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Free file state and federal taxes online 7. Free file state and federal taxes online   Depreciation, Depletion, and Amortization Table of Contents What's New for 2013 Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Overview of DepreciationWhat Property Can Be Depreciated? What Property Cannot Be Depreciated? When Does Depreciation Begin and End? Can You Use MACRS To Depreciate Your Property? What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property? How Do You Treat Repairs and Improvements? Do You Have To File Form 4562? How Do You Correct Depreciation Deductions? Section 179 Expense DeductionWhat Property Qualifies? What Property Does Not Qualify? How Much Can You Deduct? How Do You Elect the Deduction? When Must You Recapture the Deduction? Claiming the Special Depreciation AllowanceWhat is Qualified Property? How Can You Elect Not To Claim the Allowance? When Must You Recapture an Allowance Figuring Depreciation Under MACRSWhich Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies? Which Property Class Applies Under GDS? What Is the Placed-in-Service Date? What Is the Basis for Depreciation? Which Recovery Period Applies? Which Convention Applies? Which Depreciation Method Applies? How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured? How Do You Use General Asset Accounts? When Do You Recapture MACRS Depreciation? Additional Rules for Listed PropertyWhat Is Listed Property? What Is the Business-Use Requirement? Do the Passenger Automobile Limits Apply? Depletion Who Can Claim Depletion? Figuring Depletion AmortizationBusiness Start-Up Costs Reforestation Costs Section 197 Intangibles What's New for 2013 Increased section 179 expense deduction dollar limits. Free file state and federal taxes online  The maximum amount you can elect to deduct for most section 179 property you placed in service in 2013 is $500,000. Free file state and federal taxes online This limit is reduced by the amount by which the cost of the property placed in service during the tax year exceeds $2 million. Free file state and federal taxes online See Dollar Limits under Section 179 Expense Deduction , later. Free file state and federal taxes online Extension of special depreciation allowance for certain qualified property acquired after December 31, 2007. Free file state and federal taxes online . Free file state and federal taxes online  You may be able to take a 50% special depreciation allowance for certain qualified property acquired after December 31, 2007, and placed in service before January 1, 2014. Free file state and federal taxes online See Claiming the Special Depreciation Allowance , later. Free file state and federal taxes online Expiration of the 3- year recovery period for certain race horses. Free file state and federal taxes online  The 3-year recovery period for race horses two years old or younger will expire for such horses placed in service after December 31, 2013. Free file state and federal taxes online Introduction If you buy or make improvements to farm property such as machinery, equipment, livestock, or a structure with a useful life of more than a year, you generally cannot deduct its entire cost in one year. Free file state and federal taxes online Instead, you must spread the cost over the time you use the property and deduct part of it each year. Free file state and federal taxes online For most types of property, this is called depreciation. Free file state and federal taxes online This chapter gives information on depreciation methods that generally apply to property placed in service after 1986. Free file state and federal taxes online For information on depreciating pre-1987 property, see Publication 534, Depreciating Property Placed in Service Before 1987. Free file state and federal taxes online Topics - This chapter discusses: Overview of depreciation Section 179 expense deduction Special depreciation allowance Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) Listed property Basic information on cost depletion (including timber depletion) and percentage depletion Amortization of the costs of going into business, reforestation costs, the costs of pollution control facilities, and the costs of section 197 intangibles Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 463 Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses 534 Depreciating Property Placed in Service Before 1987 535 Business Expenses 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 551 Basis of Assets 946 How To Depreciate Property Form (and Instructions) T (Timber), Forest Activities Schedule 3115 Application for Change in Accounting Method 4562 Depreciation and Amortization 4797 Sales of Business Property See chapter 16 for information about getting publications and forms. Free file state and federal taxes online It is important to keep good records for property you depreciate. Free file state and federal taxes online Do not file these records with your return. Free file state and federal taxes online Instead, you should keep them as part of the permanent records of the depreciated property. Free file state and federal taxes online They will help you verify the accuracy of the depreciation of assets placed in service in the current and previous tax years. Free file state and federal taxes online For general information on recordkeeping, see Publication 583, Starting a Business and Keeping Records. Free file state and federal taxes online For specific information on keeping records for section 179 property and listed property, see Publication 946, How To Depreciate Property. Free file state and federal taxes online Overview of Depreciation This overview discusses basic information on the following. Free file state and federal taxes online What property can be depreciated. Free file state and federal taxes online What property cannot be depreciated. Free file state and federal taxes online When depreciation begins and ends. Free file state and federal taxes online Whether MACRS can be used to figure depreciation. Free file state and federal taxes online What is the basis of your depreciable property. Free file state and federal taxes online How to treat repairs and improvements. Free file state and federal taxes online When you must file Form 4562. Free file state and federal taxes online How you can correct depreciation claimed incorrectly. Free file state and federal taxes online What Property Can Be Depreciated? You can depreciate most types of tangible property (except land), such as buildings, machinery, equipment, vehicles, certain livestock, and furniture. Free file state and federal taxes online You can also depreciate certain intangible property, such as copyrights, patents, and computer software. Free file state and federal taxes online To be depreciable, the property must meet all the following requirements. Free file state and federal taxes online It must be property you own. Free file state and federal taxes online It must be used in your business or income-producing activity. Free file state and federal taxes online It must have a determinable useful life. Free file state and federal taxes online It must have a useful life that extends substantially beyond the year you place it in service. Free file state and federal taxes online Property You Own To claim depreciation, you usually must be the owner of the property. Free file state and federal taxes online You are considered as owning property even if it is subject to a debt. Free file state and federal taxes online Leased property. Free file state and federal taxes online   You can depreciate leased property only if you retain the incidents of ownership in the property. Free file state and federal taxes online This means you bear the burden of exhaustion of the capital investment in the property. Free file state and federal taxes online Therefore, if you lease property from someone to use in your trade or business or for the production of income, you generally cannot depreciate its cost because you do not retain the incidents of ownership. Free file state and federal taxes online You can, however, depreciate any capital improvements you make to the leased property. Free file state and federal taxes online See Additions and Improvements under Which Recovery Period Applies in chapter 4 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you lease property to someone, you generally can depreciate its cost even if the lessee (the person leasing from you) has agreed to preserve, replace, renew, and maintain the property. Free file state and federal taxes online However, you cannot depreciate the cost of the property if the lease provides that the lessee is to maintain the property and return to you the same property or its equivalent in value at the expiration of the lease in as good condition and value as when leased. Free file state and federal taxes online Life tenant. Free file state and federal taxes online   Generally, if you hold business or investment property as a life tenant, you can depreciate it as if you were the absolute owner of the property. Free file state and federal taxes online See Certain term interests in property , later, for an exception. Free file state and federal taxes online Property Used in Your Business or Income-Producing Activity To claim depreciation on property, you must use it in your business or income-producing activity. Free file state and federal taxes online If you use property to produce income (investment use), the income must be taxable. Free file state and federal taxes online You cannot depreciate property that you use solely for personal activities. Free file state and federal taxes online However, if you use property for business or investment purposes and for personal purposes, you can deduct depreciation based only on the percentage of business or investment use. Free file state and federal taxes online Example 1. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you use your car for farm business, you can deduct depreciation based on its percentage of use in farming. Free file state and federal taxes online If you also use it for investment purposes, you can depreciate it based on its percentage of investment use. Free file state and federal taxes online Example 2. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you use part of your home for business, you may be able to deduct depreciation on that part based on its business use. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see Business Use of Your Home in chapter 4. Free file state and federal taxes online Inventory. Free file state and federal taxes online   You can never depreciate inventory because it is not held for use in your business. Free file state and federal taxes online Inventory is any property you hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of your business. Free file state and federal taxes online Livestock. Free file state and federal taxes online   Livestock purchased for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes can be depreciated only if they are not kept in an inventory account. Free file state and federal taxes online Livestock you raise usually has no depreciable basis because the costs of raising them are deducted and not added to their basis. Free file state and federal taxes online However, see Immature livestock under When Does Depreciation Begin and End , later, for a special rule. Free file state and federal taxes online Property Having a Determinable Useful Life To be depreciable, your property must have a determinable useful life. Free file state and federal taxes online This means it must be something that wears out, decays, gets used up, becomes obsolete, or loses its value from natural causes. Free file state and federal taxes online Irrigation systems and water wells. Free file state and federal taxes online   Irrigation systems and wells used in a trade or business can be depreciated if their useful life can be determined. Free file state and federal taxes online You can depreciate irrigation systems and wells composed of masonry, concrete, tile, metal, or wood. Free file state and federal taxes online In addition, you can depreciate costs for moving dirt to construct irrigation systems and water wells composed of these materials. Free file state and federal taxes online However, land preparation costs for center pivot irrigation systems are not depreciable. Free file state and federal taxes online Dams, ponds, and terraces. Free file state and federal taxes online   In general, you cannot depreciate earthen dams, ponds, and terraces unless the structures have a determinable useful life. Free file state and federal taxes online What Property Cannot Be Depreciated? Certain property cannot be depreciated, even if the requirements explained earlier are met. Free file state and federal taxes online This includes the following. Free file state and federal taxes online Land. Free file state and federal taxes online You can never depreciate the cost of land because land does not wear out, become obsolete, or get used up. Free file state and federal taxes online The cost of land generally includes the cost of clearing, grading, planting, and landscaping. Free file state and federal taxes online Although you cannot depreciate land, you can depreciate certain costs incurred in preparing land for business use. Free file state and federal taxes online See chapter 1 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Property placed in service and disposed of in the same year. Free file state and federal taxes online Determining when property is placed in service is explained later. Free file state and federal taxes online Equipment used to build capital improvements. Free file state and federal taxes online You must add otherwise allowable depreciation on the equipment during the period of construction to the basis of your improvements. Free file state and federal taxes online Intangible property such as section 197 intangibles. Free file state and federal taxes online This property does not have a determinable useful life and generally cannot be depreciated. Free file state and federal taxes online However, see Amortization , later. Free file state and federal taxes online Special rules apply to computer software (discussed below). Free file state and federal taxes online Certain term interests (discussed below). Free file state and federal taxes online Computer software. Free file state and federal taxes online   Computer software is generally not a section 197 intangible even if acquired in connection with the acquisition of a business, if it meets all of the following tests. Free file state and federal taxes online It is readily available for purchase by the general public. Free file state and federal taxes online It is subject to a nonexclusive license. Free file state and federal taxes online It has not been substantially modified. Free file state and federal taxes online   If the software meets the tests above, it can be depreciated and may qualify for the section 179 expense deduction and the special depreciation allowance (if applicable), discussed later. Free file state and federal taxes online Certain term interests in property. Free file state and federal taxes online   You cannot depreciate a term interest in property created or acquired after July 27, 1989, for any period during which the remainder interest is held, directly or indirectly, by a person related to you. Free file state and federal taxes online This rule does not apply to the holder of a term interest in property acquired by gift, bequest, or inheritance. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see chapter 1 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online When Does Depreciation Begin and End? You begin to depreciate your property when you place it in service for use in your trade or business or for the production of income. Free file state and federal taxes online You stop depreciating property either when you have fully recovered your cost or other basis or when you retire it from service, whichever happens first. Free file state and federal taxes online Placed in Service Property is placed in service when it is ready and available for a specific use, whether in a business activity, an income-producing activity, a tax-exempt activity, or a personal activity. Free file state and federal taxes online Even if you are not using the property, it is in service when it is ready and available for its specific use. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online You bought a planter for use in your farm business. Free file state and federal taxes online The planter was delivered in December 2012 after harvest was over. Free file state and federal taxes online You begin to depreciate the planter for 2012 because it was ready and available for its specific use in 2012, even though it will not be used until the spring of 2013. Free file state and federal taxes online If your planter comes unassembled in December 2012 and is put together in February 2013, it is not placed in service until 2013. Free file state and federal taxes online You begin to depreciate it in 2013. Free file state and federal taxes online If your planter was delivered and assembled in February 2013 but not used until April 2013, it is placed in service in February 2013, because this is when the planter was ready for its specified use. Free file state and federal taxes online You begin to depreciate it in 2013. Free file state and federal taxes online Fruit or nut trees and vines. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you acquire an orchard, grove, or vineyard before the trees or vines have reached the income-producing stage, and they have a preproductive period of more than 2 years, you must capitalize the preproductive-period costs under the uniform capitalization rules (unless you elect not to use these rules). Free file state and federal taxes online See chapter 6 for information about the uniform capitalization rules. Free file state and federal taxes online Your depreciation begins when the trees and vines reach the income-producing stage (that is, when they bear fruit, nuts, or grapes in quantities sufficient to commercially warrant harvesting). Free file state and federal taxes online Immature livestock. Free file state and federal taxes online   Depreciation for livestock begins when the livestock reaches the age of maturity. Free file state and federal taxes online If you bought immature livestock for drafting purposes, depreciation begins when they can be worked. Free file state and federal taxes online If you bought immature livestock for dairy purposes, depreciation begins when they can be milked. Free file state and federal taxes online If you bought immature livestock for breeding purposes, depreciation begins when they can be bred. Free file state and federal taxes online Your basis for depreciation is your initial cost for the immature livestock. Free file state and federal taxes online Idle Property Continue to claim a deduction for depreciation on property used in your business or for the production of income even if it is temporarily idle. Free file state and federal taxes online For example, if you stop using a machine because there is a temporary lack of a market for a product made with that machine, continue to deduct depreciation on the machine. Free file state and federal taxes online Cost or Other Basis Fully Recovered You stop depreciating property when you have fully recovered your cost or other basis. Free file state and federal taxes online This happens when your section 179 and allowed or allowable depreciation deductions equal your cost or investment in the property. Free file state and federal taxes online Retired From Service You stop depreciating property when you retire it from service, even if you have not fully recovered its cost or other basis. Free file state and federal taxes online You retire property from service when you permanently withdraw it from use in a trade or business or from use in the production of income because of any of the following events. Free file state and federal taxes online You sell or exchange the property. Free file state and federal taxes online You convert the property to personal use. Free file state and federal taxes online You abandon the property. Free file state and federal taxes online You transfer the property to a supplies or scrap account. Free file state and federal taxes online The property is destroyed. Free file state and federal taxes online For information on abandonment of property, see chapter 8. Free file state and federal taxes online For information on destroyed property, see chapter 11 and Publication 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts. Free file state and federal taxes online Can You Use MACRS To Depreciate Your Property? You must use the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) to depreciate most business and investment property placed in service after 1986. Free file state and federal taxes online MACRS is explained later under Figuring Depreciation Under MACRS . Free file state and federal taxes online You cannot use MACRS to depreciate the following property. Free file state and federal taxes online Property you placed in service before 1987. Free file state and federal taxes online Use the methods discussed in Publication 534. Free file state and federal taxes online Certain property owned or used in 1986. Free file state and federal taxes online See chapter 1 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Intangible property. Free file state and federal taxes online Films, video tapes, and recordings. Free file state and federal taxes online Certain corporate or partnership property acquired in a nontaxable transfer. Free file state and federal taxes online Property you elected to exclude from MACRS. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see chapter 1 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property? To figure your depreciation deduction, you must determine the basis of your property. Free file state and federal taxes online To determine basis, you need to know the cost or other basis of your property. Free file state and federal taxes online Cost or other basis. Free file state and federal taxes online   The basis of property you buy is usually its cost plus amounts you paid for items such as sales tax, freight charges, and installation and testing fees. Free file state and federal taxes online The cost includes the amount you pay in cash, debt obligations, other property, or services. Free file state and federal taxes online   There are times when you cannot use cost as basis. Free file state and federal taxes online In these situations, the fair market value (FMV) or the adjusted basis of the property may be used. Free file state and federal taxes online Adjusted basis. Free file state and federal taxes online   To find your property's basis for depreciation, you may have to make certain adjustments (increases and decreases) to the basis of the property for events occurring between the time you acquired the property and the time you placed it in service. Free file state and federal taxes online Basis adjustment for depreciation allowed or allowable. Free file state and federal taxes online   After you place your property in service, you must reduce the basis of the property by the depreciation allowed or allowable, whichever is greater. Free file state and federal taxes online Depreciation allowed is depreciation you actually deducted (from which you received a tax benefit). Free file state and federal taxes online Depreciation allowable is depreciation you are entitled to deduct. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you do not claim depreciation you are entitled to deduct, you must still reduce the basis of the property by the full amount of depreciation allowable. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you deduct more depreciation than you should, you must reduce your basis by any amount deducted from which you received a tax benefit (the depreciation allowed). Free file state and federal taxes online   For more information, see chapter 6. Free file state and federal taxes online How Do You Treat Repairs and Improvements? You generally deduct the cost of repairing business property in the same way as any other business expense. Free file state and federal taxes online However, if a repair or replacement increases the value of your property, makes it more useful, or lengthens its life, you must treat it as an improvement and depreciate it. Free file state and federal taxes online Treat improvements as separate depreciable property. Free file state and federal taxes online See chapter 1 of Publication 946 for more information. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online You repair a small section on a corner of the roof of a barn that you rent to others. Free file state and federal taxes online You deduct the cost of the repair as a business expense. Free file state and federal taxes online However, if you replace the entire roof, the new roof is considered to be an improvement because it increases the value and lengthens the life for the property. Free file state and federal taxes online You depreciate the cost of the new roof. Free file state and federal taxes online Improvements to rented property. Free file state and federal taxes online   You can depreciate permanent improvements you make to business property you rent from someone else. Free file state and federal taxes online Do You Have To File Form 4562? Use Form 4562 to claim your deduction for depreciation and amortization. Free file state and federal taxes online You must complete and attach Form 4562 to your tax return if you are claiming any of the following. Free file state and federal taxes online A section 179 expense deduction for the current year or a section 179 carryover from a prior year. Free file state and federal taxes online Depreciation for property placed in service during the current year. Free file state and federal taxes online Depreciation on any vehicle or other listed property, regardless of when it was placed in service. Free file state and federal taxes online Amortization of costs that began in the current year. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see the Instructions for Form 4562. Free file state and federal taxes online How Do You Correct Depreciation Deductions? If you deducted an incorrect amount of depreciation in any year, you may be able to make a correction by filing an amended return for that year. Free file state and federal taxes online You can file an amended return to correct the amount of depreciation claimed for any property in any of the following situations. Free file state and federal taxes online You claimed the incorrect amount because of a mathematical error made in any year. Free file state and federal taxes online You claimed the incorrect amount because of a posting error made in any year, for example, omitting an asset from the depreciation schedule. Free file state and federal taxes online You have not adopted a method of accounting for the property placed in service by you in tax years ending after December 29, 2003. Free file state and federal taxes online You claimed the incorrect amount on property placed in service by you in tax years ending before December 30, 2003. Free file state and federal taxes online Note. Free file state and federal taxes online You have adopted a method of accounting if you used the same incorrect method of depreciation for two or more consecutively filed returns. Free file state and federal taxes online If you are not allowed to make the correction on an amended return, you may be able to change your accounting method to claim the correct amount of depreciation. Free file state and federal taxes online See the Instructions for Form 3115. Free file state and federal taxes online Section 179 Expense Deduction You can elect to recover all or part of the cost of certain qualifying property, up to a limit, by deducting it in the year you place the property in service. Free file state and federal taxes online This is the section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online You can elect the section 179 expense deduction instead of recovering the cost by taking depreciation deductions. Free file state and federal taxes online This part of the chapter explains the rules for the section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online It explains what property qualifies for the deduction, what property does not qualify for the deduction, the limits that may apply, how to elect the deduction, and when you may have to recapture the deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online What Property Qualifies? To qualify for the section 179 expense deduction, your property must meet all the following requirements. Free file state and federal taxes online It must be eligible property. Free file state and federal taxes online It must be acquired for business use. Free file state and federal taxes online It must have been acquired by purchase. Free file state and federal taxes online Eligible Property To qualify for the section 179 expense deduction, your property must be one of the following types of depreciable property. Free file state and federal taxes online Tangible personal property. Free file state and federal taxes online Qualified real property. Free file state and federal taxes online (Special rules apply to qualified real property that you elect to treat as qualified section 179 real property. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 946 and section 179(f) of the Internal Revenue Code. Free file state and federal taxes online ) Other tangible property (except buildings and their structural components) used as: An integral part of manufacturing, production, or extraction or of furnishing transportation, communications, electricity, gas, water, or sewage disposal services; A research facility used in connection with any of the activities in (a) above; or A facility used in connection with any of the activities in (a) for the bulk storage of fungible commodities. Free file state and federal taxes online Single purpose agricultural (livestock) or horticultural structures. Free file state and federal taxes online Storage facilities (except buildings and their structural components) used in connection with distributing petroleum or any primary product of petroleum. Free file state and federal taxes online Off-the-shelf computer software that is readily available for purchase by the general public, is subject to a nonexclusive lease, and has not been substantially modified. Free file state and federal taxes online Tangible personal property. Free file state and federal taxes online   Tangible personal property is any tangible property that is not real property. Free file state and federal taxes online It includes the following property. Free file state and federal taxes online Machinery and equipment. Free file state and federal taxes online Property contained in or attached to a building (other than structural components), such as milk tanks, automatic feeders, barn cleaners, and office equipment. Free file state and federal taxes online Gasoline storage tanks and pumps at retail service stations. Free file state and federal taxes online Livestock, including horses, cattle, hogs, sheep, goats, and mink and other fur-bearing animals. Free file state and federal taxes online Facility used for the bulk storage of fungible commodities. Free file state and federal taxes online   A facility used for the bulk storage of fungible commodities is qualifying property for purposes of the section 179 expense deduction if it is used in connection with any of the activities listed earlier in item (3)(a). Free file state and federal taxes online Bulk storage means the storage of a commodity in a large mass before it is used. Free file state and federal taxes online Grain bins. Free file state and federal taxes online   A grain bin is an example of a storage facility that is qualifying section 179 property. Free file state and federal taxes online It is a facility used in connection with the production of grain or livestock for the bulk storage of fungible commodities. Free file state and federal taxes online Single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures. Free file state and federal taxes online   A single purpose agricultural (livestock) or horticultural structure is qualifying property for purposes of the section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online Agricultural structure. Free file state and federal taxes online   A single purpose agricultural (livestock) structure is any building or enclosure specifically designed, constructed, and used for both the following reasons. Free file state and federal taxes online To house, raise, and feed a particular type of livestock and its produce. Free file state and federal taxes online To house the equipment, including any replacements, needed to house, raise, or feed the livestock. Free file state and federal taxes online For this purpose, livestock includes poultry. Free file state and federal taxes online   Single purpose structures are qualifying property if used, for example, to breed chickens or hogs, produce milk from dairy cattle, or produce feeder cattle or pigs, broiler chickens, or eggs. Free file state and federal taxes online The facility must include, as an integral part of the structure or enclosure, equipment necessary to house, raise, and feed the livestock. Free file state and federal taxes online Horticultural structure. Free file state and federal taxes online   A single purpose horticultural structure is either of the following. Free file state and federal taxes online A greenhouse specifically designed, constructed, and used for the commercial production of plants. Free file state and federal taxes online A structure specifically designed, constructed, and used for the commercial production of mushrooms. Free file state and federal taxes online Use of structure. Free file state and federal taxes online   A structure must be used only for the purpose that qualified it. Free file state and federal taxes online For example, a hog barn will not be qualifying property if you use it to house poultry. Free file state and federal taxes online Similarly, using part of your greenhouse to sell plants will make the greenhouse nonqualifying property. Free file state and federal taxes online   If a structure includes work space, the work space can be used only for the following activities. Free file state and federal taxes online Stocking, caring for, or collecting livestock or plants or their produce. Free file state and federal taxes online Maintaining the enclosure or structure. Free file state and federal taxes online Maintaining or replacing the equipment or stock enclosed or housed in the structure. Free file state and federal taxes online Property Acquired by Purchase To qualify for the section 179 expense deduction, your property must have been acquired by purchase. Free file state and federal taxes online For example, property acquired by gift or inheritance does not qualify. Free file state and federal taxes online Property acquired from a related person (that is, your spouse, ancestors, or lineal descendants) is not considered acquired by purchase. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online Ken is a farmer. Free file state and federal taxes online He purchased two tractors, one from his brother and one from his father. Free file state and federal taxes online He placed both tractors in service in the same year he bought them. Free file state and federal taxes online The tractor purchased from his father does not qualify for the section 179 expense deduction because he is a related person (as defined above). Free file state and federal taxes online The tractor purchased from his brother does qualify for the deduction because Ken is not a related person (as defined above). Free file state and federal taxes online What Property Does Not Qualify? Land and improvements. Free file state and federal taxes online   Land and land improvements, do not qualify as section 179 property. Free file state and federal taxes online Land improvements include nonagricultural fences, swimming pools, paved parking areas, wharves, docks, bridges, and fences. Free file state and federal taxes online However, agricultural fences do qualify as section 179 property. Free file state and federal taxes online Similarly, field drainage tile also qualifies as section 179 property. Free file state and federal taxes online Excepted property. Free file state and federal taxes online   Even if the requirements explained in the preceding discussions are met, farmers cannot elect the section 179 expense deduction for the following property. Free file state and federal taxes online Certain property you lease to others (if you are a noncorporate lessor). Free file state and federal taxes online Certain property used predominantly to furnish lodging or in connection with the furnishing of lodging. Free file state and federal taxes online Property used by a tax-exempt organization (other than a tax-exempt farmers' cooperative) unless the property is used mainly in a taxable unrelated trade or business. Free file state and federal taxes online Property used by governmental units or foreign persons or entities (except property used under a lease with a term of less than 6 months). Free file state and federal taxes online How Much Can You Deduct? Your section 179 expense deduction is generally the cost of the qualifying property. Free file state and federal taxes online However, the total amount you can elect to deduct under section 179 is subject to a dollar limit and a business income limit. Free file state and federal taxes online These limits apply to each taxpayer, not to each business. Free file state and federal taxes online However, see Married individuals under Dollar Limits , later. Free file state and federal taxes online See also the special rules for applying the limits for partnerships and S corporations under Partnerships and S Corporations , later. Free file state and federal taxes online If you deduct only part of the cost of qualifying property as a section 179 expense deduction, you can generally depreciate the cost you do not deduct. Free file state and federal taxes online Use Part I of Form 4562 to figure your section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online Partial business use. Free file state and federal taxes online   When you use property for business and nonbusiness purposes, you can elect the section 179 expense deduction only if you use it more than 50% for business in the year you place it in service. Free file state and federal taxes online If you used the property more than 50% for business, multiply the cost of the property by the percentage of business use. Free file state and federal taxes online Use the resulting business cost to figure your section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online Trade-in of other property. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you buy qualifying property with cash and a trade-in, its cost for purposes of the section 179 expense deduction includes only the cash you paid. Free file state and federal taxes online For example, if you buy (for cash and a trade-in) a new tractor for use in your business, your cost for the section 179 expense deduction is the cash you paid. Free file state and federal taxes online It does not include the adjusted basis of the old tractor you trade for the new tractor. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online J-Bar Farms traded two cultivators having a total adjusted basis of $6,800 for a new cultivator costing $13,200. Free file state and federal taxes online They received an $8,000 trade-in allowance for the old cultivators and paid $5,200 cash for the new cultivator. Free file state and federal taxes online J-Bar also traded a used pickup truck with an adjusted basis of $8,000 for a new pickup truck costing $35,000. Free file state and federal taxes online They received a $5,000 trade-in allowance and paid $30,000 cash for the new pickup truck. Free file state and federal taxes online Only the cash paid by J-Bar qualifies for the section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online J-Bar's business costs that qualify for a section 179 expense deduction are $35,200 ($5,200 + $30,000). Free file state and federal taxes online Dollar Limits The total amount you can elect to deduct under section 179 for most property placed in service in 2013 is $500,000. Free file state and federal taxes online If you acquire and place in service more than one item of qualifying property during the year, you can allocate the section 179 expense deduction among the items in any way, as long as the total deduction is not more than $500,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Qualified real property that you elect to treat as section 179 property is limited to $250,000 of the maximum section 179 deduction of $500,000 for 2013. Free file state and federal taxes online You do not have to claim the full $500,000. Free file state and federal taxes online For specific information on the section 179 dollar limits, see chapter 2 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Reduced dollar limit for cost exceeding $2 million. Free file state and federal taxes online   If the cost of your qualifying section 179 property placed in service in 2013 is over $2 million, you must reduce the dollar limit (but not below zero) by the amount of cost over $2 million. Free file state and federal taxes online If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service during 2013 is $2,500,000 or more, you cannot take a section 179 expense deduction and you cannot carry over the cost that is more than $2,500,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online This year, James Smith placed in service machinery costing $2,050,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Because this cost is $50,000 more than $2 million, he must reduce his dollar limit to $450,000 ($500,000 − $50,000). Free file state and federal taxes online Limits for sport utility vehicles. Free file state and federal taxes online   The total amount you can elect to deduct for certain sport utility vehicles and certain other vehicles placed in service in 2013 is $25,000. Free file state and federal taxes online This rule applies to any 4-wheeled vehicle primarily designed or used to carry passengers over public streets, roads, and highways that is rated at more than 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight and not more than 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. Free file state and federal taxes online   For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Limits for passenger automobiles. Free file state and federal taxes online   For a passenger automobile that is placed in service in 2013, the total section 179 and depreciation deduction is limited. Free file state and federal taxes online See Do the Passenger Automobile Limits Apply , later. Free file state and federal taxes online Married individuals. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you are married, how you figure your section 179 expense deduction depends on whether you file jointly or separately. Free file state and federal taxes online If you file a joint return, you and your spouse are treated as one taxpayer in determining any reduction to the dollar limit, regardless of which of you purchased the property or placed it in service. Free file state and federal taxes online If you and your spouse file separate returns, you are treated as one taxpayer for the dollar limit, including the reduction for costs over $2 million. Free file state and federal taxes online You must allocate the dollar limit (after any reduction) equally between you, unless you both elect a different allocation. Free file state and federal taxes online If the percentages elected by each of you do not total 100%, 50% will be allocated to each of you. Free file state and federal taxes online Joint return after separate returns. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you and your spouse elect to amend your separate returns by filing a joint return after the due date for filing your return, the dollar limit on the joint return is the lesser of the following amounts. Free file state and federal taxes online The dollar limit (after reduction for any cost of section 179 property over $2 million). Free file state and federal taxes online The total cost of section 179 property you and your spouse elected to expense on your separate returns. Free file state and federal taxes online Business Income Limit The total cost you can deduct each year after you apply the dollar limit is limited to the taxable income from the active conduct of any trade or business during the year. Free file state and federal taxes online Generally, you are considered to actively conduct a trade or business if you meaningfully participate in the management or operations of the trade or business. Free file state and federal taxes online Any cost not deductible in one year under section 179 because of this limit can be carried to the next year. Free file state and federal taxes online See Carryover of disallowed deduction , later. Free file state and federal taxes online Taxable income. Free file state and federal taxes online   In general, figure taxable income for this purpose by totaling the net income and losses from all trades and businesses you actively conducted during the year. Free file state and federal taxes online In addition to net income or loss from a sole proprietorship, partnership, or S corporation, net income or loss derived from a trade or business also includes the following items. Free file state and federal taxes online Section 1231 gains (or losses) as discussed in chapter 9. Free file state and federal taxes online Interest from working capital of your trade or business. Free file state and federal taxes online Wages, salaries, tips, or other pay earned by you (or your spouse if you file a joint return) as an employee of any employer. Free file state and federal taxes online   In addition, figure taxable income without regard to any of the following. Free file state and federal taxes online The section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online The self-employment tax deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online Any net operating loss carryback or carryforward. Free file state and federal taxes online Any unreimbursed employee business expenses. Free file state and federal taxes online Two different taxable income limits. Free file state and federal taxes online   In addition to the business income limit for your section 179 expense deduction, you may have a taxable income limit for some other deduction (for example, charitable contributions). Free file state and federal taxes online You may have to figure the limit for this other deduction taking into account the section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online If so, complete the following steps. Free file state and federal taxes online Step Action 1 Figure taxable income without the section 179 expense deduction or the other deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online 2 Figure a hypothetical section 179 expense deduction using the taxable income figured in Step 1. Free file state and federal taxes online 3 Subtract the hypothetical section 179 expense deduction figured in Step 2 from the taxable income figured in Step 1. Free file state and federal taxes online 4 Figure a hypothetical amount for the other deduction using the amount figured in Step 3 as taxable income. Free file state and federal taxes online 5 Subtract the hypothetical other deduction figured in Step 4 from the taxable income figured in  Step 1. Free file state and federal taxes online 6 Figure your actual section 179 expense deduction using the taxable income figured in Step 5. Free file state and federal taxes online 7 Subtract your actual section 179 expense deduction figured in Step 6 from the taxable income figured in Step 1. Free file state and federal taxes online 8 Figure your actual other deduction using the taxable income figured in Step 7. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online On February 1, 2013, the XYZ farm corporation purchased and placed in service qualifying section 179 property that cost $500,000. Free file state and federal taxes online It elects to expense the entire $500,000 cost under section 179. Free file state and federal taxes online In June, the corporation gave a charitable contribution of $10,000. Free file state and federal taxes online A corporation's limit on charitable contributions is figured after subtracting any section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online The business income limit for the section 179 expense deduction is figured after subtracting any allowable charitable contributions. Free file state and federal taxes online XYZ's taxable income figured without the section 179 expense deduction or the deduction for charitable contributions is $520,000. Free file state and federal taxes online XYZ figures its section 179 expense deduction and its deduction for charitable contributions as follows. Free file state and federal taxes online Step 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Taxable income figured without either deduction is $520,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Step 2. Free file state and federal taxes online Using $520,000 as taxable income, XYZ's hypothetical section 179 expense deduction is $500,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Step 3. Free file state and federal taxes online $20,000 ($520,000 − $500,000). Free file state and federal taxes online Step 4. Free file state and federal taxes online Using $20,000 (from Step 3) as taxable income, XYZ's hypothetical charitable contribution (limited to 10% of taxable income) is $2,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Step 5. Free file state and federal taxes online $518,000 ($520,000 − $2,000). Free file state and federal taxes online Step 6. Free file state and federal taxes online Using $518,000 (from Step 5) as taxable income, XYZ figures the actual section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online Because the taxable income is at least $500,000, XYZ can take a $500,000 section 179 expense deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online Step 7. Free file state and federal taxes online $20,000 ($520,000 − $500,000). Free file state and federal taxes online Step 8. Free file state and federal taxes online Using $20,000 (from Step 7) as taxable income, XYZ's actual charitable contribution (limited to 10% of taxable income) is $2,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Carryover of disallowed deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online   You can carry over for an unlimited number of years the cost of any section 179 property you elected to expense but were unable to because of the business income limit. Free file state and federal taxes online   The amount you carry over is used in determining your section 179 expense deduction in the next year. Free file state and federal taxes online However, it is subject to the limits in that year. Free file state and federal taxes online If you place more than one property in service in a year, you can select the properties for which all or a part of the cost will be carried forward. Free file state and federal taxes online Your selections must be shown in your books and records. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online Last year, Joyce Jones placed in service a machine that cost $8,000 and elected to deduct all $8,000 under section 179. Free file state and federal taxes online The taxable income from her business (determined without regard to both a section 179 expense deduction for the cost of the machine and the self-employment tax deduction) was $6,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Her section 179 expense deduction was limited to $6,000. Free file state and federal taxes online The $2,000 cost that was not allowed as a section 179 expense deduction (because of the business income limit) is carried to this year. Free file state and federal taxes online This year, Joyce placed another machine in service that cost $9,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Her taxable income from business (determined without regard to both a section 179 expense deduction for the cost of the machine and the self-employment tax deduction) is $10,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Joyce can deduct the full cost of the machine ($9,000) but only $1,000 of the carryover from last year because of the business income limit. Free file state and federal taxes online She can carry over the balance of $1,000 to next year. Free file state and federal taxes online Partnerships and S Corporations The section 179 expense deduction limits apply both to the partnership or S corporation and to each partner or shareholder. Free file state and federal taxes online The partnership or S corporation determines its section 179 expense deduction subject to the limits. Free file state and federal taxes online It then allocates the deduction among its partners or shareholders. Free file state and federal taxes online If you are a partner in a partnership or shareholder of an S corporation, you add the amount allocated from the partnership or S corporation to any section 179 costs not related to the partnership or S corporation and then apply the dollar limit to this total. Free file state and federal taxes online To determine any reduction in the dollar limit for costs over $560,000, you do not include any of the cost of section 179 property placed in service by the partnership or S corporation. Free file state and federal taxes online After you apply the dollar limit, you apply the business income limit to any remaining section 179 costs. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online In 2013, Partnership P placed in service section 179 property with a total cost of $2,160,000. Free file state and federal taxes online P must reduce its dollar limit by $160,000 ($2,160,000 − $2,000,000). Free file state and federal taxes online Its maximum section 179 expense deduction is $340,000 ($500,000 − $160,000), and it elects to expense that amount. Free file state and federal taxes online Because P's taxable income from the active conduct of all its trades or businesses for the year was $400,000, it can deduct the full $340,000. Free file state and federal taxes online P allocates $100,000 of its section 179 expense deduction and $110,000 of its taxable income to John, one of its partners. Free file state and federal taxes online John also conducts a business as a sole proprietor and in 2013, placed in service in that business, section 179 property costing $28,000. Free file state and federal taxes online John's taxable income from that business was $10,000. Free file state and federal taxes online In addition to the $100,000 allocated from P, he elects to expense the $28,000 of his sole proprietorship's section 179 costs. Free file state and federal taxes online However, John's deduction is limited to his business taxable income of $120,000 ($110,000 from P plus $10,000 from his sole proprietorship). Free file state and federal taxes online He carries over $8,000 ($128,000 − $120,000) of the elected section 179 costs to 2014. Free file state and federal taxes online How Do You Elect the Deduction? You elect to take the section 179 expense deduction by completing Part I of Form 4562. Free file state and federal taxes online If you elect the deduction for listed property, complete Part V of  Form 4562 before completing Part I. Free file state and federal taxes online   File Form 4562 with either of the following: Your original tax return (whether or not you filed it timely), or An amended return filed within the time prescribed by law. Free file state and federal taxes online An election made on an amended return must specify the item of section 179 property to which the election applies and the part of the cost of each such item to be taken into account. Free file state and federal taxes online The amended return must also include any resulting adjustments to taxable income. Free file state and federal taxes online Revoking an election. Free file state and federal taxes online   An election (or any specification made in the election) to take a section 179 expense deduction for 2013 can be revoked without IRS approval by filing an amended return. Free file state and federal taxes online The amended return must be filed within the time prescribed by law. Free file state and federal taxes online The amended return must also include any resulting adjustments to taxable income (for example, allowable depreciation in that tax year for the item of section 179 property for which the election pertains. Free file state and federal taxes online ) Once made, the revocation is irrevocable. Free file state and federal taxes online When Must You Recapture the Deduction? You may have to recapture the section 179 expense deduction if, in any year during the property's recovery period, the percentage of business use drops to 50% or less. Free file state and federal taxes online In the year the business use drops to 50% or less, you include the recapture amount as ordinary income. Free file state and federal taxes online You also increase the basis of the property by the recapture amount. Free file state and federal taxes online Recovery periods for property are discussed later. Free file state and federal taxes online If you sell, exchange, or otherwise dispose of the property, do not figure the recapture amount under the rules explained in this discussion. Free file state and federal taxes online Instead, use the rules for recapturing depreciation explained in  chapter 9 under Section 1245 Property. Free file state and federal taxes online   If the property is listed property, do not figure the recapture amount under the rules explained in this discussion when the percentage of business use drops to 50% or less. Free file state and federal taxes online Instead, use the rules for recapturing depreciation explained in chapter 5 of Publication 946 under Recapture of Excess Depreciation. Free file state and federal taxes online Figuring the recapture amount. Free file state and federal taxes online   To figure the amount to recapture, take the following steps. Free file state and federal taxes online Figure the allowable depreciation for the section 179 expense deduction you claimed. Free file state and federal taxes online Begin with the year you placed the property in service and include the year of recapture. Free file state and federal taxes online Subtract the depreciation figured in (1) from the section 179 expense deduction you actually claimed. Free file state and federal taxes online The result is the amount you must recapture. Free file state and federal taxes online Example. Free file state and federal taxes online In January 2011, Paul Lamb, a calendar year taxpayer, bought and placed in service section 179 property costing $10,000. Free file state and federal taxes online The property is not listed property. Free file state and federal taxes online He elected a $5,000 section 179 expense deduction for the property and also elected not to claim a special depreciation allowance. Free file state and federal taxes online He used the property only for business in 2011 and 2012. Free file state and federal taxes online During 2013, he used the property 40% for business and 60% for personal use. Free file state and federal taxes online He figures his recapture amount as follows. Free file state and federal taxes online Section 179 expense deduction claimed (2011) $5,000 Minus: Allowable depreciation (instead of section 179 expense deduction):   2011 $1,250   2012 1,875   2013 ($1,250 × 40% (business)) 500 3,625 2013 — Recapture amount $1,375     Paul must include $1,375 in income for 2013. Free file state and federal taxes online Where to report recapture. Free file state and federal taxes online   Report any recapture of the section 179 expense deduction as ordinary income in Part IV of Form 4797 and include it in income on Schedule F (Form 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online Recapture for qualified section 179 GO Zone property. Free file state and federal taxes online   If any qualified section 179 GO Zone property ceases to be used in the GO Zone in a later year, you must recapture the benefit of the increased section 179 expense deduction as “other income. Free file state and federal taxes online ” Claiming the Special Depreciation Allowance For qualified property (defined below) placed in service in 2013, you can take an additional 50% special depreciation allowance. Free file state and federal taxes online The allowance is an additional deduction you can take after any section 179 expense deduction and before you figure regular depreciation under MACRS. Free file state and federal taxes online Figure the special depreciation allowance by multiplying the depreciable basis of the qualified property by 50%. Free file state and federal taxes online What is Qualified Property? For farmers, qualified property generally is certain qualified property acquired after December 31, 2007, and placed in service before January 1, 2014. Free file state and federal taxes online Certain qualified property acquired after December 31, 2007, and placed in service before January 1, 2014. Free file state and federal taxes online   Certain qualified property (defined below) acquired after December 31, 2007, and before January 1, 2014, is eligible for a 50% special depreciation allowance. Free file state and federal taxes online   Qualified property includes the following: Tangible property depreciated under the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) with a recovery period of 20 years or less. Free file state and federal taxes online Water utility property. Free file state and federal taxes online Off-the-shelf computer software. Free file state and federal taxes online Qualified leasehold improvement property. Free file state and federal taxes online   Qualified property must also meet all of the following tests: You must have acquired qualified property by purchase after December 31, 2007. Free file state and federal taxes online If a binding contract to acquire the property existed before January 1, 2008, the property does not qualify. Free file state and federal taxes online Qualified property must be placed in service after December 31, 2007 and placed in service before January 1, 2014 (before January 1, 2015 for certain property with a long production period and for certain aircraft). Free file state and federal taxes online The original use of the property must begin with you after December 31, 2007. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see chapter 3 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online How Can You Elect Not To Claim the Allowance? You can elect, for any class of property, not to deduct the special depreciation allowance for all property in such class placed in service during the tax year. Free file state and federal taxes online To make the election, attach a statement to your return indicating the class of property for which you are making the election. Free file state and federal taxes online Generally, you must make the election on a timely filed tax return (including extensions) for the year in which you place the property in service. Free file state and federal taxes online However, if you timely filed your return for the year without making the election, you still can make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of the original return (not including extensions). Free file state and federal taxes online Attach the election statement to the amended return. Free file state and federal taxes online On the amended return, write “Filed pursuant to section 301. Free file state and federal taxes online 9100-2. Free file state and federal taxes online ” Once made, the election may not be revoked without IRS consent. Free file state and federal taxes online If you elect not to have the special depreciation allowance apply, the property may be subject to an alternative minimum tax adjustment for depreciation. Free file state and federal taxes online When Must You Recapture an Allowance When you dispose of property for which you claimed a special depreciation allowance, any gain on the disposition is generally recaptured (included in income) as ordinary income up to the amount of the special depreciation allowance previously allowed or allowable. Free file state and federal taxes online For more information, see chapter 3 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Figuring Depreciation Under MACRS The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) is used to recover the basis of most business and investment property placed in service after 1986. Free file state and federal taxes online MACRS consists of two depreciation systems, the General Depreciation System (GDS) and the Alternative Depreciation System (ADS). Free file state and federal taxes online Generally, these systems provide different methods and recovery periods to use in figuring depreciation deductions. Free file state and federal taxes online To be sure you can use MACRS to figure depreciation for your property, see Can You Use MACRS To Depreciate Your Property, earlier. Free file state and federal taxes online This part explains how to determine which MACRS depreciation system applies to your property. Free file state and federal taxes online It also discusses the following information that you need to know before you can figure depreciation under MACRS. Free file state and federal taxes online Property's recovery class. Free file state and federal taxes online Placed-in-service date. Free file state and federal taxes online Basis for depreciation. Free file state and federal taxes online Recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online Convention. Free file state and federal taxes online Depreciation method. Free file state and federal taxes online Finally, this part explains how to use this information to figure your depreciation deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies? Your use of either the General Depreciation System (GDS) or the Alternative Depreciation System (ADS) to depreciate property under MACRS determines what depreciation method and recovery period you use. Free file state and federal taxes online You generally must use GDS unless you are specifically required by law to use ADS or you elect to use ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online Required use of ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online   You must use ADS for the following property. Free file state and federal taxes online All property used predominantly in a farming business and placed in service in any tax year during which an election not to apply the uniform capitalization rules to certain farming costs is in effect. Free file state and federal taxes online Listed property used 50% or less in a qualified business use. Free file state and federal taxes online See Additional Rules for Listed Property , later. Free file state and federal taxes online Any tax-exempt use property. Free file state and federal taxes online Any tax-exempt bond-financed property. Free file state and federal taxes online Any property imported from a foreign country for which an Executive Order is in effect because the country maintains trade restrictions or engages in other discriminatory acts. Free file state and federal taxes online Any tangible property used predominantly outside the United States during the year. Free file state and federal taxes online If you are required to use ADS to depreciate your property, you cannot claim the special depreciation allowance. Free file state and federal taxes online Electing ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online   Although your property may qualify for GDS, you can elect to use ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online The election generally must cover all property in the same property class you placed in service during the year. Free file state and federal taxes online However, the election for residential rental property and nonresidential real property can be made on a property-by-property basis. Free file state and federal taxes online Once you make this election, you can never revoke it. Free file state and federal taxes online   You make the election by completing line 20 in Part III of Form 4562. Free file state and federal taxes online Which Property Class Applies Under GDS? The following is a list of the nine property classes under GDS. Free file state and federal taxes online 3-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online 5-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online 7-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online 10-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online 15-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online 20-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online 25-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online Residential rental property. Free file state and federal taxes online Nonresidential real property. Free file state and federal taxes online See Which Property Class Applies Under GDS in chapter 4 of Publication 946 for examples of the types of property included in each class. Free file state and federal taxes online What Is the Placed-in-Service Date? You begin to claim depreciation when your property is placed in service for use either in a trade or business or for the production of income. Free file state and federal taxes online The placed-in-service date for your property is the date the property is ready and available for a specific use. Free file state and federal taxes online It is therefore not necessarily the date it is first used. Free file state and federal taxes online If you converted property held for personal use to use in a trade or business or for the production of income, treat the property as being placed in service on the conversion date. Free file state and federal taxes online See Placed in Service under When Does Depreciation Begin and End , earlier, for examples illustrating when property is placed in service. Free file state and federal taxes online What Is the Basis for Depreciation? The basis for depreciation of MACRS property is the property's cost or other basis multiplied by the percentage of business/investment use. Free file state and federal taxes online Reduce that amount by any credits and deductions allocable to the property. Free file state and federal taxes online The following are examples of some of the credits and deductions that reduce basis. Free file state and federal taxes online Any deduction for section 179 property. Free file state and federal taxes online Any deduction for removal of barriers to the disabled and the elderly. Free file state and federal taxes online Any disabled access credit, enhanced oil recovery credit, and credit for employer-provided childcare facilities and services. Free file state and federal taxes online Any special depreciation allowance. Free file state and federal taxes online Basis adjustment for investment credit property under section 50(c) of the Internal Revenue Code. Free file state and federal taxes online For information about how to determine the cost or other basis of property, see What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property , earlier. Free file state and federal taxes online Also, see chapter 6. Free file state and federal taxes online For additional credits and deductions that affect basis, see section 1016 of the Internal Revenue Code. Free file state and federal taxes online Which Recovery Period Applies? The recovery period of property is the number of years over which you recover its cost or other basis. Free file state and federal taxes online It is determined based on the depreciation system (GDS or ADS) used. Free file state and federal taxes online See Table 7-1 for recovery periods under both GDS and ADS for some commonly used assets. Free file state and federal taxes online For a complete list of recovery periods, see the Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods in Appendix B of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online House trailers for farm laborers. Free file state and federal taxes online   To depreciate a house trailer you supply as housing for those who work on your farm, use one of the following recovery periods if the house trailer is mobile (it has wheels and a history of movement). Free file state and federal taxes online A 7-year recovery period under GDS. Free file state and federal taxes online A 10-year recovery period under ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online   However, if the house trailer is not mobile (its wheels have been removed and permanent utilities and pipes attached to it), use one of the following recovery periods. Free file state and federal taxes online A 20-year recovery period under GDS. Free file state and federal taxes online A 25-year recovery period under ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online Water wells. Free file state and federal taxes online   Water wells used to provide water for raising poultry and livestock are land improvements. Free file state and federal taxes online If they are depreciable, use one of the following recovery periods. Free file state and federal taxes online A 15-year recovery period under GDS. Free file state and federal taxes online A 20-year recovery period under ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online   The types of water wells that can be depreciated were discussed earlier in Irrigation systems and water wells under Property Having a Determinable Useful Life . Free file state and federal taxes online Table 7-1. Free file state and federal taxes online Farm Property Recovery Periods   Recovery Period in Years Assets GDS ADS Agricultural structures (single purpose) 10 15 Automobiles 5 5 Calculators and copiers 5 6 Cattle (dairy or breeding) 5 7 Communication equipment1 7 10 Computer and peripheral equipment 5 5 Drainage facilities 15 20 Farm buildings2 20 25 Farm machinery and equipment 7 10 Fences (agricultural) 7 10 Goats and sheep (breeding) 5 5 Grain bin 7 10 Hogs (breeding) 3 3 Horses (age when placed in service)     Breeding and working (12 years or less) 7 10 Breeding and working (more than 12 years) 3 10 Racing horses 3 12 Horticultural structures (single purpose) 10 15 Logging machinery and equipment3 5 6 Nonresidential real property 394 40 Office furniture, fixtures, and equipment (not calculators, copiers, or typewriters) 7 10 Paved lots 15 20 Residential rental property 27. Free file state and federal taxes online 5 40 Tractor units (over-the-road) 3 4 Trees or vines bearing fruit or nuts 10 20 Truck (heavy duty, unloaded weight 13,000 lbs. Free file state and federal taxes online or more) 5 6 Truck (actual weight less than 13,000 lbs) 5 5 Water wells 15 20 1 Not including communication equipment listed in other classes. Free file state and federal taxes online 2 Not including single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures. Free file state and federal taxes online 3 Used by logging and sawmill operators for cutting of timber. Free file state and federal taxes online 4 For property placed in service after May 12, 1993; for property placed in service before May 13, 1993,  the recovery period is 31. Free file state and federal taxes online 5 years. Free file state and federal taxes online Which Convention Applies? Under MACRS, averaging conventions establish when the recovery period begins and ends. Free file state and federal taxes online The convention you use determines the number of months for which you can claim depreciation in the year you place property in service and in the year you dispose of the property. Free file state and federal taxes online Use one of the following conventions. Free file state and federal taxes online The half-year convention. Free file state and federal taxes online The mid-month convention. Free file state and federal taxes online The mid-quarter convention. Free file state and federal taxes online For a detailed explanation of each convention, see Which Convention Applies in chapter 4 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Also, see the Instructions for Form 4562. Free file state and federal taxes online Which Depreciation Method Applies? MACRS provides three depreciation methods under GDS and one depreciation method under ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online The 200% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online The 150% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online The straight line method over a GDS recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online The straight line method over an ADS recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online Depreciation Table. Free file state and federal taxes online   The following table lists the types of property you can depreciate under each method. Free file state and federal taxes online The declining balance method is abbreviated as DB and the straight line method is abbreviated as SL. Free file state and federal taxes online Depreciation Table System/Method   Type of Property GDS using  150% DB • All property used in a farming business (except real property)   • All 15- and 20-year property   • Nonfarm 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property1 GDS using SL • Nonresidential real property   • Residential rental property   • Trees or vines bearing fruit or nuts   • All 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year property1 ADS using SL • Property used predomi- nantly outside the United States   • Farm property used when an election not to apply the uniform capitalization rules is in effect   • Tax-exempt property   • Tax-exempt bond-financed property   • Imported property2   • Any property for which you elect to use this method1 GDS using  200% DB • Nonfarm 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property 1Elective method 2See section 168(g)(6) of the Internal Revenue  Code Property used in farming business. Free file state and federal taxes online   For personal property placed in service after 1988 in a farming business, you must use the 150% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period or you can elect one of the following methods. Free file state and federal taxes online The straight line method over a GDS recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online The straight line method over an ADS recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online For property placed in service before 1999, you could have elected to use the 150% declining balance method using the ADS recovery periods for certain property classes. Free file state and federal taxes online If you made this election, continue to use the same method and recovery period for that property. Free file state and federal taxes online Real property. Free file state and federal taxes online   You can depreciate real property using the straight line method under either GDS or ADS. Free file state and federal taxes online Switching to straight line. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you use a declining balance method, you switch to the straight line method in the year it provides an equal or greater deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online If you use the MACRS percentage tables, discussed later under How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured , you do not need to determine in which year your deduction is greater using the straight line method. Free file state and federal taxes online The tables have the switch to the straight line method built into their rates. Free file state and federal taxes online Fruit or nut trees and vines. Free file state and federal taxes online   Depreciate trees and vines bearing fruit or nuts under GDS using the straight line method over a 10-year recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online ADS required for some farmers. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you elect not to apply the uniform capitalization rules to any plant shown in Table 6-1 of chapter 6 and produced in your farming business, you must use ADS for all property you place in service in any year the election is in effect. Free file state and federal taxes online See chapter 6 for a discussion of the application of the uniform capitalization rules to farm property. Free file state and federal taxes online Electing a different method. Free file state and federal taxes online   As shown in the Depreciation Table , you can elect a different method for depreciation for certain types of property. Free file state and federal taxes online You must make the election by the due date of the return (including extensions) for the year you placed the property in service. Free file state and federal taxes online However, if you timely filed your return for the year without making the election, you can still make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of your return (excluding extensions). Free file state and federal taxes online Attach the election to the amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. Free file state and federal taxes online 9100-2” on the election statement. Free file state and federal taxes online File the amended return at the same address you filed the original return. Free file state and federal taxes online Once you make the election, you cannot change it. Free file state and federal taxes online    If you elect to use a different method for one item in a property class, you must apply the same method to all property in that class placed in service during the year of the election. Free file state and federal taxes online However, you can make the election on a property-by-property basis for residential rental and nonresidential real property. Free file state and federal taxes online Straight line election. Free file state and federal taxes online   Instead of using the declining balance method, you can elect to use the straight line method over the GDS recovery period. Free file state and federal taxes online Make the election by entering “S/L” under column (f) in Part III of Form 4562. Free file state and federal taxes online ADS election. Free file state and federal taxes online   As explained earlier under Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies , you can elect to use ADS even though your property may come under GDS. Free file state and federal taxes online ADS uses the straight line method of depreciation over the ADS recovery periods, which are generally longer than the GDS recovery periods. Free file state and federal taxes online The ADS recovery periods for many assets used in the business of farming are listed in Table 7–1. Free file state and federal taxes online Additional ADS recovery periods for other classes of property may be found in the Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods in Appendix B of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured? To figure your depreciation deduction under MACRS, you first determine the depreciation system, property class, placed-in-service date, basis amount, recovery period, convention, and depreciation method that applies to your property. Free file state and federal taxes online Then you are ready to figure your depreciation deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online You can figure it in one of two ways. Free file state and federal taxes online You can use the percentage tables provided by the IRS. Free file state and federal taxes online You can figure your own deduction without using the tables. Free file state and federal taxes online Figuring your own MACRS deduction will generally result in a slightly different amount than using the tables. Free file state and federal taxes online Using the MACRS Percentage Tables To help you figure your deduction under MACRS, the IRS has established percentage tables that incorporate the applicable convention and depreciation method. Free file state and federal taxes online These percentage tables are in Appendix A of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Rules for using the tables. Free file state and federal taxes online   The following rules cover the use of the percentage tables. Free file state and federal taxes online You must apply the rates in the percentage tables to your property's unadjusted basis. Free file state and federal taxes online Unadjusted basis is the same basis amount you would use to figure gain on a sale but figured without reducing your original basis by any MACRS depreciation taken in earlier years. Free file state and federal taxes online You cannot use the percentage tables for a short tax year. Free file state and federal taxes online See chapter 4 of Publication 946 for information on how to figure the deduction for a short tax year. Free file state and federal taxes online You generally must continue to use them for the entire recovery period of the property. Free file state and federal taxes online You must stop using the tables if you adjust the basis of the property for any reason other than— Depreciation allowed or allowable, or An addition or improvement to the property, which is depreciated as a separate property. Free file state and federal taxes online Basis adjustment due to casualty loss. Free file state and federal taxes online   If you reduce the basis of your property because of a casualty, you cannot continue to use the percentage tables. Free file state and federal taxes online For the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, you must figure the depreciation yourself using the property's adjusted basis at the end of the year. Free file state and federal taxes online See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables in chapter 4 of Publication 946. Free file state and federal taxes online Figuring depreciation using the 150% DB method and half-year convention. Free file state and federal taxes online    Table 7-2 has the percentages for 3-, 5-, 7-, and 20-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online The percentages are based on the 150% declining balance method with a change to the straight line method. Free file state and federal taxes online This table covers only the half-year convention and the first 8 years for 20-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online See Appendix A in Publication 946 for complete MACRS tables, including tables for the mid-quarter and mid-month convention. Free file state and federal taxes online   The following examples show how to figure depreciation under MACRS using the percentages in Table 7-2 . Free file state and federal taxes online Example 1. Free file state and federal taxes online During the year, you bought an item of 7-year property for $10,000 and placed it in service. Free file state and federal taxes online You do not elect a section 179 expense deduction for this property. Free file state and federal taxes online In addition, the property is not qualified property for purposes of the special depreciation allowance. Free file state and federal taxes online The unadjusted basis of the property is $10,000. Free file state and federal taxes online You use the percentages in Table 7-2 to figure your deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online Since this is 7-year property, you multiply $10,000 by 10. Free file state and federal taxes online 71% to get this year's depreciation of $1,071. Free file state and federal taxes online For next year, your depreciation will be $1,913 ($10,000 × 19. Free file state and federal taxes online 13%). Free file state and federal taxes online Example 2. Free file state and federal taxes online You had a barn constructed on your farm at a cost of $20,000. Free file state and federal taxes online You placed the barn in service this year. Free file state and federal taxes online You elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. Free file state and federal taxes online The barn is 20-year property and you use the table percentages to figure your deduction. Free file state and federal taxes online You figure this year's depreciation by multiplying $20,000 (unadjusted basis) by 3. Free file state and federal taxes online 75% to get $750. Free file state and federal taxes online For next year, your depreciation will be $1,443. Free file state and federal taxes online 80 ($20,000 × 7. Free file state and federal taxes online 219%). Free file state and federal taxes online Table 7-2. Free file state and federal taxes online 150% Declining Balance Method (Half-Year Convention) Year 3-Year 5-Year 7-Year 20-Year 1 25. Free file state and federal taxes online 0 % 15. Free file state and federal taxes online 00 % 10. Free file state and federal taxes online 71 % 3. Free file state and federal taxes online 750 % 2 37. Free file state and federal taxes online 5   25. Free file state and federal taxes online 50   19. Free file state and federal taxes online 13   7. Free file state and federal taxes online 219   3 25. Free file state and federal taxes online 0   17. Free file state and federal taxes online 85   15. Free file state and federal taxes online 03   6. Free file state and federal taxes online 677   4 12. Free file state and federal taxes online 5   16. Free file state and federal taxes online 66   12. Free file state and federal taxes online 25   6. Free file state and federal taxes online 177   5     16. Free file state and federal taxes online 66   12. Free file state and federal taxes online 25   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 713   6     8. Free file state and federal taxes online 33   12. Free file state and federal taxes online 25   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 285   7         12. Free file state and federal taxes online 25   4. Free file state and federal taxes online 888   8         6. Free file state and federal taxes online 13   4. Free file state and federal taxes online 522   Figuring depreciation using the straight line method and half-year convention. Free file state and federal taxes online   The following table has the straight line percentages for 3-, 5-, 7-, and 20-year property using the half-year convention. Free file state and federal taxes online The table covers only the first 8 years for 20-year property. Free file state and federal taxes online See Appendix A in Publication 946 for complete MACRS tables, including tables for the mid-quarter and mid-month convention. Free file state and federal taxes online Table 7-3. Free file state and federal taxes online Straight Line Method (Half-Year Convention) Year 3-Year 5-Year 7-Year 20-Year 1 16. Free file state and federal taxes online 67 % 10 % 7. Free file state and federal taxes online 14 % 2. Free file state and federal taxes online 5 % 2 33. Free file state and federal taxes online 33   20   14. Free file state and federal taxes online 29   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 0   3 33. Free file state and federal taxes online 33   20   14. Free file state and federal taxes online 29   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 0   4 16. Free file state and federal taxes online 67   20   14. Free file state and federal taxes online 28   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 0   5     20   14. Free file state and federal taxes online 29   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 0   6     10   14. Free file state and federal taxes online 28   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 0   7         14. Free file state and federal taxes online 29   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 0   8         7. Free file state and federal taxes online 14   5. Free file state and federal taxes online 0    
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National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK)

Amtrak, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, provides intercity rail passenger service.

Contact the Agency or Department

Website: National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK)

Address: 60 Massachusetts Avenue, NE
Washington, DC 20002

Phone Number: (202) 906-3000

Toll-free: (800) USA-RAIL (800-872-7245)

TTY: (800) 523-6590

The Free File State And Federal Taxes Online

Free file state and federal taxes online Publication 547(SP) - Main Content Table of Contents Hecho FortuitoMascota de la familia. Free file state and federal taxes online Deterioro progresivo. Free file state and federal taxes online Procedimiento Especial Correspondiente a Daños Ocasionados por Paneles de Yeso (Drywall) Corrosivos Robo Pérdidas de Depósitos Monetarios Comprobación de las Pérdidas Cómo Calcular una PérdidaGanancias por reembolsos. Free file state and federal taxes online Propiedad comercial o de generación de ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida de inventario. Free file state and federal taxes online Propiedad alquilada. Free file state and federal taxes online Excepción en el caso de bienes inmuebles de uso personal. Free file state and federal taxes online Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado Base Ajustada Seguro y Otros Reembolsos Límites de la DeducciónRegla del 2% Regla de los $100 Regla del 10% Cómo Calcular la Deducción Cómo Calcular una GananciaAplazamiento de la Declaración de una Ganancia Cuándo Declarar Pérdidas y GananciasPérdidas de depósitos monetarios. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida del inquilino. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdidas en Zonas de DesastrePérdida de inventario por desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online Vivienda principal en una zona de desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online Vivienda inhabitable. Free file state and federal taxes online Plazo límite para escoger una opción. Free file state and federal taxes online Revocación de opción. Free file state and federal taxes online Cómo calcular la deducción de pérdidas. Free file state and federal taxes online Cómo declarar la pérdida en el Formulario 1040X. Free file state and federal taxes online Documentación. Free file state and federal taxes online ¿Necesita una copia de la declaración de impuestos del año anterior? Plazos Tributarios Aplazados Cómo Comunicarse con la Agencia Federal para el Manejo de Emergencias (FEMA) Cómo Declarar Pérdidas y GananciasBienes que tiene en su propiedad por un año o menos. Free file state and federal taxes online Bienes que tiene en su propiedad más de un año. Free file state and federal taxes online Bienes depreciables. Free file state and federal taxes online Ajustes a la Base Si las Deducciones son Mayores que el Ingreso Cómo Obtener Ayuda con los ImpuestosTalleres para Contribuyentes de Bajos Ingresos Hecho Fortuito Un hecho fortuito es el daño, destrucción o pérdida de propiedad ocasionado por un acontecimiento identificable y repentino, inesperado o poco común. Free file state and federal taxes online Un acontecimiento repentino es aquél que ocurre rápidamente; no es paulatino ni progresivo. Free file state and federal taxes online Un acontecimiento inesperado es aquél que comúnmente no se anticipa ni es intencionado. Free file state and federal taxes online Un acontecimiento poco común es aquél que no ocurre a diario y no es algo típico dentro de las actividades que usted realiza. Free file state and federal taxes online Generalmente, las pérdidas por hechos fortuitos son deducibles durante el año tributario en el cual ocurrió la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea la Tabla 3, más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdidas deducibles. Free file state and federal taxes online   Las pérdidas deducibles por hechos fortuitos pueden deberse a diversas causas, entre ellas: Accidentes automovilísticos (vea las excepciones en el tema presentado a continuación, Pérdidas no deducibles ). Free file state and federal taxes online Terremotos. Free file state and federal taxes online Incendios (vea las excepciones en el tema presentado a continuación, Pérdidas no deducibles ). Free file state and federal taxes online Inundaciones. Free file state and federal taxes online La demolición o reubicación, por orden del gobierno, de una vivienda inhabitable debido a un desastre según se explica en la sección Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre , más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online Hundimientos de minas. Free file state and federal taxes online Naufragios. Free file state and federal taxes online Estallido sónico. Free file state and federal taxes online Tormentas, incluidos huracanes y tornados. Free file state and federal taxes online Ataques terroristas. Free file state and federal taxes online Vandalismo. Free file state and federal taxes online Erupciones volcánicas. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdidas no deducibles. Free file state and federal taxes online   Una pérdida por hecho fortuito no es deducible si el daño o la destrucción ha sido causado por: La rotura accidental de artículos como vasos o vajilla fina en condiciones normales. Free file state and federal taxes online Una mascota de familia (como se explica más adelante). Free file state and federal taxes online Un incendio, si usted deliberadamente lo inicia o le paga a alguien para que lo inicie. Free file state and federal taxes online Un accidente automovilístico si éste es causado por su negligencia o acto deliberado. Free file state and federal taxes online Esto también es aplicable si el acto o negligencia de otra persona que actúe en su nombre causan el accidente. Free file state and federal taxes online Deterioro progresivo (explicado a continuación). Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, vea Procedimiento Especial Correspondiente a Daños Ocasionados por Paneles de Yeso (Drywall) Corrosivos , más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online Mascota de la familia. Free file state and federal taxes online   La pérdida de bienes debido a daños causados por una mascota de la familia no es deducible como pérdida por hecho fortuito a menos que se cumplan los requisitos indicados anteriormente bajo Hecho Fortuito . Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Antes de acostumbrarse a su casa, su nuevo cachorro causó daños a su alfombra oriental antigua. Free file state and federal taxes online Debido a que los daños no fueron inesperados ni fuera de lo común, la pérdida resultante no se puede deducir como pérdida por hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Deterioro progresivo. Free file state and federal taxes online   La pérdida de bienes por causa de deterioro progresivo no es deducible como hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Esto se debe a que el daño ocurre como resultado de un funcionamiento permanente o un proceso normal, en lugar de ser resultado de un acontecimiento repentino. Free file state and federal taxes online A continuación se presentan algunos ejemplos de daños producidos por el deterioro progresivo: El debilitamiento continuo de un edificio debido al viento normal y las condiciones del tiempo. Free file state and federal taxes online El deterioro y daño causados a un calentador de agua que explota. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, el óxido y el daño por el agua a alfombras y cortinas al explotar el calentador, sí se considera hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online La mayoría de las pérdidas de bienes por motivo de sequía. Free file state and federal taxes online Para que una pérdida relacionada con sequía sea deducible, por lo general, tiene que ocurrir durante un oficio o negocio o alguna transacción en la que se participe con fines de lucro. Free file state and federal taxes online Daño por termitas o polilla. Free file state and federal taxes online El daño o destrucción de árboles, arbustos u otras plantas causado por hongos, enfermedades, insectos, gusanos o pestes similares. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, si ocurre una destrucción repentina debido a una infestación poco común de escarabajos u otros insectos, ésta puede dar lugar a una pérdida por hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Procedimiento Especial Correspondiente a Daños Ocasionados por Paneles de Yeso (Drywall) Corrosivos Conforme a un procedimiento especial, puede deducir los costos para reparar los daños causados a su vivienda y sus electrodomésticos por paneles de yeso corrosivos. Free file state and federal taxes online Conforme a este procedimiento, los costos de reparaciones se consideran pérdida por hecho fortuito en el año en el que usted los pague. Free file state and federal taxes online Por ejemplo, los costos de reparaciones que pagó en 2013 son deducibles en su declaración de impuestos de 2013 y los costos de reparaciones que pagó en 2012 son deducibles en su declaración de impuestos de 2012. Free file state and federal taxes online Nota. Free file state and federal taxes online Si usted pagó los costos de reparaciones antes de 2013 y elige seguir este procedimiento especial, puede enmendar su declaración del año anterior utilizando el Formulario 1040X, Amended U. Free file state and federal taxes online S. Free file state and federal taxes online Individual Income Tax Return (Declaración Enmendada de Impuestos sobre el Ingreso Personal de los Estados Unidos), en inglés y adjunte el Formulario 4684 para el año apropiado. Free file state and federal taxes online Puede obtener el Formulario 4684 para el año apropiado en IRS. Free file state and federal taxes online gov. Free file state and federal taxes online Generalmente, el Formulario 1040X se tiene que presentar dentro de 3 años después de la fecha en que presentó la declaración de impuestos original o dentro de 2 años después de la fecha en que pagó los impuestos, lo que ocurra por último. Free file state and federal taxes online Paneles de Yeso (Drywall) Corrosivos. Free file state and federal taxes online   Para los propósitos de este procedimiento especial el término “paneles de yeso (drywall) corrosivos” quiere decir paneles de yeso que han sido identificados como paneles de yeso problemáticos bajo el método de identificación de dos etapas que es publicado por la Comisión de Seguridad de Productos del Consumidor de los Estados Unidos (CPSC, por sus siglas en inglés) y el Departamento de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano de los Estados Unidos (HUD, por sus siglas en inglés) en su guía interina con fecha del 28 de enero de 2010, según las revisiones del CPSC y HUD. Free file state and federal taxes online La guía revisada de identificación y medidas correctivas está disponible en: www. Free file state and federal taxes online cpsc. Free file state and federal taxes online gov/Safety-Education/Safety-Education-Centers/Drywall. Free file state and federal taxes online Instrucciones especiales para completar el Formulario 4684. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si usted elige seguir este procedimiento especial, complete la Sección A del Formulario 4684, de acuerdo con las instrucciones siguientes. Free file state and federal taxes online El IRS no disputará su posición de tratar los daños que sufrió por paneles de yeso (drywall) corrosivos como una pérdida por hecho fortuito si usted calcula y declara la pérdida según se explica a continuación: Margen de arriba del Formulario 4684. Free file state and federal taxes online   Anote en inglés “Revenue Procedure 2010-36” (Procedimiento Tributario 2010-36). Free file state and federal taxes online Línea 1. Free file state and federal taxes online   Anote la información requerida por las instrucciones de la línea 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Línea 2. Free file state and federal taxes online   Ignore esta línea. Free file state and federal taxes online Línea 3. Free file state and federal taxes online   Anote la cantidad de reembolsos que recibió de su seguro, u otros reembolsos que recibió (incluyendo por algún litigio). Free file state and federal taxes online De no haber ninguna, anote -0-. Free file state and federal taxes online Líneas 4-7. Free file state and federal taxes online   Ignore estas líneas. Free file state and federal taxes online Línea 8. Free file state and federal taxes online   Anote la cantidad que pagó para reparar los daños causados a su vivienda y sus electrodomésticos por paneles de yeso corrosivos. Free file state and federal taxes online Anote solamente la cantidad que pagó para restaurar su vivienda a la condición que existía inmediatamente antes de los daños. Free file state and federal taxes online No incorpore ninguna cantidad que pagó para mejoras o ampliaciones que aumentaron el valor de su vivienda hasta un monto mayor al valor de la misma antes de la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Si usted repuso un aparato electrodoméstico en vez de repararlo, anote la cantidad que sea menor: El costo actual para reponer el aparato electrodoméstico original o La base del aparato electrodoméstico (generalmente es el costo). Free file state and federal taxes online Línea 9. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si la línea 8 es mayor que la línea 3, siga una de las instrucciones que aparecen a continuación: Si tiene una reclamación de reembolso pendiente (o piensa solicitar un reembolso), anote el 75% de la diferencia entre las líneas 3 y 8. Free file state and federal taxes online Si el punto (1) no le corresponde, anote la cantidad entera de la diferencia entre las líneas 3 y 8. Free file state and federal taxes online Si la cantidad en la línea 8 es menor o igual a la cantidad de la línea 3, usted no puede reclamar una deducción por pérdidas fortuitas usando este procedimiento especial. Free file state and federal taxes online    Si tiene una reclamación de reembolso pendiente (o piensa solicitar un reembolso), es posible que tenga ingresos o una deducción adicional en un año tributario posterior dependiendo de la cantidad exacta del reembolso que recibió. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea el tema Reembolso Recibido Después de la Deducción de una Pérdida , más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online Líneas 10-18. Free file state and federal taxes online   Complete estas líneas según las instrucciones del Formulario 4684. Free file state and federal taxes online Si elige no seguir este procedimiento especial. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si elige no seguir este procedimiento especial, estará sujeto a todas las disposiciones que corresponden a la deducción de las pérdidas fortuitas, y tiene que completar las líneas 1 al 9 según las instrucciones del Formulario 4684. Free file state and federal taxes online Esto quiere decir, por ejemplo, que tiene que establecer que el daño, destrucción, o pérdida de propiedad fue ocasionado por un acontecimiento identificable como se explica anteriormente en la sección titulada Hecho Fortuito . Free file state and federal taxes online Además, tiene que tener pruebas que indiquen lo siguiente: La pérdida es deducible en el año que usted la reclama y no en ningún otro año. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea Cuándo Declarar Pérdidas y Ganancias , más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online La cantidad de la pérdida reclamada. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea, Comprobación de las Pérdidas , más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online No existe una reclamación de reembolso por ninguna parte de la pérdida para la cual hay una perspectiva razonable de recuperación. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea, Cuándo Declarar Pérdidas y Ganancias , más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online Robo Un robo es el acto de tomar y sacar dinero o bienes con la intención de privar al dueño de éstos. Free file state and federal taxes online Tomar los bienes tiene que ser ilegal conforme a las leyes del estado donde el robo tuvo lugar y tiene que haberse realizado con intenciones delictivas. Free file state and federal taxes online No es necesario indicar una condena por robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Un robo incluye tomar dinero o bienes a través de los siguientes medios: Chantaje. Free file state and federal taxes online Robo con allanamiento. Free file state and federal taxes online Malversación de fondos. Free file state and federal taxes online Extorsión. Free file state and federal taxes online Secuestro para exigir rescate. Free file state and federal taxes online Hurto. Free file state and federal taxes online Robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Tomar dinero o bienes mediante fraude o declaraciones falsas constituye robo si es un acto ilegal conforme a las leyes estatales o locales. Free file state and federal taxes online Disminución del valor de mercado de acciones. Free file state and federal taxes online   No puede deducir como pérdida por robo la disminución del valor de las acciones que haya adquirido en el mercado abierto con fines de inversión si dicha disminución es causada por la revelación de un fraude contable u otro tipo de conducta ilegal por parte de los funcionarios o directores de la entidad que emitió las acciones. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, puede deducir como pérdida de capital la pérdida que haya tenido al vender o intercambiar las acciones o si éstas pierden totalmente su valor. Free file state and federal taxes online Se declara una pérdida de capital en el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online Para obtener más información sobre la venta de acciones, acciones sin valor y pérdidas de capital, vea el capítulo 4 de la Publicación 550 (disponible en inglés). Free file state and federal taxes online Bienes extraviados o perdidos. Free file state and federal taxes online    La simple desaparición de dinero o bienes no constituye un robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, una pérdida o desaparición accidental de bienes puede considerarse hecho fortuito si es el resultado de un acontecimiento identificable que ocurre de manera repentina, inesperada o poco común. Free file state and federal taxes online Los acontecimientos repentinos, inesperados y poco comunes se definen en la sección anterior titulada Hecho Fortuito . Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online La puerta de un automóvil se cierra accidentalmente golpeándole la mano, rompiendo el engaste de su anillo de diamante. Free file state and federal taxes online El diamante se cae del anillo y nunca lo encuentra. Free file state and federal taxes online La pérdida del diamante es un hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdidas provenientes de esquemas de inversión de tipo Ponzi (Ponzi-type schemes). Free file state and federal taxes online   El IRS ha publicado la siguiente información para brindar ayuda a los contribuyentes que hayan sufrido pérdidas por esquemas de inversión de tipo Ponzi: el Reglamento Tributario (Revenue Ruling) 2009-9, 2009-14 I. Free file state and federal taxes online R. Free file state and federal taxes online B. Free file state and federal taxes online 735 (disponible en el sitio www. Free file state and federal taxes online irs. Free file state and federal taxes online gov/irb/2009-14_IRB/ar07. Free file state and federal taxes online html). Free file state and federal taxes online el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20, 2009-14 I. Free file state and federal taxes online R. Free file state and federal taxes online B. Free file state and federal taxes online 749 (disponible en el sitio www. Free file state and federal taxes online irs. Free file state and federal taxes online gov/irb/2009-14_IRB/ar11. Free file state and federal taxes online html). Free file state and federal taxes online el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2011-58, 2011-50 I. Free file state and federal taxes online R. Free file state and federal taxes online B. Free file state and federal taxes online 847 (disponible en el sitio www. Free file state and federal taxes online irs. Free file state and federal taxes online gov/irb/2011-50_IRB/ar11. Free file state and federal taxes online html). Free file state and federal taxes online Si reúne los requisitos y opta por seguir los procedimientos indicados en el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20, según modificado por el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2011-58, primero debe completar la Sección C del Formulario 4684, en inglés, para determinar la cantidad a entrar en la línea 28 de la Sección B. Free file state and federal taxes online No complete las líneas 19 a la 27, pero debe completar las líneas 29 a la 39 de la Sección B, según corresponda. Free file state and federal taxes online La Sección C reemplaza al Anexo A del Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20. Free file state and federal taxes online No necesita completar el Anexo A. Free file state and federal taxes online Para información adicional, vea el reglamento tributario,los procedimientos tributarios mencionados anteriormente y las instrucciones para el Formulario 4686, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si escoge no utilizar el procedimiento del Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2009-20, según modificado por el Procedimiento Tributario (Revenue Procedure) 2011-58, usted puede declarar su pérdida por robo completando las líneas 19 a la 39 de la Sección B, según corresponda. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdidas de Depósitos Monetarios Una pérdida de depósitos monetarios puede ocurrir cuando un banco, cooperativa de crédito u otra institución financiera se declara insolvente o en quiebra (bancarrota). Free file state and federal taxes online Si usted ha sufrido este tipo de pérdida, puede escoger uno de los métodos siguientes para deducir dicha pérdida: Pérdida por hechos fortuitos. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida ordinaria. Free file state and federal taxes online Deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida ordinaria o por hechos fortuitos. Free file state and federal taxes online   Tiene la opción de deducir una pérdida de depósitos como hecho fortuito o como pérdida ordinaria cualquier año en el que pueda calcular de manera razonable la cantidad de depósitos que ha perdido en una institución insolvente o en quiebra. Free file state and federal taxes online Generalmente, puede elegir esta opción cuando presente su declaración de impuestos de ese año y es aplicable a todas las pérdidas de depósitos que haya tenido ese año y en esa institución financiera en particular. Free file state and federal taxes online Si considera dicha situación una pérdida por hecho fortuito o pérdida ordinaria, no puede considerar la misma cantidad de la pérdida como deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios cuando dicha cantidad pierda su valor total. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, sí puede tomar una deducción por deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios por todo monto de pérdida cuyo valor sea mayor a la cantidad estimada que dedujo como pérdida por hecho fortuito o pérdida ordinaria. Free file state and federal taxes online Una vez que haya elegido su opción, no podrá cambiarla sin previa autorización del Servicio de Impuestos Internos. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si declara una pérdida ordinaria, reclámela como una deducción miscelánea detallada en la línea 23 del Anexo A (Formulario 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online La cantidad máxima que puede reclamar es $20,000 ($10,000 si es casado y presenta la declaración por separado), menos las ganancias que espere recibir de algún seguro estatal. Free file state and federal taxes online El monto de la pérdida está sujeto al límite del 2% del ingreso bruto ajustado. Free file state and federal taxes online No puede declarar una pérdida ordinaria si alguna parte de dichos depósitos está asegurada por el gobierno federal. Free file state and federal taxes online Deudas incobrables no relacionadas con los negocios. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si decide no deducir la pérdida como pérdida por hecho fortuito o pérdida ordinaria, tendrá que esperar hasta el año en que se determine la pérdida real y entonces deducirla en ese año como deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios. Free file state and federal taxes online Cómo se declaran las pérdidas de depósitos monetarios. Free file state and federal taxes online   El tipo de deducción que escoja para su pérdida de depósitos determinará cómo debe declarar su pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea la Tabla 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Tabla 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Cómo Declarar la Pérdida de Depósitos Monetarios SI decide declarar la pérdida como. Free file state and federal taxes online . Free file state and federal taxes online . Free file state and federal taxes online   ENTONCES declárela en el. Free file state and federal taxes online . Free file state and federal taxes online . Free file state and federal taxes online hecho fortuito   Formulario 4684 y Anexo A  (Formulario 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online pérdida ordinaria   Anexo A (Formulario 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online deuda incobrable no relacionada con los negocios   Formulario 8949 y Anexo D (Formulario 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online Información adicional. Free file state and federal taxes online   Para más información, vea la sección de las instrucciones del Formulario 4684 titulada Special Treatment for Losses on Deposits in Insolvent or Bankrupt Financial Institutions (Trato especial para casos de pérdidas de depósitos monetarios en instituciones financieras insolventes o en quiebra), en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Recuperación de pérdida deducida. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si logra recuperar alguna suma que haya deducido como pérdida en un año anterior, es posible que tenga que incluir esa suma como ingresos para el año en que la recuperó. Free file state and federal taxes online Si alguna parte de la deducción original no redujo sus impuestos para un año anterior, no tiene que incluir la parte del dinero recuperado en sus ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online Para más información, vea la sección titulada Recoveries (Recuperación de fondos), en la Publicación 525, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Comprobación de las Pérdidas Para poder deducir una pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo, tiene que poder demostrar que dicho hecho fortuito o robo ocurrió. Free file state and federal taxes online También tiene que poder demostrar la cantidad que declare como deducción según se explica a continuación. Free file state and federal taxes online Comprobación de las pérdidas por hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si existe una pérdida por hecho fortuito, debe demostrar todo lo siguiente: El tipo de hecho fortuito (accidente automovilístico, incendio, tormenta, etc. Free file state and federal taxes online ) y la fecha en que ocurrió. Free file state and federal taxes online Que la pérdida ocurrió como resultado directo de dicho hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Que usted era dueño de los bienes o, si los alquilaba de otra persona, tenía la responsabilidad contractual ante el dueño por los daños. Free file state and federal taxes online Si existe una solicitud de reembolso con expectativas razonables de recibirlo. Free file state and federal taxes online Comprobación de las pérdidas por robo. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si existe una pérdida por robo, debe poder demostrar los siguientes puntos: La fecha en la que descubrió que sus bienes habían desaparecido. Free file state and federal taxes online Que sus bienes fueron robados. Free file state and federal taxes online Que usted era el dueño de dichos bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online Si existe una solicitud de reembolso con expectativas razonables de recibirlo. Free file state and federal taxes online    Es importante que tenga la documentación necesaria que justifique (compruebe) el monto de la deducción. Free file state and federal taxes online Si no tiene documentos que corroboren o comprueben dicha deducción, puede usar otro tipo de pruebas satisfactorias para estos efectos. Free file state and federal taxes online Cómo Calcular una Pérdida Para determinar la deducción a incluir en caso de pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo, primero tiene que calcular la pérdida misma. Free file state and federal taxes online Cantidad de la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online   Calcule el monto de la pérdida utilizando los pasos siguientes: Determine la base ajustada de los bienes antes de haber ocurrido el hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Determine la reducción del valor justo de mercado de los bienes a causa del hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online De la cantidad más baja entre las cantidades de los puntos (1) y (2), reste el monto de cualquier otro seguro o reembolso que haya recibido o espere recibir. Free file state and federal taxes online En el caso de bienes de uso personal y bienes utilizados durante la prestación de servicios como empleado, aplique los límites de la deducción que se explican más adelante para calcular la cantidad de pérdida que puede deducir. Free file state and federal taxes online Ganancias por reembolsos. Free file state and federal taxes online   Se tiene una ganancia si el reembolso es mayor que la base ajustada de los bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online Esto ocurre aun cuando la disminución del valor justo de mercado de los bienes es menor que la base ajustada. Free file state and federal taxes online Si obtiene una ganancia, posiblemente tenga que pagar impuestos sobre esa cantidad o tal vez pueda posponer la declaración de dicha ganancia. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea Cómo Calcular una Ganancia , más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online Propiedad comercial o de generación de ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si es dueño de una propiedad comercial o de generación de ingresos, como una propiedad de alquiler, y ésta es robada o destruida totalmente, no se tendrá en cuenta su disminución del valor justo de mercado. Free file state and federal taxes online La pérdida se calculará de la siguiente forma:   Base ajustada en la propiedad     MENOS     Todo valor residual     MENOS     Todo seguro o reembolso que  reciba o espere recibir   Pérdida de inventario. Free file state and federal taxes online   Existen dos maneras de deducir una pérdida de inventario por hecho fortuito o robo, incluyendo artículos que tenga para la venta al público. Free file state and federal taxes online   Una manera es deducir la pérdida a través del aumento del costo de los bienes vendidos, declarando debidamente el inventario inicial y el inventario de cierre. Free file state and federal taxes online No vuelva a declarar esta pérdida como pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Si toma la pérdida mediante el aumento del costo de mercancías o artículos vendidos, incluya todo seguro u otros reembolsos que reciba por dicha pérdida en sus ingresos brutos. Free file state and federal taxes online   La otra manera es deducir la pérdida aparte. Free file state and federal taxes online Si la deduce de esta manera, elimine los artículos de inventario que se vean afectados del costo de mercancías o artículos vendidos, efectuando un ajuste a la disminución del inventario inicial o compras. Free file state and federal taxes online Reduzca la pérdida por el reembolso que reciba. Free file state and federal taxes online No incluya el reembolso en los ingresos brutos. Free file state and federal taxes online Si no recibe el reembolso para fines de año, no podrá declarar una pérdida mientras tenga una perspectiva razonable de recuperación. Free file state and federal taxes online Propiedad alquilada. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si es responsable de los daños causados por hecho fortuito a una propiedad que alquila, su pérdida es la cantidad que tiene que pagar para reparar la propiedad menos todo seguro u otro reembolso que reciba o espere recibir. Free file state and federal taxes online Cálculos separados. Free file state and federal taxes online   Por lo general, si un solo hecho fortuito o robo afecta más de un artículo de propiedad, tiene que calcular por separado la pérdida de cada artículo. Free file state and federal taxes online Luego, sume las pérdidas para determinar el monto total de pérdida de ese hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Excepción en el caso de bienes inmuebles de uso personal. Free file state and federal taxes online   Al calcular la pérdida de bienes raíces de uso personal por un hecho fortuito, la propiedad completa se trata como un solo artículo (incluyendo toda mejora, como edificios, árboles y arbustos). Free file state and federal taxes online Calcule la pérdida utilizando la cifra más pequeña de las siguientes: La disminución del valor justo de mercado de toda la propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online La base ajustada de toda la propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online   Vea más adelante el tema Bienes inmuebles en la sección titulada Cómo Calcular la Deducción, más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado El valor justo de mercado (FMV, por sus siglas en inglés) es el precio por el cual podría vender sus bienes a un comprador dispuesto a comprar cuando ninguno de los dos tiene que vender o comprar y ambos conocen todos los hechos pertinentes. Free file state and federal taxes online La disminución del valor justo de mercado que se utiliza para calcular el monto de la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo es la diferencia entre el valor justo de mercado de los bienes inmediatamente antes e inmediatamente después de ocurrir el hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Valor justo de mercado de los bienes robados. Free file state and federal taxes online   El valor justo de mercado de bienes inmediatamente después de un robo se considera cero, puesto que usted ya no tiene los bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted compró dólares de plata por un valor nominal de $150 hace varios años. Free file state and federal taxes online Ésta es la base ajustada de esos bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online Este año, le robaron los dólares de plata. Free file state and federal taxes online El valor justo de mercado de las monedas era $1,000 justo antes de ser robadas y no las cubría el seguro. Free file state and federal taxes online Su pérdida por robo es $150. Free file state and federal taxes online Bienes robados recuperados. Free file state and federal taxes online   Los bienes robados recuperados son bienes suyos que le fueron robados y posteriormente devueltos a usted. Free file state and federal taxes online Si recupera bienes después de haber incluido una deducción de pérdida por robo, tiene que volver a calcular la pérdida utilizando la cantidad menor entre la base ajustada de los bienes (la cual se explica más adelante) o la disminución del valor justo de mercado desde el momento inmediatamente antes de que fueran robados hasta el momento en que se recuperaron. Free file state and federal taxes online Use esta cantidad para volver a calcular la pérdida total para el año en el que se dedujo dicha pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si el monto de la pérdida recalculada es menor que la pérdida que dedujo, generalmente tiene que declarar la diferencia como ingresos en el año en que la recuperó. Free file state and federal taxes online Pero declare la diferencia sólo hasta la cantidad de la pérdida que redujo sus impuestos. Free file state and federal taxes online Para obtener más información sobre la cantidad que debe declarar, vea Recoveries (Recuperación de fondos) en la Publicación 525, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Cómo Calcular la Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado —Puntos a Tener en Cuenta Para calcular la disminución del valor justo de mercado debido a un hecho fortuito o robo, por lo general, necesita una tasación competente (fidedigna). Free file state and federal taxes online No obstante, también se pueden emplear otras medidas para establecer ciertas disminuciones. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea los temas Tasaciones y Costos de limpieza y reparaciones presentados a continuación. Free file state and federal taxes online Tasaciones. Free file state and federal taxes online   Un tasador competente debe realizar una tasación para determinar la diferencia entre el valor justo de mercado de la propiedad inmediatamente antes de ocurrir el hecho fortuito o robo e inmediatamente después. Free file state and federal taxes online El tasador tiene que tener en cuenta los efectos de toda disminución general del mercado que pueda ocurrir paralelamente con el hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Esta información es necesaria para limitar cualquier deducción de la pérdida real resultante del daño a la propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online   Existen varios factores importantes para evaluar la exactitud de una tasación, entre ellos: El conocimiento del tasador sobre su propiedad antes y después del hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online El conocimiento del tasador sobre la venta de propiedades similares en esa zona. Free file state and federal taxes online El conocimiento del tasador sobre las condiciones de la zona donde ocurrió el hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online El método de tasación que utilice el tasador. Free file state and federal taxes online Podría usar una tasación utilizada para obtener un préstamo del gobierno federal (o una garantía de préstamo federal) como resultado de un desastre declarado como tal por el gobierno federal para establecer la cantidad de su pérdida por desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online Para obtener más información sobre desastres, vea más adelante la sección titulada Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre . Free file state and federal taxes online Costos de limpieza y reparaciones. Free file state and federal taxes online   El costo de reparar propiedad dañada no es parte de la pérdida por hechos fortuitos. Free file state and federal taxes online Tampoco lo es el costo de la limpieza después de un hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Pero puede utilizar el costo de la limpieza o de hacer reparaciones después de un hecho fortuito como una medida de la disminución del valor justo de mercado si cumple todas las condiciones siguientes: Las reparaciones de hecho se realizan. Free file state and federal taxes online Las reparaciones son necesarias para que la propiedad vuelva a su condición anterior al hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online La cantidad que se gasta en reparaciones no es excesiva. Free file state and federal taxes online Las reparaciones se realizan únicamente para reparar los daños. Free file state and federal taxes online El valor de la propiedad después de efectuadas las reparaciones no es, debido a dichas reparaciones, mayor que el valor de la propiedad antes de ocurrir el hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Jardines. Free file state and federal taxes online   El costo de restaurar jardines a su condición original después de un hecho fortuito podría indicar la disminución del valor justo de mercado. Free file state and federal taxes online Es posible que pueda medir la pérdida según lo que gaste en las siguientes actividades: Sacar árboles y arbustos destruidos o dañados, menos todo artículo salvado que haya recibido. Free file state and federal taxes online Podar y tomar otras medidas a fin de conservar árboles y arbustos dañados. Free file state and federal taxes online Volver a plantar, si es necesario, para restaurar la propiedad a su valor aproximado antes de ocurrir el hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Valor de automóviles. Free file state and federal taxes online   Los libros de diversas organizaciones automovilísticas que incluyan información sobre su automóvil pueden ser útiles para calcular el valor del mismo. Free file state and federal taxes online Puede usar los valores de venta al por menor que aparecen en los libros y modificarlos según factores como el millaje y la condición de su vehículo para calcular el valor del mismo. Free file state and federal taxes online Los precios no son oficiales, pero podrían ser útiles para determinar el valor del auto y sugerir precios relativos que sirvan de comparación con las ventas y ofertas actuales en su zona. Free file state and federal taxes online Si su automóvil no aparece en esos libros, determine el valor basándose en otras fuentes. Free file state and federal taxes online La oferta que reciba de un concesionario por su automóvil como parte del pago por uno nuevo, normalmente no es un cálculo de su valor real. Free file state and federal taxes online Cómo Calcular la Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado —Puntos a No Tener en Cuenta Por lo general, no se deben tener en cuenta los siguientes puntos al calcular la disminución del valor justo de mercado de su propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online Costos de protección. Free file state and federal taxes online   El costo de proteger su propiedad contra un hecho fortuito o robo no es parte de las pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online La suma que gaste para proteger su casa de tormentas, ya sea en seguros o colocando tablones sobre las ventanas, no constituye parte de la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Si la propiedad es propiedad comercial, estos gastos se pueden deducir como gastos de negocios. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si realiza mejoras permanentes en su propiedad para protegerse de un hecho fortuito o robo, agregue el costo de estas mejoras a la base de la propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online Un ejemplo sería el costo de un dique para prevenir inundaciones. Free file state and federal taxes online Excepción. Free file state and federal taxes online   No puede aumentar la base en la propiedad por los gastos que haya tenido en relación a los pagos calificados por mitigación de desastres (explicados más adelante bajo Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre ), ni deducir tales gastos como gastos de negocio. Free file state and federal taxes online Gastos afines. Free file state and federal taxes online   Los gastos imprevistos en los que incurra por causa de un hecho fortuito o robo, como por ejemplo los gastos de tratamiento de lesiones personales, gastos de vivienda temporal o gastos de alquilar un automóvil, no son parte de su pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, pueden ser deducibles como gastos de negocio si la propiedad dañada o robada es propiedad comercial. Free file state and federal taxes online Costos de reposición. Free file state and federal taxes online   Los costos de reposición de bienes robados o destruidos no son parte de la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted compró una silla nueva por $300 hace 4 años. Free file state and federal taxes online En abril, un incendio destruyó la silla. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted calcula que le costaría $500 reponerla. Free file state and federal taxes online Si la hubiera vendido antes del incendio, estima que habría recibido por ella sólo $100, porque la silla tenía 4 años. Free file state and federal taxes online La silla no estaba asegurada. Free file state and federal taxes online Por lo tanto, su pérdida es $100, el valor justo de mercado de la silla antes del incendio, y no los $500 que cuesta reponerla. Free file state and federal taxes online Valor sentimental. Free file state and federal taxes online   No tenga en cuenta el valor sentimental cuando calcule su pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Si un retrato familiar, artículos heredados o recuerdos han sido dañados, destruidos o robados, tiene que basar su pérdida sólo en el valor justo de mercado de estos bienes, según limitada por su base ajustada en la propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online Disminución del valor de mercado de la propiedad en la zona del hecho fortuito o en sus alrededores. Free file state and federal taxes online   No se puede tener en cuenta la disminución del valor de una propiedad por encontrarse en una zona afectada por un hecho fortuito o en los alrededores de esa zona, o en una zona que podría volver a sufrir un hecho de este tipo. Free file state and federal taxes online Su pérdida es sólo por los daños reales a la propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, si su vivienda se encuentra en un área declarada zona de desastre por el gobierno federal, vea más adelante la sección titulada Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre . Free file state and federal taxes online Costos de fotografías y tasaciones. Free file state and federal taxes online   Las fotografías tomadas después de haber ocurrido el hecho fortuito servirán para establecer la condición y el valor de la propiedad después de los daños. Free file state and federal taxes online También serán útiles las fotografías que muestren la condición de la propiedad después de haber sido reparada, restaurada o repuesta. Free file state and federal taxes online   Se usan tasaciones para calcular la disminución del valor justo de mercado por un hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Para obtener información sobre las tasaciones, vea Tasaciones en la sección anterior titulada Cómo Calcular la Disminución del Valor Justo de Mercado —Puntos a Tener en Cuenta. Free file state and federal taxes online   Los costos de fotografías y tasaciones usadas como prueba del valor y condición de la propiedad dañada por causa de un hecho fortuito no son parte de la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Son gastos que le ayudarán a determinar su obligación tributaria. Free file state and federal taxes online Puede declarar estos costos como una deducción miscelánea detallada sujeta al límite del 2% del ingreso bruto ajustado del Anexo A (Formulario 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online Base Ajustada El grado de inversión que tiene en la propiedad que posee es la base. Free file state and federal taxes online En el caso de la propiedad que compre, normalmente la base es lo que le cuesta a usted. Free file state and federal taxes online Si adquiere una propiedad de alguna otra forma, por ejemplo como herencia, regalo o intercambio no tributable, tiene que calcular la base de otra manera, como se explica en la Publicación 551, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Si usted heredó la propiedad de alguien que falleció en 2010 y el albacea del caudal hereditario eligió completar el Formulario 8939, favor de referirse a la información proporcionada por el albacea o vea la Publicación 4895, Tax Treatment of Property Acquired From a Decedent Dying in 2010 (Trato Tributario de la Propiedad Adquirida de un Difunto que Falleció en 2010), en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Ajustes a la base. Free file state and federal taxes online    Durante el tiempo que sea dueño de su propiedad, pueden ocurrir varios sucesos que cambien la base. Free file state and federal taxes online Algunos de estos aumentan la base, como es el caso de ampliaciones o mejoras permanentes a la propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online Otros, como por ejemplo pérdidas por hechos fortuitos y deducciones por depreciación anteriores, disminuyen la base. Free file state and federal taxes online Al sumar los aumentos a la base y restar las disminuciones a la misma, el resultado es la base ajustada. Free file state and federal taxes online Para más información sobre cómo calcular la base de su propiedad, vea la Publicación 551, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Seguro y Otros Reembolsos Si recibe algún pago de un seguro u otro tipo de reembolso, tiene que restar el monto del reembolso al calcular la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online No será pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo la parte que se le reembolse. Free file state and federal taxes online Si espera un reembolso parcial o total de la pérdida, tiene que restar el monto del reembolso esperado cuando calcule la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Tiene que reducir la pérdida aun si no recibe el pago hasta un año tributario posterior. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea más adelante la sección titulada Reembolso Recibido Después de la Deducción de una Pérdida . Free file state and federal taxes online Falta de presentación de una solicitud de reembolso. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si su propiedad está asegurada, tiene que presentar oportunamente al seguro una solicitud de reembolso de la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online De lo contrario, no puede deducir esta pérdida como hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online La parte de la pérdida que generalmente no cubre el seguro no está sujeta a esta regla (por ejemplo, un deducible). Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted tiene una póliza de seguro de automóvil con un deducible de $1,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Como su seguro no cubre los primeros $1,000 de un accidente automovilístico, los $1,000 constituirían una suma deducible (sujeta a la regla de los $100 y la regla del 10% , que se explican más adelante). Free file state and federal taxes online Esto ocurrirá, aun si no presenta una solicitud de reembolso al seguro, ya que su póliza de seguro no le habría reembolsado la suma deducible en ningún caso. Free file state and federal taxes online Tipos de Reembolsos El tipo de reembolso más común es el pago del seguro por bienes robados o dañados. Free file state and federal taxes online A continuación se explican otros tipos de reembolsos. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea también las Instrucciones del Formulario 4684, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Fondo de emergencia del empleador en caso de desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si recibe dinero proveniente del fondo de emergencia de su empleador en caso de desastre y tiene que utilizar ese dinero para arreglar o cambiar bienes sobre los cuales declara una deducción de pérdida por hecho fortuito, tiene que tener en cuenta esa suma cuando calcule dicha deducción. Free file state and federal taxes online Tenga en cuenta sólo la cantidad que utilizó para cambiar los bienes destruidos o dañados. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Su vivienda sufrió daños considerables en un tornado. Free file state and federal taxes online El monto de su pérdida después del reembolso de la compañía de seguros fue de $10,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Su empleador estableció un fondo de ayuda en caso de desastre para los empleados. Free file state and federal taxes online Aquellos empleados que recibieron dinero de ese fondo tuvieron que usarlo para reparar o reponer los bienes que resultaron dañados o destruidos. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted recibió $4,000 como parte de este fondo y gastó toda esa suma haciendo reparaciones en su casa. Free file state and federal taxes online Al calcular su pérdida por hecho fortuito, tiene que restar del total de su pérdida no reembolsada ($10,000) los $4,000 que recibió del fondo de su empleador. Free file state and federal taxes online Por lo tanto, su pérdida por hecho fortuito antes de aplicar los límites de la deducción (que se explican más adelante) es de $6,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Donaciones en efectivo. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si, como víctima de algún desastre, recibe donaciones excluibles en efectivo y no existen límites sobre cómo puede usar el dinero, no puede reducir la pérdida por hecho fortuito con este tipo de donaciones. Free file state and federal taxes online Esto es aplicable aun cuando use el dinero para pagar reparaciones de la propiedad dañada en el desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Su vivienda fue dañada por un huracán. Free file state and federal taxes online Sus familiares y vecinos le dieron donaciones en efectivo excluibles de sus ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted utilizó parte de esas donaciones para realizar reparaciones en su vivienda. Free file state and federal taxes online No hubo límites ni restricciones sobre cómo debía usar ese dinero en efectivo. Free file state and federal taxes online Como era una donación independiente de sus ingresos, el dinero que recibió y usó para pagar esas reparaciones no reduce el monto de la pérdida por hechos fortuitos en su casa dañada. Free file state and federal taxes online Pagos del seguro por gastos de manutención. Free file state and federal taxes online   No reduzca la pérdida por hechos fortuitos con pagos que haya recibido del seguro para cubrir gastos de manutención en cualquiera de las dos situaciones siguientes: Si pierde el uso de su vivienda principal debido a un hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Si las autoridades del gobierno no le permiten acceso a su vivienda principal por causa de un hecho fortuito o por amenaza de que ocurra. Free file state and federal taxes online Inclusión en los ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si estos pagos del seguro son mayores al aumento temporal de sus gastos de manutención, tiene que incluir el excedente en sus ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online Declare esta cantidad en la línea 21 del Formulario 1040. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, si el hecho fortuito tuvo lugar en una zona de desastre declarada por el gobierno federal, ninguno de los pagos del seguro será tributable. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea Pagos calificados para mitigación de desastres en la sección titulada Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre, más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online   El aumento temporal de los gastos de manutención es la diferencia entre los gastos de manutención reales en los que su familia y usted han incurrido durante el período en que no pudieron usar su vivienda y los gastos normales de manutención para ese período. Free file state and federal taxes online Los gastos de manutención reales son aquellos gastos razonables y necesarios en los que se ha incurrido debido a la pérdida de su vivienda principal. Free file state and federal taxes online Por lo general, estos gastos incluyen las cantidades pagadas por: El alquiler de una vivienda adecuada. Free file state and federal taxes online Transporte. Free file state and federal taxes online Alimentos. Free file state and federal taxes online Servicios públicos. Free file state and federal taxes online Servicios misceláneos. Free file state and federal taxes online Los gastos normales de manutención son los gastos en los cuales normalmente hubiera incurrido, pero no lo hizo por haber ocurrido un hecho fortuito o por la amenaza de que uno ocurriera. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted tuvo que abandonar su apartamento durante un mes a causa de un incendio y cambiarse a un motel. Free file state and federal taxes online Normalmente paga $525 al mes de alquiler, pero no tuvo que pagar durante el mes en que el apartamento estuvo desocupado. Free file state and federal taxes online Este mes pagó $1,200 por alojarse en un motel. Free file state and federal taxes online Normalmente paga $200 al mes en alimentación. Free file state and federal taxes online Sus gastos de alimentación durante este mes fueron de $400. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted recibió $1,100 de su compañía de seguros para costear sus gastos de manutención. Free file state and federal taxes online Calcule el pago que tiene que incluir en los ingresos de la siguiente manera: 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Pagos del seguro por gastos de manutención $1,100 2. Free file state and federal taxes online Gastos reales durante el mes en el que no puede habitar en su casa debido al incendio $1,600   3. Free file state and federal taxes online Gastos normales de manutención 725   4. Free file state and federal taxes online Aumento temporal de los  gastos de manutención: reste la línea 3 de la  línea 2 875 5. Free file state and federal taxes online Cantidad del pago que se debe incluir en los ingresos: Reste la línea 4 de la línea 1 $ 225 Año tributario en el cual se incluye la cantidad. Free file state and federal taxes online   La parte del pago del seguro sujeta a impuestos se incluye como ingreso durante el año en que vuelva a hacer uso de su vivienda principal o, si ocurre más adelante, el año en el que reciba la parte tributable del pago del seguro. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online En agosto de 2011, su vivienda principal fue destruida por un tornado. Free file state and federal taxes online En el mes de noviembre de 2012, usted volvió a habitar su vivienda. Free file state and federal taxes online Los pagos que recibió del seguro en los años 2011 y 2012 fueron $1,500 más que el aumento temporal de sus gastos de manutención durante esos 2 años. Free file state and federal taxes online Esta cantidad se incluye como ingreso en el Formulario 1040 de 2012. Free file state and federal taxes online Si durante 2013 recibe pagos adicionales para cubrir los gastos de manutención que tuvo en 2011 y 2012, tiene que incluir esos pagos como ingresos en su Formulario 1040 de 2013. Free file state and federal taxes online Asistencia en caso de desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online   Los alimentos, suministros médicos y otras formas de asistencia que reciba no reducen el monto de pérdida por hechos fortuitos, a menos que sean una reposición de bienes perdidos o destruidos. Free file state and federal taxes online Tabla 2. Free file state and federal taxes online Reglas del Límite de Deducción para los Bienes de Uso Personal y Bienes del Empleado   Regla de los $100 Regla del 10% Regla del 2% Aplicación General Al calcular la deducción, tiene que restar $100 de cada pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla a los bienes de uso personal después de haber calculado el monto de la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Tiene que restar el 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado del total de las pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla a bienes de uso personal después de haber restado $100 de cada pérdida (regla de los $100). Free file state and federal taxes online Tiene que restar el 2% de su ingreso bruto ajustado del total de las pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla a bienes que haya utilizado para prestar servicios como empleado después de haber calculado la cantidad de la pérdida y haberla sumado a los gastos laborales y a la mayoría de otras deducciones misceláneas detalladas. Free file state and federal taxes online Un Solo Suceso Aplique esta regla sólo una vez, aun cuando se haya visto afectado un gran número de bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla sólo una vez, aun cuando se haya visto afectado un gran número de bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla sólo una vez, aun cuando se haya visto afectado un gran número de bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online Más de un Suceso Aplique esta regla a la pérdida derivada de cada suceso. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla al total de pérdidas derivadas de todos los sucesos. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla al total de pérdidas derivadas de todos los sucesos. Free file state and federal taxes online Más de una Persona —  con Pérdidas en el  Mismo Suceso  (que no sea una pareja casada  que presenta una declaración conjunta). Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada persona. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada persona. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada persona. Free file state and federal taxes online Pareja Casada − con Pérdidas en el  Mismo Suceso Presentación de una Declaración Conjunta Aplique esta regla como si fueran una sola persona. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla como si fueran una sola persona. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla como si fueran una sola persona. Free file state and federal taxes online Presentación de una Declaración por Separado Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada cónyuge. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada cónyuge. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada cónyuge. Free file state and federal taxes online Más de un Dueño  (que no sea una pareja casada  que presenta una declaración conjunta) Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada propietario de una misma propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada propietario de una misma propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla independientemente a cada propietario de una misma propiedad. Free file state and federal taxes online    Los pagos calificados de asistencia en caso de desastre que reciba por gastos en los que haya incurrido derivados de un desastre declarado por el gobierno federal, no son ingresos tributables en su caso. Free file state and federal taxes online Para más información, vea más adelante Pagos calificados de asistencia en caso de desastre en la sección titulada Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online   Los pagos de ayuda por desempleo en caso de desastre constituyen beneficios tributables por desempleo. Free file state and federal taxes online   Por lo general, los subsidios de asistencia en caso de desastre que se reciban conforme a la Ley de Robert T. Free file state and federal taxes online Stafford de Asistencia en Caso de Desastre y Emergencia (Robert T. Free file state and federal taxes online Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act) no se incluyen en sus ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea Subsidios federales de asistencia en caso de desastre , en la sección titulada Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online Fondos de préstamos. Free file state and federal taxes online   No reduzca su pérdida por los fondos de un préstamo utilizados para rehabilitar o reemplazar la propiedad para la cual está reclamando la deducción por pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Si usted tiene un préstamo federal que ha sido cancelado (condonado), vea Préstamo Federal cancelado , más adelante, bajo Pérdidas en Zonas de Desastre. Free file state and federal taxes online Reembolso Recibido Después de la Deducción de una Pérdida Si calculó su pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo, utilizando la cantidad del reembolso esperado, es posible que tenga que ajustar su declaración de impuestos para el año tributario en el cual realmente reciba su reembolso. Free file state and federal taxes online Esta sección explica los ajustes que tal vez tenga que realizar. Free file state and federal taxes online Reembolso real menor a la cantidad esperada. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si posteriormente recibe un reembolso menor de lo que esperaba, incluya esa diferencia como pérdida junto con las demás (si las hubiera) en la declaración del año en el cual razonablemente no espere recibir reembolso adicional. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online En el año 2012, su automóvil personal tenía un valor justo de mercado de $2,000 cuando fue destruido en un accidente con otro automóvil. Free file state and federal taxes online El accidente se debió a la negligencia del otro conductor. Free file state and federal taxes online Al final del año 2012, existía una posibilidad razonable de que el dueño del otro vehículo le reembolsara la totalidad de los daños. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted no tuvo una pérdida deducible durante 2012. Free file state and federal taxes online En enero de 2013, los tribunales le adjudicaron $2,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, en el mes de julio está claro que no podrá cobrar cantidad alguna del otro conductor. Free file state and federal taxes online Puesto que ésta es su única pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo, puede deducir la pérdida en 2013, la cual se calcula aplicando los límites de la deducción (los cuales se examinan más adelante). Free file state and federal taxes online Reembolso real mayor a la cantidad esperada. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si posteriormente recibe un reembolso que resulta ser mayor a la cantidad esperada, tras haber solicitado una deducción por la pérdida, puede que tenga que incluir el reembolso adicional en sus ingresos del año en el que lo recibió. Free file state and federal taxes online No obstante, si parte alguna de la deducción original no redujo sus impuestos para el año anterior, no incluya esa parte del reembolso en sus ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online No vuelva a calcular los impuestos para el año en el que solicitó la deducción. Free file state and federal taxes online Para averiguar qué cantidad adicional de reembolso debe incluir en sus ingresos, vea la sección titulada Recoveries (Recuperaciones de fondos) en la Publicación 525, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Un huracán en el año 2012 destruyó su lancha motora. Free file state and federal taxes online La pérdida fue de $3,000 y estimó que su seguro podría cubrir $2,500 de ese total. Free file state and federal taxes online No incluyó deducciones detalladas en su declaración de 2012, de modo que no pudo deducir la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Cuando la compañía de seguros le reembolse dicha pérdida, no debe declarar reembolso alguno como ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online Esto es aplicable aun cuando sea por la totalidad de los $3,000, puesto que no dedujo la pérdida en su declaración del año 2012. Free file state and federal taxes online La pérdida no redujo sus impuestos. Free file state and federal taxes online    Si el total de todos los reembolsos que reciba es mayor a la base ajustada de los bienes destruidos o robados, obtendrá una ganancia a partir del hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online Si ya ha hecho una deducción por una pérdida y recibe ese reembolso posteriormente en otro año, es posible que tenga que incluir la ganancia en sus ingresos por el año posterior. Free file state and federal taxes online Incluya la ganancia como ingreso ordinario hasta el monto de la deducción que redujo sus impuestos el año anterior. Free file state and federal taxes online Es posible que pueda posponer su declaración de cualquier ganancia excedente como se explica más adelante en la sección titulada Aplazamiento de la Declaración de una Ganancia . Free file state and federal taxes online Reembolso real por la cantidad esperada. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si recibe un reembolso por la cantidad exacta que esperaba recibir, no tiene que incluir cantidad alguna en sus ingresos y no puede deducir pérdida adicional alguna. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online En diciembre de 2013, usted tuvo un accidente cuando conducía su automóvil personal. Free file state and federal taxes online Las reparaciones de su automóvil costaron $950. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted tenía $100 como deducible de su seguro contra accidentes. Free file state and federal taxes online Su compañía de seguros aceptó reembolsarle el resto de los daños. Free file state and federal taxes online Como esperaba un reembolso de la compañía de seguros, en el año 2013 no tuvo una deducción de pérdida por hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Debido a la regla de los $100, no puede deducir los $100 que pagó como deducible. Free file state and federal taxes online Cuando reciba los $850 de la compañía de seguros en 2014, no los declare como ingresos. Free file state and federal taxes online Límites de la Deducción Después de calcular la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo, tiene que calcular qué porcentaje de la pérdida puede deducir. Free file state and federal taxes online La deducción de pérdidas por hecho fortuito y robo de bienes del empleado y bienes de uso personal está limitada. Free file state and federal taxes online Una pérdida de bienes del empleado está sujeta a la regla del 2%, la cual se explica a continuación. Free file state and federal taxes online Salvo en determinados casos, una pérdida de bienes de su propiedad y de uso personal está sujeta a las reglas de los $100 y del 10%, explicadas más adelante. Free file state and federal taxes online Las reglas de los $100, del 10% y del 2% también están resumidas en la Tabla 2 . Free file state and federal taxes online Las pérdidas de los bienes comerciales (que no sean bienes del empleado) y de generación de ingresos no están sujetas a estas reglas. Free file state and federal taxes online Sin embargo, si la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo incluyó una vivienda que usaba con fines comerciales o alquilaba a otra persona, su pérdida deducible puede ser limitada. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea la Sección B de las Instrucciones del Formulario 4684, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Si la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo incluyó bienes que se utilizaban en una actividad pasiva, vea el Formulario 8582, Passive Activity Loss Limitations (Limitaciones de pérdida en actividades pasivas), en inglés, y sus respectivas instrucciones. Free file state and federal taxes online Regla del 2% Cuando la deducción de pérdida por hecho fortuito y robo para los bienes del empleado se suma a los gastos laborales y a la mayoría de las demás deducciones misceláneas detalladas en el Anexo A (Formulario 1040 o Formulario 1040NR), dicha deducción tiene que reducirse por el 2% del ingreso bruto ajustado. Free file state and federal taxes online Los bienes del empleado son aquéllos que se utilizan para desempeñar servicios como empleado. Free file state and federal taxes online Regla de los $100 Una vez que haya calculado la pérdida de bienes de uso personal por un hecho fortuito o robo, como se explicó anteriormente, tiene que restar $100 de esa pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Esta reducción es aplicable a cada pérdida total por hecho fortuito o robo. Free file state and federal taxes online No importa el número de bienes afectados en el suceso. Free file state and federal taxes online Sólo será aplicable una sola reducción de $100. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted tiene $750 deducibles en el seguro contra accidentes de su automóvil. Free file state and federal taxes online El automóvil resultó dañado en un accidente. Free file state and federal taxes online La compañía de seguros le paga los daños menos el deducible de $750. Free file state and federal taxes online El monto de la pérdida por hecho fortuito se basa únicamente en el deducible. Free file state and federal taxes online La pérdida por hecho fortuito es $650 ($750 – $100), puesto que los primeros $100 de una pérdida por hecho fortuito no son deducibles en el caso de bienes de uso personal. Free file state and federal taxes online Un solo suceso. Free file state and federal taxes online   Por lo general, los sucesos que están estrechamente relacionados en cuanto a origen causan un solo hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Se considera un solo hecho fortuito cuando el daño se deriva de dos o más causas directamente relacionadas, como por ejemplo, daños por viento e inundaciones provocados por la misma tormenta. Free file state and federal taxes online Un solo hecho fortuito también puede ocasionar daños a dos o más bienes, como es el caso de una tormenta de granizo, que provoca daños a su vivenda y al automóvil estacionado en la entrada de su vivienda. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Una tormenta eléctrica destruyó su barco. Free file state and federal taxes online Durante la tormenta, también perdió equipo de navegación. Free file state and federal taxes online Su pérdida fue $5,000 del barco y $1,200 del equipo. Free file state and federal taxes online La compañía de seguros le reembolsó $4,500 por el daño al barco. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted no tenía cobertura de seguro para el equipo de navegación. Free file state and federal taxes online Su pérdida por hecho fortuito equivale a la de un solo suceso y se aplica la regla de $100 sólo una vez. Free file state and federal taxes online Calcule su pérdida antes de aplicar la regla del 10% (detallada más adelante) como se explica a continuación:     Barco Equipo 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida $5,000 $1,200 2. Free file state and federal taxes online Reste la cantidad del seguro 4,500 -0- 3. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida después del reembolso $ 500 $1,200 4. Free file state and federal taxes online Total de la pérdida $1,700 5. Free file state and federal taxes online Reste $100 100 6. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida antes de la regla del 10% $1,600 Ejemplo 2. Free file state and federal taxes online En enero, entraron ladrones a su vivienda y le robaron un anillo y un abrigo de piel. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted tuvo una pérdida de $200 por el anillo y de $700 por el abrigo. Free file state and federal taxes online Éste es un solo robo, de modo que la regla de los $100 es aplicable para la pérdida total de $900. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo 3. Free file state and federal taxes online En septiembre, los vientos huracanados volaron el techo de su casa. Free file state and federal taxes online Las inundaciones provocadas por el huracán dañaron su vivienda aún más y destruyeron sus muebles y su automóvil personal. Free file state and federal taxes online Esto se considera un solo hecho fortuito. Free file state and federal taxes online Se aplica la regla de los $100 al total de la pérdida por el daño de las inundaciones y del viento. Free file state and federal taxes online Más de una pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si sufre más de una pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo durante el año tributario, usted tiene que descontar $100 de cada pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Su automóvil familiar se dañó en un accidente en el mes de enero. Free file state and federal taxes online La pérdida después del reembolso del seguro fue $75. Free file state and federal taxes online Su automóvil sufrió daños en febrero en otro accidente. Free file state and federal taxes online Esta vez la pérdida que tuvo después del reembolso del seguro fue $90. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique la regla de los $100 a cada pérdida por separado. Free file state and federal taxes online Puesto que ninguno de los dos accidentes ocasionó una pérdida de más de $100, no tiene derecho a hacer una deducción por estos accidentes. Free file state and federal taxes online Más de una persona. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si dos o más personas (que no sean cónyuges que presenten una declaración conjunta) tienen pérdidas por causa del mismo hecho fortuito o robo, la regla de los $100 se aplicará por separado a cada persona. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Un incendio dañó su casa y los bienes personales de su huésped. Free file state and federal taxes online Usted tiene que restar $100 de su pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Su huésped tiene que restar $100 de su propia pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Contribuyentes casados. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si usted y su cónyuge presentan una declaración conjunta, su caso se trata como una sola persona cuando se aplica la regla de los $100. Free file state and federal taxes online No importa si los bienes son de ambos o de cada uno independientemente. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si usted y su cónyuge sufren pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo y presentan declaraciones de impuesto por separado, cada uno tiene que descontar $100 de su pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Esto es aplicable aun cuando ambos sean dueños de los bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online Si sólo uno de los cónyuges es dueño de los bienes, sólo ese cónyuge puede deducir la pérdida en una declaración separada. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si la pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo ocurre sobre bienes que ambos poseen en tenencia conjunta entre cónyuges, cada uno puede calcular su deducción sólo sobre la mitad de la pérdida en declaraciones separadas. Free file state and federal taxes online Ninguno puede calcular la deducción sobre la pérdida total en una declaración por separado. Free file state and federal taxes online Cada cónyuge tiene que descontar $100 de la pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Más de un dueño. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si dos o más individuos (aparte de cónyuges que presenten una declaración conjunta) sufren una pérdida de bienes en una propiedad conjunta, se aplica la regla de los $100 por separado a cada uno. Free file state and federal taxes online Por ejemplo, si dos hermanas viven en una casa que compraron juntas y tienen una pérdida por hecho fortuito en la casa, cada hermana debe aplicar la regla de los $100 por separado. Free file state and federal taxes online Regla del 10% Tiene que restar del total de sus pérdidas por hecho fortuito o robo causadas a bienes de uso personal, un 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado. Free file state and federal taxes online Aplique esta regla después de haber descontado $100 de cada pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Para más información, vea las instrucciones del Formulario 4684, en inglés. Free file state and federal taxes online Si tiene pérdidas y ganancias por hecho fortuito o robo, vea más adelante la sección titulada Pérdidas y ganancias . Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online En junio, descubrió que robaron su casa. Free file state and federal taxes online Su pérdida después del reeembolso del seguro fue $2,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Su ingreso bruto ajustado del año en el que descubrió el robo es $29,500. Free file state and federal taxes online Calcule la pérdida por robo como se indica a continuación: 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida después del reembolso del seguro $2,000 2. Free file state and federal taxes online Reste $100 100 3. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida después de aplicar la regla de los $100 $1,900 4. Free file state and federal taxes online Reste el 10% de $29,500 de ingreso bruto ajustado (AGI, por sus siglas en inglés) $2,950 5. Free file state and federal taxes online Deducción de pérdida por robo $-0- Usted no tiene una deducción de pérdida por robo porque su pérdida ($1,900) es menos del 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado ($2,950). Free file state and federal taxes online Más de una pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si tiene más de una pérdida por hecho fortuito o robo durante el año tributario, reduzca cada pérdida restando su reembolso y descontando $100. Free file state and federal taxes online Luego, reste del total de las pérdidas el 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online En marzo, usted tuvo un accidente automovilístico que destruyó completamente su vehículo. Free file state and federal taxes online No tenía seguro contra accidentes y por lo tanto no recibió reembolso del seguro. Free file state and federal taxes online La pérdida que tuvo de su automóvil fue $1,800. Free file state and federal taxes online En noviembre, un incendio provocó daños en el sótano de su casa y destruyó completamente los muebles, la lavadora, la secadora y otros artículos que guardaba allí. Free file state and federal taxes online Su pérdida de los artículos del sótano después del reembolso fue $2,100. Free file state and federal taxes online Su ingreso bruto ajustado para el año en el que ocurrieron el accidente y el incendio es $25,000. Free file state and federal taxes online Calcule su deducción de pérdidas por hechos fortuitos de la siguiente forma:     Vehículo Sótano 1. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida $1,800 $2,100 2. Free file state and federal taxes online Reste $100 por incidente 100 100 3. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdida después de aplicar la regla de los $100 $1,700 $2,000 4. Free file state and federal taxes online Total de la pérdida $3,700 5. Free file state and federal taxes online Reste el 10% de $25,000 de ingreso bruto ajustado 2,500 6. Free file state and federal taxes online Deducción de pérdida por hecho fortuito $ 1,200 Contribuyentes casados. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si usted y su cónyuge presentan una declaración conjunta, su caso se trata como una sola persona al aplicar la regla del 10%. Free file state and federal taxes online No importa si ustedes son dueños conjuntamente o por separado de los bienes. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si presentan la declaración por separado, la regla del 10% será aplicable para cada declaración en la que se declara una pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Más de un dueño. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si dos o más personas (que no sean cónyuges que presenten la declaración conjunta) tienen una pérdida de bienes de los cuales ambos son propietarios, se aplicará para cada uno por separado la regla del 10%. Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdidas y ganancias. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si tiene ganancias por hecho fortuito o robo, al igual que pérdidas de bienes de uso personal, tiene que comparar el total de ganancias con el total de pérdidas. Free file state and federal taxes online Realice esto después de descontar los reembolsos de cada pérdida y los $100, pero antes de descontar de las pérdidas el 10% del ingreso bruto ajustado. Free file state and federal taxes online Las ganancias por hecho fortuito o robo no incluyen ganancias que haya decidido aplazar. Free file state and federal taxes online Vea más adelante la sección titulada Aplazamiento de la Declaración de una Ganancia . Free file state and federal taxes online Pérdidas mayores a las ganancias. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si las pérdidas resultan ser mayores que las ganancias reconocidas, reste las ganancias de las pérdidas y reste del resultado el 10% del ingreso bruto ajustado. Free file state and federal taxes online El resto, si lo hubiera, será la pérdida deducible de los bienes de uso personal. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Su pérdida por robo después de restar los reembolsos y los $100 es $2,700. Free file state and federal taxes online Su ganancia por hechos fortuitos es $700. Free file state and federal taxes online La pérdida es mayor que la ganancia, por lo que tiene que reducir la pérdida total neta de $2,000 ($2,700 − $700) por un 10% de su ingreso bruto ajustado. Free file state and federal taxes online Ganancias mayores a las pérdidas. Free file state and federal taxes online   Si las ganancias reconocidas son mayores que las pérdidas, reste las pérdidas de las ganancias. Free file state and federal taxes online La diferencia se considera una ganancia de capital y tiene que declararse en el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online La regla del 10% no es aplicable a las ganancias. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo. Free file state and federal taxes online Su pérdida por robo es $600, después de restar los reembolsos y los $100 de dicha pérdida. Free file state and federal taxes online Su ganancia por hecho fortuito es $1,600. Free file state and federal taxes online Puesto que su ganancia es mayor que su pérdida, tiene que declarar la ganancia neta de $1,000 ($1,600 − $600) en el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). Free file state and federal taxes online Información adicional. Free file state and federal taxes online   Para más información sobre cómo calcular las ganancias reconocidas, vea más adelante la sección titulada Cómo Calcular una Ganancia . Free file state and federal taxes online Cómo Calcular la Deducción Por lo general, primero tiene que calcular la pérdida por separado para cada artículo robado, dañado o destruido. Free file state and federal taxes online No obstante, hay una regla especial para bienes inmuebles que posea para uso personal. Free file state and federal taxes online Bienes inmuebles. Free file state and federal taxes online   Para calcular una pérdida de bienes inmuebles que posea para uso personal, todas las mejoras (como edificios, árboles ornamentales y el terreno con áreas mejoradas) se consideran en conjunto. Free file state and federal taxes online Ejemplo 1. Free file state and federal taxes online En junio, un incendio destruyó su casa a la orilla del lago, la cual hace varios años le costó $144,800 (incluidos $14,500 por el terreno). Free file state and federal taxes online (El terreno no resultó dañado). Free file state and federal taxes online Ésta fue su única p