRS Method (Modified Straight Line Method) ACRS Deduction in Short Tax Year DispositionsEarly dispositions of ACRS property other than 15-, 18-, or 19-year real property. Pa ez form Dispositions — mass asset accounts. Pa ez form Early dispositions — 15-year real property. Pa ez form Early dispositions — 18- and 19-year real property. Pa ez form Depreciation Recapture Topics - This chapter discusses: The definition of ACRS What can and cannot be depreciated under ACRS How to figure the deduction Dispositions Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 551 Basis of Assets 583 Starting a Business and Keeping Records Form (and Instructions) 3115 Application for Change in Accounting Method 4562 Depreciation and Amortization The Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) applies to property first used before 1987. Pa ez form It is the name given to tax rules for getting back (recovering) through depreciation deductions the cost of property used in a trade or business or to produce income. Pa ez form These rules are mandatory and generally apply to tangible property placed in service after 1980 and before 1987. Pa ez form If you placed property in service during this period, you must continue to figure your depreciation under ACRS. Pa ez form If you used listed property placed in service after June 18, 1984, less than 50% for business in 1995, see Predominant Use Test in chapter 3. Pa ez form Listed property includes cars, other means of transportation, and certain computers. Pa ez form Any additions or improvements placed in service after 1986, including any components of a building (such as plumbing, wiring, storm windows, etc. Pa ez form ), are depreciated using MACRS, discussed in chapter 3 of Publication 946. Pa ez form It does not matter that the underlying property is depreciated under ACRS or one of the other methods. Pa ez form ACRS Defined ACRS consists of accelerated depreciation methods and an alternate ACRS method that could have been elected. Pa ez form The alternate ACRS method used a recovery percentage based on a modified straight line method. Pa ez form The law prescribes fixed percentages to be uses for each class of property. Pa ez form Property depreciable under ACRS is called recovery property. Pa ez form The recovery class of property determines the recovery period. Pa ez form Generally, the class life of property places it in a 3-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year, 18-year, or 19-year recovery class. Pa ez form Under ACRS, the prescribed percentages are used to recover the unadjusted basis of recovery property. Pa ez form To figure a depreciation deduction, you multiply the prescribed percentage for the recovery class by the unadjusted basis of the recovery property. Pa ez form You must continue to figure your depreciation under ACRS for property placed in service after 1980 and before 1987. Pa ez form For property you placed in service after 1986, you must use MACRS, discussed in chapter 3 of Publication 946. Pa ez form What Can and Cannot Be Depreciated Under ACRS ACRS applies to most depreciable tangible property placed in service after 1980 and before 1987. Pa ez form It includes new or used and real or personal property. Pa ez form The property must be for use in a trade or business or for the production of income. Pa ez form Property you acquired before 1981 or after 1986 is not ACRS recovery property. Pa ez form For information on depreciating property acquired before 1981, see chapter 2. Pa ez form For information on depreciating property acquired after 1986, see chapter 3 of Publication 946. Pa ez form Recovery Property Recovery property under ACRS is tangible depreciable property placed in service after 1980 and before 1987. Pa ez form It generally includes new or used property that you acquired after 1980 and before 1987 for use in your trade or business or for the production of income. Pa ez form Nonrecovery Property You cannot use ACRS for property you placed in service before 1981 or after 1986. Pa ez form Nonrecovery property also includes: Intangible property, Property you elected to exclude from ACRS that is properly depreciated under a method of depreciation that is not based on a term of years, Certain public utility property, and Certain property acquired and excluded from ACRS because of the antichurning rules. Pa ez form Intangible property. Pa ez form   Intangible property is not depreciated under ACRS. Pa ez form Property depreciated under methods not expressed in a term of years. Pa ez form   Certain property depreciated under a method not expressed in a term of years is not depreciated under ACRS. Pa ez form This included any property: If you made an irrevocable election to exclude such property, and In the first year that you could have claimed depreciation, you properly used the unit-of-production method or any method of depreciation not expressed in a term of years (not including the retirement-replacement-betterment method). Pa ez form Public utility property. Pa ez form   Public utility property for which the taxpayer does not use a normalization method of accounting is excluded from ACRS and is subject to depreciation under a special rule. Pa ez form Additions or improvements to ACRS property after 1986. Pa ez form   Any additions or improvements placed in service after 1986, including any components of a building (plumbing, wiring, storm windows, etc. Pa ez form ) are depreciated using MACRS, discussed in chapter 3 of Publication 946. Pa ez form It does not matter that the underlying property is depreciated under ACRS or one of the other methods. Pa ez form How To Figure the Deduction After you determine that your property can be depreciated under ACRS, you are ready to figure your deduction. Pa ez form Because the conventions are built into the percentage table rates, you only need to know the following: The unadjusted basis of your recovery property, The classes of recovery property, The recovery periods, and Whether to use the prescribed percentages based on accelerated methods or percentages based on using the alternate ACRS method. Pa ez form Unadjusted Basis To figure your ACRS deduction, you multiply the unadjusted basis in your recovery property by its applicable percentage for the year. Pa ez form Unadjusted basis is the same amount you would use to figure gain on a sale, but it is figured without taking into account any depreciation taken in earlier years. Pa ez form However, reduce your original basis by the amount of amortization taken on the property and by any section 179 deduction claimed as discussed in chapter 2 of Publication 946. Pa ez form If you buy property, your unadjusted basis is usually its cost minus any amortized amount and minus any section 179 deduction elected. Pa ez form If you acquire property in some other way, such as by inheriting it, getting it as a gift, or building it yourself, you figure your unadjusted basis under other rules. Pa ez form See Publication 551. Pa ez form Classes of Recovery Property All recovery property under ACRS is in one of the following classes. Pa ez form The class for your property was determined when you began to depreciate it. Pa ez form 3-Year Property 3-year property includes automobiles, light-duty trucks (actual unloaded weight less than 13,000 pounds), and tractor units for use over-the-road. Pa ez form Race horses over 2 years old when placed in service are 3-year property. Pa ez form Any other horses over 12 years old when you placed them in service are also included in the 3-year property class. Pa ez form The ACRS percentages for 3-year recovery property are: Recovery Period Percentage 1st year 25% 2nd year 38% 3rd year 37% If you used the percentages above to depreciate your 3-year recovery property, your property, except for certain passenger automobiles, is fully depreciated. Pa ez form You cannot claim depreciation for this property after 1988. Pa ez form 5-Year Property 5-year property includes computers, copiers, and equipment, such as office furniture and fixtures. Pa ez form It also includes single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures and petroleum storage facilities (other than buildings and their structural components). Pa ez form The ACRS percentages for 5-year recovery property are: Recovery period Percentage 1st year 15% 2nd year 22% 3rd through 5th year 21% If you used the percentages above to depreciate your 5-year recovery property, it is fully depreciated. Pa ez form You cannot claim depreciation for this property after 1990. Pa ez form 10-Year Property 10-year property includes certain real property such as theme-park structures and certain public utility property. Pa ez form Manufactured homes (including mobile homes) and railroad tank cars are also 10-year property. Pa ez form You do not treat a building, and its structural components, as 10-year property by reason of a change in use after you placed the property in service. Pa ez form For example, a building (15-year real property) that was placed in service in 1981 and was converted to a theme-park structure in 1986 remains 15-year real property. Pa ez form The ACRS percentages for 10-year recovery property are: Recovery Period Percentage 1st year 8% 2nd year 14% 3rd year 12% 4th through 6th year 10% 7th through 10th year 9% If you used the percentages above, you cannot claim depreciation for this property after 1995. Pa ez form Example. Pa ez form On April 21, 1986, you bought and placed in service a new mobile home for $26,000 to be used as rental property. Pa ez form You paid $10,000 cash and signed a note for $16,000 giving you an unadjusted basis of $26,000. Pa ez form On June 8, 1986, you bought and placed in service a used mobile home for use as rental property at a total cost of $11,500. Pa ez form The total unadjusted basis of your 10-year recovery property placed in service in 1986 was $37,500 ($26,000 + $11,500). Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction was $3,000 (8% × $37,500). Pa ez form In 1987, your ACRS deduction was $5,250 (14% × $37,500). Pa ez form In 1988, your ACRS deduction was $4,500 (12% × $37,500). Pa ez form In 1989, 1990, and 1991, your ACRS deduction was $3,750 (10% × $37,500). Pa ez form In 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995 your deduction for each year is $3,375 (9% × $37,500). Pa ez form 15-Year Real Property 15-year real property is real property that is recovery property placed in service before March 16, 1984. Pa ez form It includes all real property, such as buildings, other than that designated as 5-year or 10-year property. Pa ez form Unlike the 3-, 5-, or 10-year classes of property, the percentages for 15-year real property depend on when you placed the property in service during your tax year. Pa ez form You could group 15-year real property by month and year placed in service. Pa ez form In Table 1, at the end of this publication in the Appendix, find the month in your tax year that you placed the property in service in your trade or business or for the production of income. Pa ez form You use the percentages listed under that month for each year of the recovery period to determine your depreciation deduction each year. Pa ez form Example. Pa ez form On March 5, 1984, you placed an apartment building in service in your business. Pa ez form It is 15-year real property. Pa ez form After subtracting the value of the land, your unadjusted basis in the building is $250,000. Pa ez form You use the calendar year as your tax year. Pa ez form March is the third month of your tax year. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for 1984 was $25,000 (10% × $250,000). Pa ez form For 1985, the percentage for the third month of the second year of the recovery period is 11%. Pa ez form Your deduction was $27,500 (11% × $250,000). Pa ez form For the third, fourth, and fifth years of the recovery period (1986, 1987, and 1988), the percentages are 9%, 8%, and 7%. Pa ez form For 1989 through 1992, the percentage for the third month is 6%. Pa ez form Your deduction each year is $15,000 (6% × $250,000). Pa ez form For 1993, 1994, and 1995, the percentage for the third month is 5%. Pa ez form Your depreciation deduction is $12,500 (5% × $250,000) for 1993, 1994, and 1995. Pa ez form Low-Income Housing Low-income housing that was assigned a 15-year recovery period under ACRS includes the following types of property: Federally assisted housing projects where the mortgage is insured under section 221(d)(3) or 236 of the National Housing Act, or housing financed or assisted by direct loan or tax abatement under similar provisions of state or local laws. Pa ez form Low-income rental housing for which a depreciation deduction for rehabilitation expenditures is allowed. Pa ez form Low-income rental housing held for occupancy by families or individuals eligible to receive subsidies under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, or under the provisions of state or local laws that authorize similar subsidies for low-income families. Pa ez form Housing financed or assisted by direct loan or insured under Title V of the Housing Act of 1949. Pa ez form The ACRS percentages for low-income housing real property, like the regular 15-year real property percentages, depend on when you placed the property in service. Pa ez form Find the month in your tax year in Table 2 or 3 at the end of this publication in the Appendix that you first placed the property in service as rental housing. Pa ez form Use the percentages listed under that month for each year of the recovery period. Pa ez form Table 2 shows percentages for low-income housing placed in service before May 9, 1985. Pa ez form Table 3 shows percentages for low-income housing placed in service after May 8, 1985, and before 1987. Pa ez form Example. Pa ez form In May 1986, you acquired and placed in service a house that qualified as low-income rental housing under item 3) of the above listing. Pa ez form You use the calendar year as your tax year. Pa ez form You use Table C–3 because the property was placed in service after May 8, 1985. Pa ez form Your unadjusted basis for the property, not including the land, was $59,000. Pa ez form Your deduction for 1986 through 2001 is shown in the following table. Pa ez form Year Rate Deduction 1986 8. Pa ez form 9% $5,251 1987 12. Pa ez form 1% 7,139 1988 10. Pa ez form 5% 6,195 1989 9. Pa ez form 1% 5,369 1990 7. Pa ez form 9% 4,661 1991 6. Pa ez form 9% 4,071 1992 5. Pa ez form 9% 3,481 1993 5. Pa ez form 2% 3,068 1994 4. Pa ez form 6% 2,714 1995 4. Pa ez form 6% 2,714 1996 4. Pa ez form 6% 2,714 1997 4. Pa ez form 6% 2,714 1998 4. Pa ez form 6% 2,714 1999 4. Pa ez form 5% 2,655 2000 4. Pa ez form 5% 2,655 2001 1. Pa ez form 5% 885 18-Year Real Property 18-year real property is real property that is recovery property placed in service after March 15, 1984, and before May 9, 1985. Pa ez form It includes real property, such as buildings, other than that designated as 5-year, 10-year, 15-year real property, or low-income housing. Pa ez form The ACRS percentages for 18-year real property depend on when you placed the property in service in your trade or business or for the production of income during your tax year. Pa ez form There are also tables for 18-year real property in the Appendix. Pa ez form Table 4 shows the percentages for 18-year real property you placed in service after June 22, 1984, and before May 9, 1985. Pa ez form Table 5 is for 18-year real property placed in service after March 15, 1984, and before June 23, 1984. Pa ez form Find the month in your tax year that you placed the property in service in a trade or business or for the production of income. Pa ez form Use the percentages listed under that month for each year of the recovery period. Pa ez form Example. Pa ez form On April 28, 1985, you bought and placed in service a rental house. Pa ez form The house, not including the land, cost $95,000. Pa ez form This is your unadjusted basis for the house. Pa ez form You use the calendar year as your tax year. Pa ez form Because the house was placed in service after June 22, 1984, and before May 9, 1985, it is 18-year real property. Pa ez form You use Table 4 to figure your deduction for the house. Pa ez form April is the fourth month of your tax year. Pa ez form Your deduction for 1985 through 2003 is shown in the following table. Pa ez form Year Rate Deduction 1985 7. Pa ez form 0% $6,650 1986 9. Pa ez form 0% 8,550 1987 8. Pa ez form 0% 7,600 1988 7. Pa ez form 0% 6,650 1989 7. Pa ez form 0% 6,650 1990 6. Pa ez form 0% 5,700 1991 5. Pa ez form 0% 4,750 1992 5. Pa ez form 0% 4,750 1993 5. Pa ez form 0% 4,750 1994 5. Pa ez form 0% 4,750 1995 5. Pa ez form 0% 4,750 1996 5. Pa ez form 0% 4,750 1997 5. Pa ez form 0% 4,750 1998 4. Pa ez form 0% 3,800 1999 4. Pa ez form 0% 3,800 2000 4. Pa ez form 0% 3,800 2001 4. Pa ez form 0% 3,800 2002 4. Pa ez form 0% 3,800 2003 1. Pa ez form 0% 950 19-Year Real Property 19-year real property is real property that is recovery property placed in service after May 8, 1985, and before 1987. Pa ez form It includes all real property, other than that designated as 5-year, 10-year, 15-year, or 18-year real property, or low-income housing. Pa ez form The ACRS percentages for 19-year real property depend on when you placed the property in service in a trade or business or for the production of income during your tax year. Pa ez form Table 6 shows the percentages for 19-year real property. Pa ez form You find the month in your tax year that you placed the property in service. Pa ez form You use the percentages listed under that month for each year of the recovery period. Pa ez form Recovery Periods Each item of recovery property is assigned to a class of property. Pa ez form The classes of recovery property establish the recovery periods over which the unadjusted basis of items in a class is recovered. Pa ez form The classes of property are: 3-Year property 5-Year property 10-Year property 15-Year real property Low-income housing 18-Year real property 19-Year real property Alternate ACRS Method (Modified Straight Line Method) ACRS provides an alternate ACRS method that could be elected. Pa ez form This alternate ACRS method uses a recovery percentage based on a modified straight line method. Pa ez form This alternate ACRS method generally uses percentages other than those from the tables. Pa ez form If you elected the alternate ACRS method, you determine the recovery period by using the following schedule. Pa ez form This schedule is for other than 18- and 19-year real property and low-income housing: In the case of: You could have elected a recovery period of: 3-year property 3, 5, or 12 years 5-year property 5, 12, or 25 years 15-year real property 15, 35, or 45 years Percentages. Pa ez form   The straight-line percentages for the alternate ACRS method are: Recovery Period Percentage 5 years 20. Pa ez form 00% 10 years 10. Pa ez form 00% 12 years 8. Pa ez form 333% 15 years 6. Pa ez form 667% 25 years 4. Pa ez form 00% 35 years 2. Pa ez form 857%   You apply the percentage to the unadjusted basis(defined earlier) of the property to figure your ACRS deduction. Pa ez form There are tables for 18- and 19-year real property later in this publication in the Appendix. Pa ez form For 15-year real property, see 15-year real property, later. Pa ez form 3-, 5-, and 10-year property. Pa ez form   If you elected to use an alternate recovery percentage, you have to use the same recovery percentage for all property in that class that you placed in service in that tax year. Pa ez form This applies throughout the recovery period you selected. Pa ez form Half-year convention. Pa ez form   If you elected the alternate method, only a half-year of depreciation was deducted for the year you placed the property in service. Pa ez form This applied regardless of when in the tax year you placed the property in service. Pa ez form For each of the remaining years in the recovery period, you take a full year's deduction. Pa ez form If you hold the property for the entire recovery period, a half-year of depreciation is allowable for the year following the end of the recovery period. Pa ez form Example. Pa ez form You operate a small upholstery business. Pa ez form On March 19, 1986, you bought and placed in service a $13,000 light-duty panel truck to be used in your business and a $500 electric saw. Pa ez form You elected to use the alternate ACRS method. Pa ez form You did not elect to take a section 179 deduction. Pa ez form You decided to recover the cost of the truck, which is 3-year recovery property, over 5 years. Pa ez form The saw is 5-year property, but you decided to recover its cost over 12 years. Pa ez form For 1986, your ACRS deduction reflected the half-year convention. Pa ez form In the first year, you deducted half of the amount determined for a full year. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for 1986 is as follows: Light-duty truck   5 years straight line = 20% 20% ÷ $13,000 = $2,600 Half-year convention -½ of $2,600= $1,300. Pa ez form 00     Electric saw   12 years straight line = 8. Pa ez form 333% 8. Pa ez form 333% ÷ $500 = $41. Pa ez form 67 Half-year convention -½ of $41. Pa ez form 67= 20. Pa ez form 84 Total ACRS deduction for 1986 $1,320. Pa ez form 84       You take a full year of depreciation for both the truck and the saw for the years 1987 through 1990. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for each of those years is as follows: Light-duty truck   5 years straight line = 20% 20% ÷ $13,000 = $2,600     Electric saw     12 years straight line = 8. Pa ez form 333% 8. Pa ez form 333% ÷ $500 = $41. Pa ez form 67 Total annual ACRS deduction for 1987 through 1990 $2,641. Pa ez form 67       In 1991, you take a half-year of depreciation for the truck and a full year of depreciation for the saw. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for 1991 is as follows: Light-duty truck   5 years straight line = 20% 20% ÷ $13,000 = $2,600 Half-year convention -½ of $2,600= $1,300. Pa ez form 00     Electric saw   12 years straight line = 8. Pa ez form 333% 8. Pa ez form 333% ÷ $500 = $41. Pa ez form 67 Total ACRS deduction for 1991 $1,341. Pa ez form 67       The truck is fully depreciated after 1991. Pa ez form You take a full year of depreciation for the saw for the years 1992 through 1997. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for each of those years is as follows: Electric saw     12 years straight line = 8. Pa ez form 333% 8. Pa ez form 333% ÷ $500 = $41. Pa ez form 67 Total annual ACRS deduction for 1992 through 1997 $41. Pa ez form 67       You take a half-year of depreciation for the saw for 1998. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for 1998 is as follows: Electric saw   12 years straight line = 8. Pa ez form 333% 8. Pa ez form 333% ÷ $500 = $41. Pa ez form 67 Half-year convention -½ of $41. Pa ez form 67= 20. Pa ez form 84 Total ACRS deduction for 1998 $20. Pa ez form 84       The saw is fully depreciated after 1998. Pa ez form 15-year real property. Pa ez form   Under ACRS, you could also elect to use the alternate ACRS method for 15-year real property. Pa ez form The alternate ACRS method allows you to depreciate your 15-year real property using the straight line ACRS method over the alternate recovery periods of 15, 35, or 45 years. Pa ez form If you selected a 15-year recovery period, you use the percentage (6. Pa ez form 667%) from the schedule above. Pa ez form You prorate this percentage for the number of months the property was in service in the first year. Pa ez form If you selected a 35- or 45-year recovery period, you use either Table 11 or 15. Pa ez form Alternate periods for 18-year real property. Pa ez form   For 18-year real property, the alternate recovery periods are 18, 35, or 45 years. Pa ez form The percentages for 18-year real property under the alternate method are in Tables 7, 8, 10, 11, 14, and 15 in the Appendix. Pa ez form There are two tables for each alternate recovery period. Pa ez form One table shows the percentage for property placed in service after June 22, 1984. Pa ez form The other table has the percentages for property placed in service after March 15, 1984, and before June 23, 1984. Pa ez form Alternate periods for 19-year real property. Pa ez form   For 19-year real property, the alternate recovery periods are 19, 35, or 45 years. Pa ez form If you selected a 19-year recovery period, use Table 9 to determine your deduction. Pa ez form If you select a 35- or 45-year recovery period, use either Table 13 or 14. Pa ez form Example. Pa ez form You placed in service an apartment building on August 3, 1986. Pa ez form The building is 19-year real property. Pa ez form The sales contract allocated $300,000 to the building and $100,000 to the land. Pa ez form You use the calendar year as your tax year. Pa ez form You chose the alternate ACRS method over a recovery period of 35 years. Pa ez form For 1986, you figure your ACRS deduction usingTable 13. Pa ez form August is the eighth month of your tax year. Pa ez form The percentage from Table 13 for the eighth month is 1. Pa ez form 1%. Pa ez form Your deduction was $3,300 ($300,000 ÷ 1. Pa ez form 1%). Pa ez form The deduction rate from ACRS Table 13 for years 2 through 20 is 2. Pa ez form 9% so that your deduction in 1987 through 2005 is $8,700 ($300,000 ÷ 2. Pa ez form 9%). Pa ez form Alternate periods for low-income housing. Pa ez form   For low-income housing, the alternate recovery periods are 15, 35, or 45 years. Pa ez form If you selected a 15-year period for this property, use 6. Pa ez form 667% as the percentage. Pa ez form If you selected a 35- or 45-year period, use either Table 11, 12, or 15. Pa ez form Election. Pa ez form   You had to make the election to use the alternate ACRS method by the return due date (including extensions) for the tax year you placed the property in service. Pa ez form Revocation of election. Pa ez form   Your election to use an alternate ACRS method, once made, can be changed only with the consent of the Commissioner. Pa ez form The Commissioner grants consent only in extraordinary circumstances. Pa ez form Any request for a revocation will be considered a request for a ruling. Pa ez form ACRS Deduction in Short Tax Year For a tax year that is less than 12 months, the ACRS deduction is prorated on a 12-month basis. Pa ez form Figure the amount of the ACRS deduction for a short tax year as follows: First, you figure the ACRS deduction for a full year. Pa ez form You figure this by multiplying the unadjusted basis by the recovery percentage. Pa ez form You then multiply the ACRS deduction determined for a full tax year by a fraction. Pa ez form The numerator (top number) of the fraction is the number of months in the short tax year and the denominator (bottom number) is 12. Pa ez form For example, a corporation placed in service in June 1986 an item of 3-year property with an unadjusted basis of $10,000. Pa ez form The corporation files a tax return, because of a change in its accounting period, for the 6-month short tax year ending June 30, 1986. Pa ez form The full year's ACRS deduction for this item is $2,500 ($10,000 ÷ 25%), the first year percentage from the 3-year table. Pa ez form The ACRS deduction for the short tax year is $1,250 ($2,500 ÷ 6/12). Pa ez form You use the full ACRS percentages during the remaining years of the recovery period. Pa ez form For the first tax year after the recovery period, the unrecovered basis will be deductible. Pa ez form Exception. Pa ez form   For the tax year in which you placed 15-, 18-, or 19-year real property in service or in the tax year you dispose of it, you compute the ACRS deduction for the number of months that the property is in service during that tax year. Pa ez form You compute the number of months using either a full month or mid-month convention. Pa ez form This is true regardless of the number of months in the tax year and the recovery period and method used. Pa ez form Dispositions A disposition is the permanent withdrawal of property from use in your trade or business or in the production of income. Pa ez form You can make a withdrawal by sale, exchange, retirement, abandonment, or destruction. Pa ez form You generally recognize gain or loss on the disposition of an asset by sale. Pa ez form However, nonrecognition rules can allow you to postpone some gain. Pa ez form See Publication 544. Pa ez form If you physically abandon property, you can deduct as a loss the adjusted basis of the asset at the time of its abandonment. Pa ez form Your intent must be to discard the asset so that you will not use it again or retrieve it for sale, exchange, or other disposition. Pa ez form Early dispositions. Pa ez form   The disposal of an asset before the end of its specified recovery period, is referred to as an early disposition. Pa ez form When an early disposition occurs, the depreciation deduction in the year of disposition depends on the class of property involved. Pa ez form Early dispositions of ACRS property other than 15-, 18-, or 19-year real property. Pa ez form   Generally, you get no ACRS deduction for the tax year in which you dispose of or retire recovery property, except for 15-, 18-, and 19-year real property. Pa ez form This means there is no depreciation deduction under ACRS in the year you dispose of or retire any of your 3-, 5-, or 10-year recovery property. Pa ez form Dispositions — mass asset accounts. Pa ez form   The law provides a special rule to avoid the calculation of gain on the disposition of assets from mass asset accounts. Pa ez form A mass asset account includes items usually minor in value in relation to the group, numerous in quantity, impractical to separately identify, and not usually accounted for on a separate basis, but on a total dollar value. Pa ez form Examples of mass assets include minor items of office, plant, and store furniture and fixtures. Pa ez form   Under the special rule, if you elected to use a mass asset account, you recognize gain to the extent of the proceeds from the disposition of the asset. Pa ez form You leave the unadjusted basis of the property in the account until recovered in future years. Pa ez form If you did this, include the total proceeds realized from the disposition in income on the tax return for the year of disposition. Pa ez form Early dispositions — 15-year real property. Pa ez form   If you dispose of 15-year real property, you base your ACRS deduction for the year of disposition on the number of months in use. Pa ez form You use a full-month convention. Pa ez form For a disposition at any time during a particular month before the end of the recovery period, no deduction is allowed for the month of disposition. Pa ez form This applies whether you use the regular ACRS method or elected the alternate ACRS method. Pa ez form Example. Pa ez form You purchased and placed in service a rental house on March 2, 1984, for $98,000 (not including the cost of land). Pa ez form You file your return based on a calendar year. Pa ez form Your rate from Table 1 for the third month is 10%. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for 1984 was $9,800 ($98. Pa ez form 000 ÷ 10%). Pa ez form For 1985 through 1988, you figured your ACRS deductions using 11%, 9%, 8%, and 7% ÷ $98,000. Pa ez form For 1989 through 1992, you figured your ACRS deductions using 6% for each year. Pa ez form The deduction each year was $98,000 ÷ 6%. Pa ez form For 1993 and 1994, the ACRS deduction is ($98,000 ÷ 5%) $4,900 for each year. Pa ez form You sell the house on June 1, 1995. Pa ez form You figure your ACRS deduction for 1995 for the full year and then prorate that amount for the months of use. Pa ez form The full ACRS deduction for 1995 is $4,900 ($98,000 ÷ 5%). Pa ez form You then prorate this amount to the 5 months in 1995 during which it was rented. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for 1995 is $2,042 ($4,900 ÷ 5/12). Pa ez form Early dispositions — 18- and 19-year real property. Pa ez form   If you dispose of 18- or 19-year real property, you base your ACRS deduction for the year of disposition on the number of months in use. Pa ez form For 18-year property placed in service before June 23, 1984, use a full-month convention on a disposition. Pa ez form For 18-year property placed in service after June 22, 1984, and for 19-year property, determine the number of months in use by using the mid-month convention. Pa ez form Under the mid-month convention,treat real property disposed of any time during a month as disposed of in the middle of that month. Pa ez form Count the month of disposition as half a month of use. Pa ez form Example. Pa ez form You purchased and placed in service a rental house on July 2, 1984, for $100,000 (not including the cost of land). Pa ez form You file your return based on a calendar year. Pa ez form Your rate from Table 4 for the seventh month is 4%. Pa ez form You figured your ACRS deduction for 1984 was $4,000 ($100,000 ÷ 4%). Pa ez form In 1985 through 1994, your ACRS deductions were 9%, 8%, 8%, 7%, 6%, 6%, 5%, 5%, and 5% ÷ $100,000. Pa ez form You sell the house on September 24, 1995. Pa ez form Figure your ACRS deduction for 1995 for the months of use. Pa ez form The full ACRS deduction for 1995 is $5,000 ($100,000 ÷ 5%). Pa ez form Prorate this amount for the 8. Pa ez form 5 months in 1995 that you held the property. Pa ez form Under the mid-month convention, you count September as half a month. Pa ez form Your ACRS deduction for 1995 is $3,542 ($5,000 ÷ 8. Pa ez form 5/12). Pa ez form Depreciation Recapture If you dispose of property depreciated under ACRS that is section 1245 recovery property, you will generally recognize gain or loss. Pa ez form Gain recognized on a disposition is ordinary income to the extent of prior depreciation deductions taken. Pa ez form This recapture rule applies to all personal property in the 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year classes. Pa ez form You recapture gain on manufactured homes and theme park structures in the 10-year class as section 1245 property. Pa ez form Section 1245 property generally includes all personal property. Pa ez form See Section 1245 property in chapter 4 of Publication 544 for more information. Pa ez form You treat dispositions of section 1250 real property on which you have a gain as section 1245 recovery property. Pa ez form You recognize gain on this property as ordinary income to the extent of prior depreciation deductions taken. Pa ez form Section 1250 property includes most real property. Pa ez form See Section 1250 property in chapter 4 of Publication 544 for more information. Pa ez form This rule applies to all section 1250 real property except the following property: Any 15-, 18-, or 19-year real property that is residential rental property. Pa ez form Any 15-, 18-, or 19-year real property that you elected to depreciate using the alternate ACRS method. Pa ez form Any 15-, 18-, or 19-year real property that is subsidized low-income housing. Pa ez form For these recapture rules, you treat the section 179 deduction and 50% of the investment credit that reduced your basis as depreciation. Pa ez form See Publication 544 for further discussion of dispositions of section 1245 and 1250 property. Pa ez form Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications