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Free 1040ez online 2. Free 1040ez online   Ordinary or Capital Gain or Loss Table of Contents IntroductionSection 1231 transactions. Free 1040ez online Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Capital Assets Noncapital AssetsCommodities derivative dealer. Free 1040ez online Sales and Exchanges Between Related PersonsGain Is Ordinary Income Nondeductible Loss Other DispositionsSale of a Business Dispositions of Intangible Property Subdivision of Land Timber Precious Metals and Stones, Stamps, and Coins Coal and Iron Ore Conversion Transactions Introduction You must classify your gains and losses as either ordinary or capital (and your capital gains or losses as either short-term or long-term). Free 1040ez online You must do this to figure your net capital gain or loss. Free 1040ez online For individuals, a net capital gain may be taxed at a different tax rate than ordinary income. Free 1040ez online See Capital Gains Tax Rates in chapter 4. Free 1040ez online Your deduction for a net capital loss may be limited. Free 1040ez online See Treatment of Capital Losses in chapter 4. Free 1040ez online Capital gain or loss. Free 1040ez online   Generally, you will have a capital gain or loss if you sell or exchange a capital asset. Free 1040ez online You also may have a capital gain if your section 1231 transactions result in a net gain. Free 1040ez online Section 1231 transactions. Free 1040ez online   Section 1231 transactions are sales and exchanges of property held longer than 1 year and either used in a trade or business or held for the production of rents or royalties. Free 1040ez online They also include certain involuntary conversions of business or investment property, including capital assets. Free 1040ez online See Section 1231 Gains and Losses in chapter 3 for more information. Free 1040ez online Topics - This chapter discusses: Capital assets Noncapital assets Sales and exchanges between  related persons Other dispositions Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 550 Investment Income and Expenses Form (and Instructions) Schedule D (Form 1040) Capital Gains and Losses 4797 Sales of Business Property 8594 Asset Acquisition Statement Under Section 1060 8949 Sales and Other Dispositions of Capital Assets See chapter 5 for information about getting publications and forms. Free 1040ez online Capital Assets Almost everything you own and use for personal purposes, pleasure, or investment is a capital asset. Free 1040ez online For exceptions, see Noncapital Assets, later. Free 1040ez online The following items are examples of capital assets. Free 1040ez online Stocks and bonds. Free 1040ez online A home owned and occupied by you and your family. Free 1040ez online Timber grown on your home property or investment property, even if you make casual sales of the timber. Free 1040ez online Household furnishings. Free 1040ez online A car used for pleasure or commuting. Free 1040ez online Coin or stamp collections. Free 1040ez online Gems and jewelry. Free 1040ez online Gold, silver, and other metals. Free 1040ez online Personal-use property. Free 1040ez online   Generally, property held for personal use is a capital asset. Free 1040ez online Gain from a sale or exchange of that property is a capital gain. Free 1040ez online Loss from the sale or exchange of that property is not deductible. Free 1040ez online You can deduct a loss relating to personal-use property only if it results from a casualty or theft. Free 1040ez online Investment property. Free 1040ez online   Investment property (such as stocks and bonds) is a capital asset, and a gain or loss from its sale or exchange is a capital gain or loss. Free 1040ez online This treatment does not apply to property used to produce rental income. Free 1040ez online See Business assets, later, under Noncapital Assets. Free 1040ez online Release of restriction on land. Free 1040ez online   Amounts you receive for the release of a restrictive covenant in a deed to land are treated as proceeds from the sale of a capital asset. Free 1040ez online Noncapital Assets A noncapital asset is property that is not a capital asset. Free 1040ez online The following kinds of property are not capital assets. Free 1040ez online Stock in trade, inventory, and other property you hold mainly for sale to customers in your trade or business. Free 1040ez online Inventories are discussed in Publication 538, Accounting Periods and Methods. Free 1040ez online But, see the Tip below. Free 1040ez online Accounts or notes receivable acquired in the ordinary course of a trade or business for services rendered or from the sale of any properties described in (1), above. Free 1040ez online Depreciable property used in your trade or business or as rental property (including section 197 intangibles defined later), even if the property is fully depreciated (or amortized). Free 1040ez online Sales of this type of property are discussed in chapter 3. Free 1040ez online Real property used in your trade or business or as rental property, even if the property is fully depreciated. Free 1040ez online A copyright; a literary, musical, or artistic composition; a letter; a memorandum; or similar property (such as drafts of speeches, recordings, transcripts, manuscripts, drawings, or photographs): Created by your personal efforts, Prepared or produced for you (in the case of a letter, memorandum, or similar property), or Received from a person who created the property or for whom the property was prepared under circumstances (for example, by gift) entitling you to the basis of the person who created the property, or for whom it was prepared or produced. Free 1040ez online But, see the Tip below. Free 1040ez online U. Free 1040ez online S. Free 1040ez online Government publications you got from the government for free or for less than the normal sales price or that you acquired under circumstances entitling you to the basis of someone who got the publications for free or for less than the normal sales price. Free 1040ez online Any commodities derivative financial instrument (discussed later) held by a commodities derivatives dealer unless it meets both of the following requirements. Free 1040ez online It is established to the satisfaction of the IRS that the instrument has no connection to the activities of the dealer as a dealer. Free 1040ez online The instrument is clearly identified in the dealer's records as meeting (a) by the end of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into. Free 1040ez online Any hedging transaction (defined later) that is clearly identified as a hedging transaction by the end of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into. Free 1040ez online Supplies of a type you regularly use or consume in the ordinary course of your trade or business. Free 1040ez online You can elect to treat as capital assets certain self-created musical compositions or copyrights you sold or exchanged. Free 1040ez online See chapter 4 of Publication 550 for details. Free 1040ez online Property held mainly for sale to customers. Free 1040ez online   Stock in trade, inventory, and other property you hold mainly for sale to customers in your trade or business are not capital assets. Free 1040ez online Inventories are discussed in Publication 538. Free 1040ez online Business assets. Free 1040ez online   Real property and depreciable property used in your trade or business or as rental property (including section 197 intangibles defined later under Dispositions of Intangible Property) are not capital assets. Free 1040ez online The sale or disposition of business property is discussed in chapter 3. Free 1040ez online Letters and memoranda. Free 1040ez online   Letters, memoranda, and similar property (such as drafts of speeches, recordings, transcripts, manuscripts, drawings, or photographs) are not treated as capital assets (as discussed earlier) if your personal efforts created them or if they were prepared or produced for you. Free 1040ez online Nor is this property a capital asset if your basis in it is determined by reference to the person who created it or the person for whom it was prepared. Free 1040ez online For this purpose, letters and memoranda addressed to you are considered prepared for you. Free 1040ez online If letters or memoranda are prepared by persons under your administrative control, they are considered prepared for you whether or not you review them. Free 1040ez online Commodities derivative financial instrument. Free 1040ez online   A commodities derivative financial instrument is a commodities contract or other financial instrument for commodities (other than a share of corporate stock, a beneficial interest in a partnership or trust, a note, bond, debenture, or other evidence of indebtedness, or a section 1256 contract) the value or settlement price of which is calculated or determined by reference to a specified index (as defined in section 1221(b) of the Internal Revenue Code). Free 1040ez online Commodities derivative dealer. Free 1040ez online   A commodities derivative dealer is a person who regularly offers to enter into, assume, offset, assign, or terminate positions in commodities derivative financial instruments with customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. Free 1040ez online Hedging transaction. Free 1040ez online   A hedging transaction is any transaction you enter into in the normal course of your trade or business primarily to manage any of the following. Free 1040ez online Risk of price changes or currency fluctuations involving ordinary property you hold or will hold. Free 1040ez online Risk of interest rate or price changes or currency fluctuations for borrowings you make or will make, or ordinary obligations you incur or will incur. Free 1040ez online Sales and Exchanges Between Related Persons This section discusses the rules that may apply to the sale or exchange of property between related persons. Free 1040ez online If these rules apply, gains may be treated as ordinary income and losses may not be deductible. Free 1040ez online See Transfers to Spouse in chapter 1 for rules that apply to spouses. Free 1040ez online Gain Is Ordinary Income If a gain is recognized on the sale or exchange of property to a related person, the gain may be ordinary income even if the property is a capital asset. Free 1040ez online It is ordinary income if the sale or exchange is a depreciable property transaction or a controlled partnership transaction. Free 1040ez online Depreciable property transaction. Free 1040ez online   Gain on the sale or exchange of property, including a leasehold or a patent application, that is depreciable property in the hands of the person who receives it is ordinary income if the transaction is either directly or indirectly between any of the following pairs of entities. Free 1040ez online A person and the person's controlled entity or entities. Free 1040ez online A taxpayer and any trust in which the taxpayer (or his or her spouse) is a beneficiary unless the beneficiary's interest in the trust is a remote contingent interest; that is, the value of the interest computed actuarially is 5% or less of the value of the trust property. Free 1040ez online An executor and a beneficiary of an estate unless the sale or exchange is in satisfaction of a pecuniary bequest (a bequest for a sum of money). Free 1040ez online An employer (or any person related to the employer under rules (1), (2), or (3)) and a welfare benefit fund (within the meaning of section 419(e) of the Internal Revenue Code) that is controlled directly or indirectly by the employer (or any person related to the employer). Free 1040ez online Controlled entity. Free 1040ez online   A person's controlled entity is either of the following. Free 1040ez online A corporation in which more than 50% of the value of all outstanding stock, or a partnership in which more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest, is directly or indirectly owned by or for that person. Free 1040ez online An entity whose relationship with that person is one of the following. Free 1040ez online A corporation and a partnership if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation and more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest in the partnership. Free 1040ez online Two corporations that are members of the same controlled group as defined in section 1563(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, except that “more than 50%” is substituted for “at least 80%” in that definition. Free 1040ez online Two S corporations, if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation. Free 1040ez online Two corporations, one of which is an S corporation, if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation. Free 1040ez online Controlled partnership transaction. Free 1040ez online   A gain recognized in a controlled partnership transaction may be ordinary income. Free 1040ez online The gain is ordinary income if it results from the sale or exchange of property that, in the hands of the party who receives it, is a noncapital asset such as trade accounts receivable, inventory, stock in trade, or depreciable or real property used in a trade or business. Free 1040ez online   A controlled partnership transaction is a transaction directly or indirectly between either of the following pairs of entities. Free 1040ez online A partnership and a person who directly or indirectly owns more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest in the partnership. Free 1040ez online Two partnerships, if the same persons directly or indirectly own more than 50% of the capital interests or profits interests in both partnerships. Free 1040ez online Determining ownership. Free 1040ez online   In the transactions under Depreciable property transaction and Controlled partnership transaction, earlier, use the following rules to determine the ownership of stock or a partnership interest. Free 1040ez online Stock or a partnership interest directly or indirectly owned by or for a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust is considered owned proportionately by or for its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. Free 1040ez online (However, for a partnership interest owned by or for a C corporation, this applies only to shareholders who directly or indirectly own 5% or more in value of the stock of the corporation. Free 1040ez online ) An individual is considered as owning the stock or partnership interest directly or indirectly owned by or for his or her family. Free 1040ez online Family includes only brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants. Free 1040ez online For purposes of applying (1) or (2), above, stock or a partnership interest constructively owned by a person under (1) is treated as actually owned by that person. Free 1040ez online But stock or a partnership interest constructively owned by an individual under (2) is not treated as owned by the individual for reapplying (2) to make another person the constructive owner of that stock or partnership interest. Free 1040ez online Nondeductible Loss A loss on the sale or exchange of property between related persons is not deductible. Free 1040ez online This applies to both direct and indirect transactions, but not to distributions of property from a corporation in a complete liquidation. Free 1040ez online For the list of related persons, see Related persons next. Free 1040ez online If a sale or exchange is between any of these related persons and involves the lump-sum sale of a number of blocks of stock or pieces of property, the gain or loss must be figured separately for each block of stock or piece of property. Free 1040ez online The gain on each item is taxable. Free 1040ez online The loss on any item is nondeductible. Free 1040ez online Gains from the sales of any of these items may not be offset by losses on the sales of any of the other items. Free 1040ez online Related persons. Free 1040ez online   The following is a list of related persons. Free 1040ez online Members of a family, including only brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, spouse, ancestors (parents, grandparents, etc. Free 1040ez online ), and lineal descendants (children, grandchildren, etc. Free 1040ez online ). Free 1040ez online An individual and a corporation if the individual directly or indirectly owns more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation. Free 1040ez online Two corporations that are members of the same controlled group as defined in section 267(f) of the Internal Revenue Code. Free 1040ez online A trust fiduciary and a corporation if the trust or the grantor of the trust directly or indirectly owns more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation. Free 1040ez online A grantor and fiduciary, and the fiduciary and beneficiary, of any trust. Free 1040ez online Fiduciaries of two different trusts, and the fiduciary and beneficiary of two different trusts, if the same person is the grantor of both trusts. Free 1040ez online A tax-exempt educational or charitable organization and a person who directly or indirectly controls the organization, or a member of that person's family. Free 1040ez online A corporation and a partnership if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation and more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest in the partnership. Free 1040ez online Two S corporations if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation. Free 1040ez online Two corporations, one of which is an S corporation, if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation. Free 1040ez online An executor and a beneficiary of an estate unless the sale or exchange is in satisfaction of a pecuniary bequest. Free 1040ez online Two partnerships if the same persons directly or indirectly own more than 50% of the capital interests or profits interests in both partnerships. Free 1040ez online A person and a partnership if the person directly or indirectly owns more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest in the partnership. Free 1040ez online Partnership interests. Free 1040ez online   The nondeductible loss rule does not apply to a sale or exchange of an interest in the partnership between the related persons described in (12) or (13) above. Free 1040ez online Controlled groups. Free 1040ez online   Losses on transactions between members of the same controlled group described in (3) earlier are deferred rather than denied. Free 1040ez online   For more information, see section 267(f) of the Internal Revenue Code. Free 1040ez online Ownership of stock or partnership interests. Free 1040ez online   In determining whether an individual directly or indirectly owns any of the outstanding stock of a corporation or an interest in a partnership for a loss on a sale or exchange, the following rules apply. Free 1040ez online Stock or a partnership interest directly or indirectly owned by or for a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust is considered owned proportionately by or for its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. Free 1040ez online (However, for a partnership interest owned by or for a C corporation, this applies only to shareholders who directly or indirectly own 5% or more in value of the stock of the corporation. Free 1040ez online ) An individual is considered as owning the stock or partnership interest directly or indirectly owned by or for his or her family. Free 1040ez online Family includes only brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants. Free 1040ez online An individual owning (other than by applying (2)) any stock in a corporation is considered to own the stock directly or indirectly owned by or for his or her partner. Free 1040ez online For purposes of applying (1), (2), or (3), stock or a partnership interest constructively owned by a person under (1) is treated as actually owned by that person. Free 1040ez online But stock or a partnership interest constructively owned by an individual under (2) or (3) is not treated as owned by the individual for reapplying either (2) or (3) to make another person the constructive owner of that stock or partnership interest. Free 1040ez online Indirect transactions. Free 1040ez online   You cannot deduct your loss on the sale of stock through your broker if under a prearranged plan a related person or entity buys the same stock you had owned. Free 1040ez online This does not apply to a cross-trade between related parties through an exchange that is purely coincidental and is not prearranged. Free 1040ez online Property received from a related person. Free 1040ez online   If, in a purchase or exchange, you received property from a related person who had a loss that was not allowable and you later sell or exchange the property at a gain, you recognize the gain only to the extent it is more than the loss previously disallowed to the related person. Free 1040ez online This rule applies only to the original transferee. Free 1040ez online Example 1. Free 1040ez online Your brother sold stock to you for $7,600. Free 1040ez online His cost basis was $10,000. Free 1040ez online His loss of $2,400 was not deductible. Free 1040ez online You later sell the same stock to an unrelated party for $10,500, realizing a gain of $2,900 ($10,500 − $7,600). Free 1040ez online Your recognized gain is only $500, the gain that is more than the $2,400 loss not allowed to your brother. Free 1040ez online Example 2. Free 1040ez online Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that you sell the stock for $6,900 instead of $10,500. Free 1040ez online Your recognized loss is only $700 ($7,600 − $6,900). Free 1040ez online You cannot deduct the loss not allowed to your brother. Free 1040ez online Other Dispositions This section discusses rules for determining the treatment of gain or loss from various dispositions of property. Free 1040ez online Sale of a Business The sale of a business usually is not a sale of one asset. Free 1040ez online Instead, all the assets of the business are sold. Free 1040ez online Generally, when this occurs, each asset is treated as being sold separately for determining the treatment of gain or loss. Free 1040ez online A business usually has many assets. Free 1040ez online When sold, these assets must be classified as capital assets, depreciable property used in the business, real property used in the business, or property held for sale to customers, such as inventory or stock in trade. Free 1040ez online The gain or loss on each asset is figured separately. Free 1040ez online The sale of capital assets results in capital gain or loss. Free 1040ez online The sale of real property or depreciable property used in the business and held longer than 1 year results in gain or loss from a section 1231 transaction (discussed in chapter 3). Free 1040ez online The sale of inventory results in ordinary income or loss. Free 1040ez online Partnership interests. Free 1040ez online   An interest in a partnership or joint venture is treated as a capital asset when sold. Free 1040ez online The part of any gain or loss from unrealized receivables or inventory items will be treated as ordinary gain or loss. Free 1040ez online For more information, see Disposition of Partner's Interest in Publication 541. Free 1040ez online Corporation interests. Free 1040ez online   Your interest in a corporation is represented by stock certificates. Free 1040ez online When you sell these certificates, you usually realize capital gain or loss. Free 1040ez online For information on the sale of stock, see chapter 4 in Publication 550. Free 1040ez online Corporate liquidations. Free 1040ez online   Corporate liquidations of property generally are treated as a sale or exchange. Free 1040ez online Gain or loss generally is recognized by the corporation on a liquidating sale of its assets. Free 1040ez online Gain or loss generally is recognized also on a liquidating distribution of assets as if the corporation sold the assets to the distributee at fair market value. Free 1040ez online   In certain cases in which the distributee is a corporation in control of the distributing corporation, the distribution may not be taxable. Free 1040ez online For more information, see section 332 of the Internal Revenue Code and the related regulations. Free 1040ez online Allocation of consideration paid for a business. Free 1040ez online   The sale of a trade or business for a lump sum is considered a sale of each individual asset rather than of a single asset. Free 1040ez online Except for assets exchanged under any nontaxable exchange rules, both the buyer and seller of a business must use the residual method (explained later) to allocate the consideration to each business asset transferred. Free 1040ez online This method determines gain or loss from the transfer of each asset and how much of the consideration is for goodwill and certain other intangible property. Free 1040ez online It also determines the buyer's basis in the business assets. Free 1040ez online Consideration. Free 1040ez online   The buyer's consideration is the cost of the assets acquired. Free 1040ez online The seller's consideration is the amount realized (money plus the fair market value of property received) from the sale of assets. Free 1040ez online Residual method. Free 1040ez online   The residual method must be used for any transfer of a group of assets that constitutes a trade or business and for which the buyer's basis is determined only by the amount paid for the assets. Free 1040ez online This applies to both direct and indirect transfers, such as the sale of a business or the sale of a partnership interest in which the basis of the buyer's share of the partnership assets is adjusted for the amount paid under section 743(b) of the Internal Revenue Code. Free 1040ez online Section 743(b) applies if a partnership has an election in effect under section 754 of the Internal Revenue Code. Free 1040ez online   A group of assets constitutes a trade or business if either of the following applies. Free 1040ez online Goodwill or going concern value could, under any circumstances, attach to them. Free 1040ez online The use of the assets would constitute an active trade or business under section 355 of the Internal Revenue Code. Free 1040ez online   The residual method provides for the consideration to be reduced first by the amount of Class I assets (defined below). Free 1040ez online The consideration remaining after this reduction must be allocated among the various business assets in a certain order. Free 1040ez online See Classes of assets next for the complete order. Free 1040ez online Classes of assets. Free 1040ez online   The following definitions are the classifications for deemed or actual asset acquisitions. Free 1040ez online Allocate the consideration among the assets in the following order. Free 1040ez online The amount allocated to an asset, other than a Class VII asset, cannot exceed its fair market value on the purchase date. Free 1040ez online The amount you can allocate to an asset also is subject to any applicable limits under the Internal Revenue Code or general principles of tax law. Free 1040ez online Class I assets are cash and general deposit accounts (including checking and savings accounts but excluding certificates of deposit). Free 1040ez online Class II assets are certificates of deposit, U. Free 1040ez online S. Free 1040ez online Government securities, foreign currency, and actively traded personal property, including stock and securities. Free 1040ez online Class III assets are accounts receivable, other debt instruments, and assets that you mark to market at least annually for federal income tax purposes. Free 1040ez online However, see section 1. Free 1040ez online 338-6(b)(2)(iii) of the regulations for exceptions that apply to debt instruments issued by persons related to a target corporation, contingent debt instruments, and debt instruments convertible into stock or other property. Free 1040ez online Class IV assets are property of a kind that would properly be included in inventory if on hand at the end of the tax year or property held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. Free 1040ez online Class V assets are all assets other than Class I, II, III, IV, VI, and VII assets. Free 1040ez online    Note. Free 1040ez online Furniture and fixtures, buildings, land, vehicles, and equipment, which constitute all or part of a trade or business are generally Class V assets. Free 1040ez online Class VI assets are section 197 intangibles (other than goodwill and going concern value). Free 1040ez online Class VII assets are goodwill and going concern value (whether the goodwill or going concern value qualifies as a section 197 intangible). Free 1040ez online   If an asset described in one of the classifications described above can be included in more than one class, include it in the lower numbered class. Free 1040ez online For example, if an asset is described in both Class II and Class IV, choose Class II. Free 1040ez online Example. Free 1040ez online The total paid in the sale of the assets of Company SKB is $21,000. Free 1040ez online No cash or deposit accounts or similar accounts were sold. Free 1040ez online The company's U. Free 1040ez online S. Free 1040ez online Government securities sold had a fair market value of $3,200. Free 1040ez online The only other asset transferred (other than goodwill and going concern value) was inventory with a fair market value of $15,000. Free 1040ez online Of the $21,000 paid for the assets of Company SKB, $3,200 is allocated to U. Free 1040ez online S. Free 1040ez online Government securities, $15,000 to inventory assets, and the remaining $2,800 to goodwill and going concern value. Free 1040ez online Agreement. Free 1040ez online   The buyer and seller may enter into a written agreement as to the allocation of any consideration or the fair market value of any of the assets. Free 1040ez online This agreement is binding on both parties unless the IRS determines the amounts are not appropriate. Free 1040ez online Reporting requirement. Free 1040ez online   Both the buyer and seller involved in the sale of business assets must report to the IRS the allocation of the sales price among section 197 intangibles and the other business assets. Free 1040ez online Use Form 8594, Asset Acquisition Statement Under Section 1060, to provide this information. Free 1040ez online Generally, the buyer and seller should each attach Form 8594 to their federal income tax return for the year in which the sale occurred. Free 1040ez online See the Instructions for Form 8594. Free 1040ez online Dispositions of Intangible Property Intangible property is any personal property that has value but cannot be seen or touched. Free 1040ez online It includes such items as patents, copyrights, and the goodwill value of a business. Free 1040ez online Gain or loss on the sale or exchange of amortizable or depreciable intangible property held longer than 1 year (other than an amount recaptured as ordinary income) is a section 1231 gain or loss. Free 1040ez online The treatment of section 1231 gain or loss and the recapture of amortization and depreciation as ordinary income are explained in chapter 3. Free 1040ez online See chapter 8 of Publication 535, Business Expenses, for information on amortizable intangible property and chapter 1 of Publication 946, How To Depreciate Property, for information on intangible property that can and cannot be depreciated. Free 1040ez online Gain or loss on dispositions of other intangible property is ordinary or capital depending on whether the property is a capital asset or a noncapital asset. Free 1040ez online The following discussions explain special rules that apply to certain dispositions of intangible property. Free 1040ez online Section 197 Intangibles Section 197 intangibles are certain intangible assets acquired after August 10, 1993 (after July 25, 1991, if chosen), and held in connection with the conduct of a trade or business or an activity entered into for profit whose costs are amortized over 15 years. Free 1040ez online They include the following assets. Free 1040ez online Goodwill. Free 1040ez online Going concern value. Free 1040ez online Workforce in place. Free 1040ez online Business books and records, operating systems, and other information bases. Free 1040ez online Patents, copyrights, formulas, processes, designs, patterns, know how, formats, and similar items. Free 1040ez online Customer-based intangibles. Free 1040ez online Supplier-based intangibles. Free 1040ez online Licenses, permits, and other rights granted by a governmental unit. Free 1040ez online Covenants not to compete entered into in connection with the acquisition of a business. Free 1040ez online Franchises, trademarks, and trade names. Free 1040ez online See chapter 8 of Publication 535 for a description of each intangible. Free 1040ez online Dispositions. Free 1040ez online   You cannot deduct a loss from the disposition or worthlessness of a section 197 intangible you acquired in the same transaction (or series of related transactions) as another section 197 intangible you still hold. Free 1040ez online Instead, you must increase the adjusted basis of your retained section 197 intangible by the nondeductible loss. Free 1040ez online If you retain more than one section 197 intangible, increase each intangible's adjusted basis. Free 1040ez online Figure the increase by multiplying the nondeductible loss by a fraction, the numerator (top number) of which is the retained intangible's adjusted basis on the date of the loss and the denominator (bottom number) of which is the total adjusted basis of all retained intangibles on the date of the loss. Free 1040ez online   In applying this rule, members of the same controlled group of corporations and commonly controlled businesses are treated as a single entity. Free 1040ez online For example, a corporation cannot deduct a loss on the sale of a section 197 intangible if, after the sale, a member of the same controlled group retains other section 197 intangibles acquired in the same transaction as the intangible sold. Free 1040ez online Covenant not to compete. Free 1040ez online   A covenant not to compete (or similar arrangement) that is a section 197 intangible cannot be treated as disposed of or worthless before you have disposed of your entire interest in the trade or business for which the covenant was entered into. Free 1040ez online Members of the same controlled group of corporations and commonly controlled businesses are treated as a single entity in determining whether a member has disposed of its entire interest in a trade or business. Free 1040ez online Anti-churning rules. Free 1040ez online   Anti-churning rules prevent a taxpayer from converting section 197 intangibles that do not qualify for amortization into property that would qualify for amortization. Free 1040ez online However, these rules do not apply to part of the basis of property acquired by certain related persons if the transferor elects to do both the following. Free 1040ez online Recognize gain on the transfer of the property. Free 1040ez online Pay income tax on the gain at the highest tax rate. Free 1040ez online   If the transferor is a partnership or S corporation, the partnership or S corporation (not the partners or shareholders) can make the election. Free 1040ez online But each partner or shareholder must pay the tax on his or her share of gain. Free 1040ez online   To make the election, you, as the transferor, must attach a statement containing certain information to your income tax return for the year of the transfer. Free 1040ez online You must file the tax return by the due date (including extensions). Free 1040ez online You must also notify the transferee of the election in writing by the due date of the return. Free 1040ez online   If you timely filed your return without making the election, you can make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months after the due date of the return (excluding extensions). Free 1040ez online Attach the statement to the amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. Free 1040ez online 9100-2” at the top of the statement. Free 1040ez online File the amended return at the same address the original return was filed. Free 1040ez online For more information about making the election, see Regulations section 1. Free 1040ez online 197-2(h)(9). Free 1040ez online For information about reporting the tax on your income tax return, see the Instructions for Form 4797. Free 1040ez online Patents The transfer of a patent by an individual is treated as a sale or exchange of a capital asset held longer than 1 year. Free 1040ez online This applies even if the payments for the patent are made periodically during the transferee's use or are contingent on the productivity, use, or disposition of the patent. Free 1040ez online For information on the treatment of gain or loss on the transfer of capital assets, see chapter 4. Free 1040ez online This treatment applies to your transfer of a patent if you meet all the following conditions. Free 1040ez online You are the holder of the patent. Free 1040ez online You transfer the patent other than by gift, inheritance, or devise. Free 1040ez online You transfer all substantial rights to the patent or an undivided interest in all such rights. Free 1040ez online You do not transfer the patent to a related person. Free 1040ez online Holder. Free 1040ez online   You are the holder of a patent if you are either of the following. Free 1040ez online The individual whose effort created the patent property and who qualifies as the original and first inventor. Free 1040ez online The individual who bought an interest in the patent from the inventor before the invention was tested and operated successfully under operating conditions and who is neither related to, nor the employer of, the inventor. Free 1040ez online All substantial rights. Free 1040ez online   All substantial rights to patent property are all rights that have value when they are transferred. Free 1040ez online A security interest (such as a lien), or a reservation calling for forfeiture for nonperformance, is not treated as a substantial right for these rules and may be kept by you as the holder of the patent. Free 1040ez online   All substantial rights to a patent are not transferred if any of the following apply to the transfer. Free 1040ez online The rights are limited geographically within a country. Free 1040ez online The rights are limited to a period less than the remaining life of the patent. Free 1040ez online The rights are limited to fields of use within trades or industries and are less than all the rights that exist and have value at the time of the transfer. Free 1040ez online The rights are less than all the claims or inventions covered by the patent that exist and have value at the time of the transfer. Free 1040ez online Related persons. Free 1040ez online   This tax treatment does not apply if the transfer is directly or indirectly between you and a related person as defined earlier in the list under Nondeductible Loss, with the following changes. Free 1040ez online Members of your family include your spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants, but not your brothers, sisters, half-brothers, or half-sisters. Free 1040ez online Substitute “25% or more” ownership for “more than 50%. Free 1040ez online ”   If you fit within the definition of a related person independent of family status, the brother-sister exception in (1), earlier, does not apply. Free 1040ez online For example, a transfer between a brother and a sister as beneficiary and fiduciary of the same trust is a transfer between related persons. Free 1040ez online The brother-sister exception does not apply because the trust relationship is independent of family status. Free 1040ez online Franchise, Trademark, or Trade Name If you transfer or renew a franchise, trademark, or trade name for a price contingent on its productivity, use, or disposition, the amount you receive generally is treated as an amount realized from the sale of a noncapital asset. Free 1040ez online A franchise includes an agreement that gives one of the parties the right to distribute, sell, or provide goods, services, or facilities within a specified area. Free 1040ez online Significant power, right, or continuing interest. Free 1040ez online   If you keep any significant power, right, or continuing interest in the subject matter of a franchise, trademark, or trade name that you transfer or renew, the amount you receive is ordinary royalty income rather than an amount realized from a sale or exchange. Free 1040ez online   A significant power, right, or continuing interest in a franchise, trademark, or trade name includes, but is not limited to, the following rights in the transferred interest. Free 1040ez online A right to disapprove any assignment of the interest, or any part of it. Free 1040ez online A right to end the agreement at will. Free 1040ez online A right to set standards of quality for products used or sold, or for services provided, and for the equipment and facilities used to promote such products or services. Free 1040ez online A right to make the recipient sell or advertise only your products or services. Free 1040ez online A right to make the recipient buy most supplies and equipment from you. Free 1040ez online A right to receive payments based on the productivity, use, or disposition of the transferred item of interest if those payments are a substantial part of the transfer agreement. Free 1040ez online Subdivision of Land If you own a tract of land and, to sell or exchange it, you subdivide it into individual lots or parcels, the gain normally is ordinary income. Free 1040ez online However, you may receive capital gain treatment on at least part of the proceeds provided you meet certain requirements. Free 1040ez online See section 1237 of the Internal Revenue Code. Free 1040ez online Timber Standing timber held as investment property is a capital asset. Free 1040ez online Gain or loss from its sale is reported as a capital gain or loss on Form 8949, and Schedule D (Form 1040), as applicable. Free 1040ez online If you held the timber primarily for sale to customers, it is not a capital asset. Free 1040ez online Gain or loss on its sale is ordinary business income or loss. Free 1040ez online It is reported in the gross receipts or sales and cost of goods sold items of your return. Free 1040ez online Farmers who cut timber on their land and sell it as logs, firewood, or pulpwood usually have no cost or other basis for that timber. Free 1040ez online These sales constitute a very minor part of their farm businesses. Free 1040ez online In these cases, amounts realized from such sales, and the expenses of cutting, hauling, etc. Free 1040ez online , are ordinary farm income and expenses reported on Schedule F (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Farming. Free 1040ez online Different rules apply if you owned the timber longer than 1 year and elect to either: Treat timber cutting as a sale or exchange, or Enter into a cutting contract. Free 1040ez online Timber is considered cut on the date when, in the ordinary course of business, the quantity of felled timber is first definitely determined. Free 1040ez online This is true whether the timber is cut under contract or whether you cut it yourself. Free 1040ez online Under the rules discussed below, disposition of the timber is treated as a section 1231 transaction. Free 1040ez online See chapter 3. Free 1040ez online Gain or loss is reported on Form 4797. Free 1040ez online Christmas trees. Free 1040ez online   Evergreen trees, such as Christmas trees, that are more than 6 years old when severed from their roots and sold for ornamental purposes are included in the term timber. Free 1040ez online They qualify for both rules discussed below. Free 1040ez online Election to treat cutting as a sale or exchange. Free 1040ez online   Under the general rule, the cutting of timber results in no gain or loss. Free 1040ez online It is not until a sale or exchange occurs that gain or loss is realized. Free 1040ez online But if you owned or had a contractual right to cut timber, you can elect to treat the cutting of timber as a section 1231 transaction in the year the timber is cut. Free 1040ez online Even though the cut timber is not actually sold or exchanged, you report your gain or loss on the cutting for the year the timber is cut. Free 1040ez online Any later sale results in ordinary business income or loss. Free 1040ez online See Example, later. Free 1040ez online   To elect this treatment, you must: Own or hold a contractual right to cut the timber for a period of more than 1 year before it is cut, and Cut the timber for sale or for use in your trade or business. Free 1040ez online Making the election. Free 1040ez online   You make the election on your return for the year the cutting takes place by including in income the gain or loss on the cutting and including a computation of the gain or loss. Free 1040ez online You do not have to make the election in the first year you cut timber. Free 1040ez online You can make it in any year to which the election would apply. Free 1040ez online If the timber is partnership property, the election is made on the partnership return. Free 1040ez online This election cannot be made on an amended return. Free 1040ez online   Once you have made the election, it remains in effect for all later years unless you cancel it. Free 1040ez online   If you previously elected to treat the cutting of timber as a sale or exchange, you may revoke this election without the consent of the IRS. Free 1040ez online The prior election (and revocation) is disregarded for purposes of making a subsequent election. Free 1040ez online See Form T (Timber), Forest Activities Schedule, for more information. Free 1040ez online Gain or loss. Free 1040ez online   Your gain or loss on the cutting of standing timber is the difference between its adjusted basis for depletion and its fair market value on the first day of your tax year in which it is cut. Free 1040ez online   Your adjusted basis for depletion of cut timber is based on the number of units (feet board measure, log scale, or other units) of timber cut during the tax year and considered to be sold or exchanged. Free 1040ez online Your adjusted basis for depletion is also based on the depletion unit of timber in the account used for the cut timber, and should be figured in the same manner as shown in section 611 of the Internal Revenue Code and the related regulations. Free 1040ez online   Timber depletion is discussed in chapter 9 of Publication 535. Free 1040ez online Example. Free 1040ez online In April 2013, you had owned 4,000 MBF (1,000 board feet) of standing timber longer than 1 year. Free 1040ez online It had an adjusted basis for depletion of $40 per MBF. Free 1040ez online You are a calendar year taxpayer. Free 1040ez online On January 1, 2013, the timber had a fair market value (FMV) of $350 per MBF. Free 1040ez online It was cut in April for sale. Free 1040ez online On your 2013 tax return, you elect to treat the cutting of the timber as a sale or exchange. Free 1040ez online You report the difference between the fair market value and your adjusted basis for depletion as a gain. Free 1040ez online This amount is reported on Form 4797 along with your other section 1231 gains and losses to figure whether it is treated as capital gain or as ordinary gain. Free 1040ez online You figure your gain as follows. Free 1040ez online FMV of timber January 1, 2013 $1,400,000 Minus: Adjusted basis for depletion 160,000 Section 1231 gain $1,240,000 The fair market value becomes your basis in the cut timber and a later sale of the cut timber including any by-product or tree tops will result in ordinary business income or loss. Free 1040ez online Outright sales of timber. Free 1040ez online   Outright sales of timber by landowners qualify for capital gains treatment using rules similar to the rules for certain disposal of timber under a contract with retained economic interest (defined below). Free 1040ez online However, for outright sales, the date of disposal is not deemed to be the date the timber is cut because the landowner can elect to treat the payment date as the date of disposal (see below). Free 1040ez online Cutting contract. Free 1040ez online   You must treat the disposal of standing timber under a cutting contract as a section 1231 transaction if all the following apply to you. Free 1040ez online You are the owner of the timber. Free 1040ez online You held the timber longer than 1 year before its disposal. Free 1040ez online You kept an economic interest in the timber. Free 1040ez online   You have kept an economic interest in standing timber if, under the cutting contract, the expected return on your investment is conditioned on the cutting of the timber. Free 1040ez online   The difference between the amount realized from the disposal of the timber and its adjusted basis for depletion is treated as gain or loss on its sale. Free 1040ez online Include this amount on Form 4797 along with your other section 1231 gains or losses to figure whether it is treated as capital or ordinary gain or loss. Free 1040ez online Date of disposal. Free 1040ez online   The date of disposal is the date the timber is cut. Free 1040ez online However, for outright sales by landowners or if you receive payment under the contract before the timber is cut, you can elect to treat the date of payment as the date of disposal. Free 1040ez online   This election applies only to figure the holding period of the timber. Free 1040ez online It has no effect on the time for reporting gain or loss (generally when the timber is sold or exchanged). Free 1040ez online   To make this election, attach a statement to the tax return filed by the due date (including extensions) for the year payment is received. Free 1040ez online The statement must identify the advance payments subject to the election and the contract under which they were made. Free 1040ez online   If you timely filed your return for the year you received payment without making the election, you still can make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months after the due date for that year's return (excluding extensions). Free 1040ez online Attach the statement to the amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. Free 1040ez online 9100-2” at the top of the statement. Free 1040ez online File the amended return at the same address the original return was filed. Free 1040ez online Owner. Free 1040ez online   The owner of timber is any person who owns an interest in it, including a sublessor and the holder of a contract to cut the timber. Free 1040ez online You own an interest in timber if you have the right to cut it for sale on your own account or for use in your business. Free 1040ez online Tree stumps. Free 1040ez online   Tree stumps are a capital asset if they are on land held by an investor who is not in the timber or stump business as a buyer, seller, or processor. Free 1040ez online Gain from the sale of stumps sold in one lot by such a holder is taxed as a capital gain. Free 1040ez online However, tree stumps held by timber operators after the saleable standing timber was cut and removed from the land are considered by-products. Free 1040ez online Gain from the sale of stumps in lots or tonnage by such operators is taxed as ordinary income. Free 1040ez online   See Form T (Timber) and its separate instructions for more information about dispositions of timber. Free 1040ez online Precious Metals and Stones, Stamps, and Coins Gold, silver, gems, stamps, coins, etc. Free 1040ez online , are capital assets except when they are held for sale by a dealer. Free 1040ez online Any gain or loss from their sale or exchange generally is a capital gain or loss. Free 1040ez online If you are a dealer, the amount received from the sale is ordinary business income. Free 1040ez online Coal and Iron Ore You must treat the disposal of coal (including lignite) or iron ore mined in the United States as a section 1231 transaction if both the following apply to you. Free 1040ez online You owned the coal or iron ore longer than 1 year before its disposal. Free 1040ez online You kept an economic interest in the coal or iron ore. Free 1040ez online For this rule, the date the coal or iron ore is mined is considered the date of its disposal. Free 1040ez online Your gain or loss is the difference between the amount realized from disposal of the coal or iron ore and the adjusted basis you use to figure cost depletion (increased by certain expenses not allowed as deductions for the tax year). Free 1040ez online This amount is included on Form 4797 along with your other section 1231 gains and losses. Free 1040ez online You are considered an owner if you own or sublet an economic interest in the coal or iron ore in place. Free 1040ez online If you own only an option to buy the coal in place, you do not qualify as an owner. Free 1040ez online In addition, this gain or loss treatment does not apply to income realized by an owner who is a co-adventurer, partner, or principal in the mining of coal or iron ore. Free 1040ez online The expenses of making and administering the contract under which the coal or iron ore was disposed of and the expenses of preserving the economic interest kept under the contract are not allowed as deductions in figuring taxable income. Free 1040ez online Rather, their total, along with the adjusted depletion basis, is deducted from the amount received to determine gain. Free 1040ez online If the total of these expenses plus the adjusted depletion basis is more than the amount received, the result is a loss. Free 1040ez online Special rule. Free 1040ez online   The above treatment does not apply if you directly or indirectly dispose of the iron ore or coal to any of the following persons. Free 1040ez online A related person whose relationship to you would result in the disallowance of a loss (see Nondeductible Loss under Sales and Exchanges Between Related Persons, earlier). Free 1040ez online An individual, trust, estate, partnership, association, company, or corporation owned or controlled directly or indirectly by the same interests that own or control your business. Free 1040ez online Conversion Transactions Recognized gain on the disposition or termination of any position held as part of certain conversion transactions is treated as ordinary income. Free 1040ez online This applies if substantially all your expected return is attributable to the time value of your net investment (like interest on a loan) and the transaction is any of the following. Free 1040ez online An applicable straddle (generally, any set of offsetting positions with respect to personal property, including stock). Free 1040ez online A transaction in which you acquire property and, at or about the same time, you contract to sell the same or substantially identical property at a specified price. Free 1040ez online Any other transaction that is marketed and sold as producing capital gain from a transaction in which substantially all of your expected return is due to the time value of your net investment. Free 1040ez online For more information, see chapter 4 of Publication 550. Free 1040ez online Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Free 1040ez online Publication 938 - Main Content Table of Contents Who May Request Information How To Request Information Who May Request Information The persons listed below, or their agent or representative, should follow the procedures in this publication to request tax information from the representative of the REMIC or the issuer of the CDO. Free 1040ez online Any broker who holds a REMIC regular interest or CDO for itself or as a nominee for an actual holder. Free 1040ez online A middleman who holds a REMIC regular interest or CDO as a nominee for an actual holder and who is required to file an information return with respect to the regular interest or CDO. Free 1040ez online The following persons, if they hold their REMIC regular interest or CDO directly and not through a nominee. Free 1040ez online A corporation. Free 1040ez online A fiscal year taxpayer. Free 1040ez online A dealer in securities or commodities required to register as such under the laws of the United States or a state. Free 1040ez online A real estate investment trust (as defined in section 856). Free 1040ez online An entity registered at all times during the tax year under the Investment Company Act of 1940. Free 1040ez online A common trust fund (as defined in section 584(a)). Free 1040ez online A financial institution such as a mutual savings bank, savings and loan association, building and loan association, cooperative bank, homestead association, credit union, industrial loan association or bank, or other similar organization. Free 1040ez online Any trust that is exempt from tax under section 664(c) (a charitable remainder annuity trust or a charitable remainder unitrust). Free 1040ez online A REMIC. Free 1040ez online Note. Free 1040ez online A person listed in (3) above who holds an interest through a nominee (instead of directly from the REMIC or the issuer of the CDO) should request the information from the nominee instead of from the REMIC or the issuer of the CDO. Free 1040ez online The request should be made of the nominee in the same manner as specified below for requesting information from the representative. Free 1040ez online How To Request Information Use the directory to find the representative of the REMIC or issuer of the CDO. Free 1040ez online You can request information from the representative or issuer by telephone or mail. Free 1040ez online If only an address is listed in the directory, you must request the information in writing. Free 1040ez online Your request must specify the calendar quarters and the classes of REMIC regular interests or CDOs for which you need the information. Free 1040ez online The representative or issuer must provide the information to you by the later of: The 30th day after the close of the calendar quarter for which you request the information, or The 14th day after the receipt of your request. Free 1040ez online The representative or issuer can provide the information to you by telephone, by written statement sent by first class mail, by printing the information in a publication that is generally read by and available to persons who may request the information (for example, a webpage), or by any other method agreed to by both parties. Free 1040ez online If the information is published, the representative or issuer must notify you by telephone or in writing of the publication in which the information will appear, the date of its appearance, and, if possible, the page number. Free 1040ez online Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications