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Efile taxes Publication 559 - Main Content Table of Contents Personal RepresentativeDuties Fees Received by Personal Representatives Final Income Tax Return for Decedent—Form 1040Name, Address, and Signature When and Where To File Filing Requirements Income To Include Exemptions and Deductions Credits, Other Taxes, and Payments Tax Forgiveness for Armed Forces Members, Victims of Terrorism, and Astronauts Filing Reminders Other Tax InformationTax Benefits for Survivors Income in Respect of a Decedent Deductions in Respect of a Decedent Estate Tax Deduction Gifts, Insurance, and Inheritances Other Items of Income Income Tax Return of an Estate— Form 1041Filing Requirements Income To Include Exemption and Deductions Credits, Tax, and Payments Name, Address, and Signature When and Where To File Distributions to BeneficiariesIncome That Must Be Distributed Currently Other Amounts Distributed Discharge of a Legal Obligation Character of Distributions How and When To Report Bequest Termination of Estate Estate and Gift TaxesApplicable Credit Amount Gift Tax Estate Tax Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax Comprehensive ExampleFinal Return for Decedent—Form 1040 Income Tax Return of an Estate—Form 1041 How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics Personal Representative A personal representative of an estate is an executor, administrator, or anyone who is in charge of the decedent's property. Efile taxes Generally, an executor (or executrix) is named in a decedent's will to administer the estate and distribute properties as the decedent has directed. Efile taxes An administrator (or administratrix) is usually appointed by the court if no will exists, if no executor was named in the will, or if the named executor cannot or will not serve. Efile taxes In general, an executor and an administrator perform the same duties and have the same responsibilities. Efile taxes For estate tax purposes, if there is no executor or administrator appointed, qualified, and acting within the United States, the term “executor” includes anyone in actual or constructive possession of any property of the decedent. Efile taxes It includes, among others, the decedent's agents and representatives; safe-deposit companies, warehouse companies, and other custodians of property in this country; brokers holding securities of the decedent as collateral; and the debtors of the decedent who are in this country. Efile taxes Duties The primary duties of a personal representative are to collect all the decedent's assets, pay his or her creditors, and distribute the remaining assets to the heirs or other beneficiaries. Efile taxes The personal representative also must perform the following duties. Efile taxes Apply for an employer identification number (EIN) for the estate. Efile taxes File all tax returns, including income, estate and gift tax returns, when due. Efile taxes Pay the tax determined up to the date of discharge from duties. Efile taxes Other duties of the personal representative in federal tax matters are discussed in other sections of this publication. Efile taxes If any beneficiary is a nonresident alien, see Publication 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities, for information on the personal representative's duties as a withholding agent. Efile taxes Penalty. Efile taxes   There is a penalty for failure to file a tax return when due unless the failure is due to reasonable cause. Efile taxes Reliance on an agent (attorney, accountant, etc. Efile taxes ) is not reasonable cause for late filing. Efile taxes It is the personal representative's duty to file the returns for the decedent and the estate when due. Efile taxes Identification number. Efile taxes   The first action you should take if you are the personal representative for the decedent is to apply for an EIN for the estate. Efile taxes You should apply for this number as soon as possible because you need to enter it on returns, statements, and other documents you file concerning the estate. Efile taxes You also must give the number to payers of interest and dividends and other payers who must file a return concerning the estate. Efile taxes   You can get an EIN by applying online at www. Efile taxes irs. Efile taxes gov (click on "Apply for an EIN Online" under the Tools heading). Efile taxes Generally, if you apply online, you will receive your EIN immediately upon completing the application. Efile taxes You can also apply using Form SS-4, Application for Employer Identification Number. Efile taxes Generally, if you apply by mail, it takes about 4 weeks to get your EIN. Efile taxes See the form instructions for other ways to apply. Efile taxes   Payers of interest and dividends report amounts on Forms 1099 using the identification number of the person to whom the account is payable. Efile taxes After a decedent's death, Forms 1099 must reflect the identification number of the estate or beneficiary to whom the amounts are payable. Efile taxes As the personal representative handling the estate, you must furnish this identification number to the payer. Efile taxes For example, if interest is payable to the estate, the estate's EIN must be provided to the payer and used to report the interest on Form 1099-INT, Interest Income. Efile taxes If the interest is payable to a surviving joint owner, the survivor's identification number, such as an SSN or ITIN, must be provided to the payer and used to report the interest. Efile taxes   If the estate or a survivor may receive interest or dividends after you inform the payer of the decedent's death, the payer should give you (or the survivor) a Form W-9, Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification (or a similar substitute form). Efile taxes Complete this form to inform the payer of the estate's (or if completed by the survivor, the survivor's) identification number and return it to the payer. Efile taxes    Do not use the deceased individual's identifying number to file an individual income tax return after the decedent's final tax return. Efile taxes Also do not use it to make estimated tax payments for a tax year after the year of death. Efile taxes Penalty. Efile taxes   If you do not include the EIN or the taxpayer identification number of another person where it is required on a return, statement, or other document, you are liable for a penalty for each failure, unless you can show reasonable cause. Efile taxes You also are liable for a penalty if you do not give the taxpayer identification number of another person when required on a return, statement, or other document. Efile taxes Notice of fiduciary relationship. Efile taxes   The term fiduciary means any person acting for another person. Efile taxes It applies to persons who have positions of trust on behalf of others. Efile taxes A personal representative for a decedent's estate is a fiduciary. Efile taxes Form 56. Efile taxes   If you are appointed to act in a fiduciary capacity for another, you must file a written notice with the IRS stating this. Efile taxes Form 56, Notice Concerning Fiduciary Relationship, is used for this purpose. Efile taxes See the Instructions for Form 56 for filing requirements and other information. Efile taxes   File Form 56 as soon as all the necessary information (including the EIN) is available. Efile taxes It notifies the IRS that you, as the fiduciary, are assuming the powers, rights, duties, and privileges of the decedent. Efile taxes The notice remains in effect until you notify the IRS (by filing another Form 56) that your fiduciary relationship with the estate has terminated. Efile taxes Termination of fiduciary relationship. Efile taxes   Form 56 should also be filed to notify the IRS if your fiduciary relationship is terminated or when a successor fiduciary is appointed if the estate has not been terminated. Efile taxes See Form 56 and its instructions for more information. Efile taxes   At the time of termination of the fiduciary relationship, you may want to file Form 4810, Request for Prompt Assessment Under Internal Revenue Code Section 6501(d), and Form 5495, Request for Discharge From Personal Liability Under Internal Revenue Code Section 2204 or 6905, to wind up your duties as fiduciary. Efile taxes See below for a discussion of these forms. Efile taxes Request for prompt assessment (charge) of tax. Efile taxes   The IRS ordinarily has 3 years from the date an income tax return is filed, or its due date, whichever is later, to charge any additional tax due. Efile taxes However, as a personal representative, you may request a prompt assessment of tax after the return has been filed. Efile taxes This reduces the time for making the assessment to 18 months from the date the written request for prompt assessment was received. Efile taxes This request can be made for any tax return (except the estate tax return) of the decedent or the decedent's estate. Efile taxes This may permit a quicker settlement of the tax liability of the estate and an earlier final distribution of the assets to the beneficiaries. Efile taxes Form 4810. Efile taxes   Form 4810 can be used for making this request. Efile taxes It must be filed separately from any other document. Efile taxes   As the personal representative for the decedent's estate, you are responsible for any additional taxes that may be due. Efile taxes You can request prompt assessment of any of the decedent's taxes (other than federal estate taxes) for any years for which the statutory period for assessment is open. Efile taxes This applies even though the returns were filed before the decedent's death. Efile taxes Failure to report income. Efile taxes   If you or the decedent failed to report substantial amounts of gross income (more than 25% of the gross income reported on the return) or filed a false or fraudulent return, your request for prompt assessment will not shorten the period during which the IRS may assess the additional tax. Efile taxes However, such a request may relieve you of personal liability for the tax if you did not have knowledge of the unpaid tax. Efile taxes Request for discharge from personal liability for tax. Efile taxes   An executor can make a request for discharge from personal liability for a decedent's income, gift, and estate taxes. Efile taxes The request must be made after the returns for those taxes are filed. Efile taxes To make the request, file Form 5495. Efile taxes For this purpose, an executor is an executor or administrator that is appointed, qualified, and acting within the United States. Efile taxes   Within 9 months after receipt of the request, the IRS will notify the executor of the amount of taxes due. Efile taxes If this amount is paid, the executor will be discharged from personal liability for any future deficiencies. Efile taxes If the IRS has not notified the executor, he or she will be discharged from personal liability at the end of the 9-month period. Efile taxes    Even if the executor is discharged from personal liability, the IRS will still be able to assess tax deficiencies against the executor to the extent he or she still has any of the decedent's property. Efile taxes Insolvent estate. Efile taxes   Generally, if a decedent's estate is insufficient to pay all the decedent's debts, the debts due to the United States must be paid first. Efile taxes Both the decedent's federal income tax liabilities at the time of death and the estate's income tax liability are debts due to the United States. Efile taxes The personal representative of an insolvent estate is personally responsible for any tax liability of the decedent or of the estate if he or she had notice of such tax obligations or failed to exercise due care in determining if such obligations existed before distribution of the estate's assets and before being discharged from duties. Efile taxes The extent of such personal responsibility is the amount of any other payments made before paying the debts due to the United States, except where such other debt paid has priority over the debts due to the United States. Efile taxes Income tax liabilities need not be formally assessed for the personal representative to be liable if he or she was aware or should have been aware of their existence. Efile taxes Fees Received by Personal Representatives All personal representatives must include fees paid to them from an estate in their gross income. Efile taxes If you are not in the trade or business of being an executor (for instance, you are the executor of a friend's or relative's estate), report these fees on your Form 1040, line 21. Efile taxes If you are in the trade or business of being an executor, report fees received from the estate as self-employment income on Schedule C or Schedule C-EZ of your Form 1040. Efile taxes If the estate operates a trade or business and you, as executor, actively participate in the trade or business while fulfilling your duties, any fees you receive related to the operation of the trade or business must be reported as self-employment income on Schedule C (or Schedule C-EZ) of your Form 1040. Efile taxes Final Income Tax Return for Decedent—Form 1040 The personal representative (defined earlier) must file the final income tax return (Form 1040) of the decedent for the year of death and any returns not filed for preceding years. Efile taxes A surviving spouse, under certain circumstances, may have to file the returns for the decedent. Efile taxes See Joint Return, later. Efile taxes Return for preceding year. Efile taxes   If an individual died after the close of the tax year, but before the return for that year was filed, the return for the year just closed will not be the final return. Efile taxes The return for that year will be a regular return and the personal representative must file it. Efile taxes Example. Efile taxes Samantha Smith died on March 21, 2013, before filing her 2012 tax return. Efile taxes Her personal representative must file her 2012 return by April 15, 2013. Efile taxes Her final tax return covering the period from January 1, 2013, to March 20, 2013, is due April 15, 2014. Efile taxes Name, Address, and Signature Write the word “DECEASED,” the decedent's name, and the date of death across the top of the tax return. Efile taxes If filing a joint return, write the name and address of the decedent and the surviving spouse in the name and address fields. Efile taxes If a joint return is not being filed, write the decedent's name in the name field and the personal representative's name and address in the address field. Efile taxes Third party designee. Efile taxes   You can check the “Yes” box in the Third Party Designee area on page 2 of the return to authorize the IRS to discuss the return with a friend, family member, or any other person you choose. Efile taxes This allows the IRS to call the person you identified as the designee to answer any questions that may arise during the processing of the return. Efile taxes It also allows the designee to perform certain actions. Efile taxes See the Instructions for Form 1040 for details. Efile taxes Signature. Efile taxes   If a personal representative has been appointed, that person must sign the return. Efile taxes If it is a joint return, the surviving spouse must also sign it. Efile taxes If no personal representative has been appointed, the surviving spouse (on a joint return) signs the return and writes in the signature area “Filing as surviving spouse. Efile taxes ” If no personal representative has been appointed and if there is no surviving spouse, the person in charge of the decedent's property must file and sign the return as “personal representative. Efile taxes ” Paid preparer. Efile taxes   If you pay someone to prepare, assist in preparing, or review the tax return, that person must sign the return and fill in the other blanks in the Paid Preparer Use Only area of the return. Efile taxes See the Form 1040 instructions for details. Efile taxes When and Where To File The final income tax return is due at the same time the decedent's return would have been due had death not occurred. Efile taxes A final return for a decedent who was a calendar year taxpayer is generally due on April 15 following the year of death, regardless of when during that year death occurred. Efile taxes However, when the due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the return is filed timely if filed by the next business day. Efile taxes The tax return must be prepared for the year of death regardless of when during the year death occurred. Efile taxes Generally, you must file the final income tax return of the decedent with the Internal Revenue Service Center for the place where you live. Efile taxes A tax return for a decedent can be electronically filed. Efile taxes A personal representative may also obtain an income tax filing extension on behalf of a decedent. Efile taxes Filing Requirements The gross income, age, and filing status of a decedent generally determine whether a return must be filed. Efile taxes Gross income is all income received by an individual from any source in the form of money, goods, property, and services that is not tax-exempt. Efile taxes It includes gross receipts from self-employment, but if the business involves manufacturing, merchandising, or mining, subtract any cost of goods sold. Efile taxes In general, filing status depends on whether the decedent was considered single or married at the time of death. Efile taxes See the income tax return instructions or Publication 501, Exemptions, Standard Deduction, and Filing Information. Efile taxes Refund A return must be filed to obtain a refund if tax was withheld from salaries, wages, pensions, or annuities, or if estimated tax was paid, even if a return is not otherwise required to be filed. Efile taxes Also, the decedent may be entitled to other credits that result in a refund. Efile taxes These advance payments of tax and credits are discussed later under Credits, Other Taxes, and Payments. Efile taxes Form 1310, Statement of Person Claiming Refund Due a Deceased Taxpayer. Efile taxes   Form 1310 does not have to be filed if you are claiming a refund and you are: A surviving spouse filing an original or amended joint return with the decedent, or A court-appointed or certified personal representative filing the decedent’s original return and a copy of the court certificate showing your appointment is attached to the return. Efile taxes   If the personal representative is filing a claim for refund on Form 1040X, Amended U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes Individual Income Tax Return, or Form 843, Claim for Refund and Request for Abatement, and the court certificate has already been filed with the IRS, attach Form 1310 and write “Certificate Previously Filed” at the bottom of the form. Efile taxes Example. Efile taxes Edward Green died before filing his tax return. Efile taxes You were appointed the personal representative for Edward's estate, and you file his Form 1040 showing a refund due. Efile taxes You do not need Form 1310 to claim the refund if you attach a copy of the court certificate showing you were appointed the personal representative. Efile taxes    If you are a surviving spouse and you receive a tax refund check in both your name and your deceased spouse's name, you can have the check reissued in your name alone. Efile taxes Return the joint-name check marked “VOID” to your local IRS office or the service center where you mailed your return, along with a written request for reissuance of the refund check. Efile taxes A new check will be issued in your name and mailed to you. Efile taxes Death certificate. Efile taxes   When filing the decedent's final income tax return, do not attach the death certificate or other proof of death to the final return. Efile taxes Instead, keep it for your records and provide it if requested. Efile taxes Nonresident Alien If the decedent was a nonresident alien who would have had to file Form 1040NR, U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes Nonresident Alien Income Tax Return, you must file that form for the decedent's final tax year. Efile taxes See the Instructions for Form 1040NR for the filing requirements, due date, and where to file. Efile taxes Joint Return Generally, the personal representative and the surviving spouse can file a joint return for the decedent and the surviving spouse. Efile taxes However, the surviving spouse alone can file the joint return if no personal representative has been appointed before the due date for filing the final joint return for the year of death. Efile taxes This also applies to the return for the preceding year if the decedent died after the close of the preceding tax year and before filing the return for that year. Efile taxes The income of the decedent that was includible on his or her return for the year up to the date of death (see Income To Include, later) and the income of the surviving spouse for the entire year must be included in the final joint return. Efile taxes A final joint return with the decedent cannot be filed if the surviving spouse remarried before the end of the year of the decedent's death. Efile taxes The filing status of the decedent in this instance is married filing a separate return. Efile taxes For information about tax benefits to which a surviving spouse may be entitled, see Tax Benefits for Survivors, later, under Other Tax Information. Efile taxes Personal representative may revoke joint return election. Efile taxes   A court-appointed personal representative may revoke an election to file a joint return previously made by the surviving spouse alone. Efile taxes This is done by filing a separate return for the decedent within one year from the due date of the return (including any extensions). Efile taxes The joint return made by the surviving spouse will then be regarded as the separate return of that spouse by excluding the decedent's items and refiguring the tax liability. Efile taxes Relief from joint liability. Efile taxes   In some cases, one spouse may be relieved of joint liability for tax, interest, and penalties on a joint return for items of the other spouse that were incorrectly reported on the joint return. Efile taxes If the decedent qualified for this relief while alive, the personal representative can pursue an existing request, or file a request, for relief from joint liability. Efile taxes For information on requesting this relief, see Publication 971, Innocent Spouse Relief. Efile taxes Income To Include The decedent's income includible on the final return is generally determined as if the person were still alive except that the taxable period is usually shorter because it ends on the date of death. Efile taxes The method of accounting regularly used by the decedent before death also determines the income includible on the final return. Efile taxes This section explains how some types of income are reported on the final return. Efile taxes For more information about accounting methods, see Publication 538, Accounting Periods and Methods. Efile taxes Cash Method If the decedent accounted for income under the cash method, only those items actually or constructively received before death are included on the final return. Efile taxes Constructive receipt of income. Efile taxes   Interest from coupons on the decedent's bonds is constructively received by the decedent if the coupons matured in the decedent's final tax year, but had not been cashed. Efile taxes Include the interest income on the final return. Efile taxes   Generally, a dividend is considered constructively received if it was available for use by the decedent without restriction. Efile taxes If the corporation customarily mailed its dividend checks, the dividend was includible when received. Efile taxes If the individual died between the time the dividend was declared and the time it was received in the mail, the decedent did not constructively receive it before death. Efile taxes Do not include the dividend in the final return. Efile taxes Accrual Method Generally, under an accrual method of accounting, income is reported when earned. Efile taxes If the decedent used an accrual method, only the income items normally accrued before death are included on the final return. Efile taxes Interest and Dividend Income (Forms 1099) Form(s) 1099 reporting interest and dividends earned by the decedent before death should be received and the amounts included on the decedent's final return. Efile taxes A separate Form 1099 should show the interest and dividends earned after the date of the decedent's death and paid to the estate or other recipient that must include those amounts on its return. Efile taxes You can request corrected Forms 1099 if these forms do not properly reflect the right recipient or amounts. Efile taxes For example, a Form 1099-INT, reporting interest payable to the decedent, may include income that should be reported on the final income tax return of the decedent, as well as income that the estate or other recipient should report, either as income earned after death or as income in respect of the decedent (discussed later). Efile taxes For income earned after death, you should ask the payer for a Form 1099 that properly identifies the recipient (by name and identification number) and the proper amount. Efile taxes If that is not possible, or if the form includes an amount that represents income in respect of the decedent, report the interest as shown next under How to report. Efile taxes See U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes savings bonds acquired from decedent under Income in Respect of a Decedent, later, for information on savings bond interest that may have to be reported on the final return. Efile taxes How to report. Efile taxes   If you are preparing the decedent's final return and you have received a Form 1099-INT for the decedent that includes amounts belonging to the decedent and to another recipient (the decedent's estate or another beneficiary), report the total interest shown on Form 1099-INT on Schedule B (Form 1040A or 1040), Interest and Ordinary Dividends. Efile taxes Next, enter a subtotal of the interest shown on Forms 1099, and the interest reportable from other sources for which you did not receive Forms 1099. Efile taxes Then, show any interest (including any interest you receive as a nominee) belonging to another recipient separately and subtract it from the subtotal. Efile taxes Identify the amount of this adjustment as “Nominee Distribution” or other appropriate designation. Efile taxes   Report dividend income for which you received a Form 1099-DIV, Dividends and Distributions, on the appropriate schedule using the same procedure. Efile taxes    Note. Efile taxes If the decedent received amounts as a nominee, you must give the actual owner a Form 1099, unless the owner is the decedent's spouse. Efile taxes See General Instructions for Certain Information Returns (Forms 1097, 1098, 1099, 3921, 3922, 5498, and W-2G) for more information on filing Forms 1099. Efile taxes Partnership Income The death of a partner closes the partnership's tax year for that partner. Efile taxes Generally, it does not close the partnership's tax year for the remaining partners. Efile taxes The decedent's distributive share of partnership items must be figured as if the partnership's tax year ended on the date the partner died. Efile taxes To avoid an interim closing of the partnership books, the partners can agree to estimate the decedent's distributive share by prorating the amounts the partner would have included for the entire partnership tax year. Efile taxes On the decedent's final return, include the decedent's distributive share of partnership items for the following periods. Efile taxes The partnership's tax year that ended within or with the decedent's final tax year (the year ending on the date of death). Efile taxes The period, if any, from the end of the partnership's tax year in (1) to the decedent's date of death. Efile taxes Example. Efile taxes Mary Smith was a partner in XYZ partnership and reported her income on a tax year ending December 31. Efile taxes The partnership uses a tax year ending June 30. Efile taxes Mary died August 31, 2013, and her estate established its tax year through August 31. Efile taxes The distributive share of partnership items based on the decedent's partnership interest is reported as follows. Efile taxes Final Return for the Decedent—January 1 through August 31, 2013, includes XYZ partnership items from (a) the partnership tax year ending June 30, 2013, and (b) the partnership tax year beginning July 1, 2013, and ending August 31, 2013 (the date of death). Efile taxes Income Tax Return of the Estate—September 1, 2013, through August 31, 2014, includes XYZ partnership items for the period September 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014. Efile taxes S Corporation Income If the decedent was a shareholder in an S corporation, include on the final return the decedent's share of the S corporation's items of income, loss, deduction, and credit for the following periods. Efile taxes The corporation's tax year that ended within or with the decedent's final tax year (the year ending on the date of death). Efile taxes The period, if any, from the end of the corporation's tax year in (1) to the decedent's date of death. Efile taxes Self-Employment Income Include self-employment income actually or constructively received or accrued, depending on the decedent's accounting method. Efile taxes For self-employment tax purposes only, the decedent's self-employment income will include the decedent's distributive share of a partnership's income or loss through the end of the month in which death occurred. Efile taxes For this purpose, the partnership's income or loss is considered to be earned ratably over the partnership's tax year. Efile taxes Community Income If the decedent was married and domiciled in a community property state, half of the income received and half of the expenses paid during the decedent's tax year by either the decedent or spouse may be considered to be the income and expenses of the other. Efile taxes For more information, see Publication 555, Community Property. Efile taxes HSA, Archer MSA, or Medicare Advantage MSA The treatment of an HSA (health savings account), an Archer MSA (medical savings account), or a Medicare Advantage MSA at the death of the account holder, depends on who acquires the interest in the account. Efile taxes If the decedent's estate acquires the interest, the fair market value (FMV) of the assets in the account on the date of death is included in income on the decedent's final return. Efile taxes The estate tax deduction, discussed later, does not apply to this amount. Efile taxes If a beneficiary acquires the interest, see the discussion under Income in Respect of a Decedent, later. Efile taxes For other information on HSAs, Archer MSAs, or Medicare Advantage MSAs, see Publication 969, Health Savings Accounts and Other Tax-Favored Health Plans. Efile taxes Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA) Generally, the balance in a Coverdell ESA must be distributed within 30 days after the individual for whom the account was established reaches age 30, or dies, whichever is earlier. Efile taxes The treatment of the Coverdell ESA at the death of an individual under age 30 depends on who acquires the interest in the account. Efile taxes If the decedent's estate acquires the interest, the earnings on the account must be included on the final income tax return of the decedent. Efile taxes The estate tax deduction, discussed later, does not apply to this amount. Efile taxes If a beneficiary acquires the interest, see the discussion under Income in Respect of a Decedent, later. Efile taxes The age 30 limitation does not apply if the individual for whom the account was established or the beneficiary that acquires the account is an individual with special needs. Efile taxes This includes an individual who, because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition (including a learning disability), requires additional time to complete his or her education. Efile taxes For more information on Coverdell ESAs, see Publication 970, Tax Benefits for Education. Efile taxes Accelerated Death Benefits Accelerated death benefits are amounts received under a life insurance contract before the death of the insured individual. Efile taxes These benefits also include amounts received on the sale or assignment of the contract to a viatical settlement provider. Efile taxes Generally, if the decedent received accelerated death benefits on the life of a terminally or chronically ill individual, whether on his or her own life or on the life of another person, those benefits are not included in the decedent's income. Efile taxes For more information, see the discussion under Gifts, Insurance, and Inheritances under Other Tax Information, later. Efile taxes Exemptions and Deductions Generally, the rules for exemptions and deductions allowed to an individual also apply to the decedent's final income tax return. Efile taxes Show on the final return deductible items the decedent paid (or accrued, if the decedent reported deductions on an accrual method) before death. Efile taxes This section contains a detailed discussion of medical expenses because the tax treatment of the decedent's medical expenses can be different. Efile taxes See Medical Expenses, later. Efile taxes Exemptions You can claim the decedent's personal exemption on the final income tax return. Efile taxes If the decedent was another person's dependent (for example, a parent's), you cannot claim the personal exemption on the decedent's final return. Efile taxes Standard Deduction If you do not itemize deductions on the final return, the full amount of the appropriate standard deduction is allowed regardless of the date of death. Efile taxes For information on the appropriate standard deduction, see the Form 1040 income tax return instructions or Publication 501. Efile taxes Medical Expenses Medical expenses paid before death by the decedent are deductible, subject to limits, on the final income tax return if deductions are itemized. Efile taxes This includes expenses for the decedent, as well as for the decedent's spouse and dependents. Efile taxes Beginning in 2013, medical expenses exceeding 10% of adjusted gross income (AGI) may be deducted, unless the decedent or their spouse is age 65 or older. Efile taxes In that case medical expenses exceeding 7. Efile taxes 5% of AGI may be deducted. Efile taxes Qualified medical expenses are not deductible if paid with a tax-free distribution from an HSA or an Archer MSA. Efile taxes Election for decedent's expenses. Efile taxes   Medical expenses not paid before death are liabilities of the estate and are shown on the federal estate tax return (Form 706). Efile taxes However, if medical expenses for the decedent are paid out of the estate during the 1-year period beginning with the day after death, you can elect to treat all or part of the expenses as paid by the decedent at the time they were incurred. Efile taxes   If you make the election, you can claim all or part of the expenses on the decedent's income tax return (if deductions are itemized) rather than on the federal estate tax return (Form 706). Efile taxes You can deduct expenses incurred in the year of death on the final income tax return. Efile taxes You should file an amended return (Form 1040X) for medical expenses incurred in an earlier year, unless the statutory period for filing a claim for that year has expired. Efile taxes   The amount you can deduct on the income tax return is the amount above 10% of adjusted gross income (or 7. Efile taxes 5% of adjusted gross income if the decedent or the decedent's spouse was born before January 2, 1949). Efile taxes Amounts not deductible because of this percentage cannot be claimed on the federal estate tax return. Efile taxes Making the election. Efile taxes   You make the election by attaching a statement, in duplicate, to the decedent's income tax return or amended return. Efile taxes The statement must state that you have not claimed the amount as an estate tax deduction, and that the estate waives the right to claim the amount as a deduction. Efile taxes This election applies only to expenses incurred for the decedent, not to expenses incurred to provide medical care for dependents. Efile taxes Example. Efile taxes Richard Brown used the cash method of accounting and filed his income tax return on a calendar year basis. Efile taxes Richard died on June 1, 2013, at the age of 78, after incurring $800 in medical expenses. Efile taxes Of that amount, $500 was incurred in 2012 and $300 was incurred in 2013. Efile taxes Richard itemized his deductions when he filed his 2012 income tax return. Efile taxes The personal representative of the estate paid the entire $800 liability in August 2013. Efile taxes The personal representative may file an amended return (Form 1040X) for 2012 claiming the $500 medical expense as a deduction, subject to the 7. Efile taxes 5% limit. Efile taxes The $300 of expenses incurred in 2013 can be deducted on the final income tax return if deductions are itemized, subject to the 7. Efile taxes 5% limit. Efile taxes The personal representative must file a statement in duplicate with each return stating that these amounts have not been claimed on the federal estate tax return (Form 706), and waiving the right to claim such a deduction on Form 706 in the future. Efile taxes Medical expenses not paid by estate. Efile taxes   If you paid medical expenses for your deceased spouse or dependent, claim the expenses on your tax return for the year in which you paid them, whether they are paid before or after the decedent's death. Efile taxes If the decedent was a child of divorced or separated parents, the medical expenses can usually be claimed by both the custodial and noncustodial parent to the extent paid by that parent during the year. Efile taxes Insurance reimbursements. Efile taxes   Insurance reimbursements of previously deducted medical expenses due a decedent at the time of death and later received by the decedent's estate are includible in the income tax return of the estate (Form 1041) for the year the reimbursements are received. Efile taxes The reimbursements are also includible in the decedent's gross estate. Efile taxes No deduction for funeral expenses can be taken on the final Form 1040 of a decedent. Efile taxes These expenses may be deductible for estate tax purposes on Form 706. Efile taxes Deduction for Losses A decedent's net operating loss deduction from a prior year and any capital losses (including capital loss carryovers) can be deducted only on the decedent's final income tax return. Efile taxes A net operating loss on the decedent's final income tax return can be carried back to prior years. Efile taxes (See Publication 536, Net Operating Losses (NOLs) for Individuals, Estates, and Trusts. Efile taxes ) You cannot deduct any unused net operating loss or capital loss on the estate's income tax return. Efile taxes At-risk loss limits. Efile taxes   Special at-risk rules apply to most activities that are engaged in as a trade or business or for the production of income. Efile taxes   These rules limit the deductible loss to the amount which the individual was considered at-risk in the activity. Efile taxes An individual generally will be considered at-risk to the extent of the money and the adjusted basis of property that he or she contributed to the activity and certain amounts the individual borrowed for use in the activity. Efile taxes An individual will be considered at-risk for amounts borrowed only if he or she was personally liable for the repayment or if the amounts borrowed were secured by property other than that used in the activity. Efile taxes The individual is not considered at-risk for borrowed amounts if the lender has an interest in the activity or if the lender is related to a person who has an interest in the activity. Efile taxes For more information, see Publication 925, Passive Activity and At-Risk Rules. Efile taxes Passive activity rules. Efile taxes   A passive activity is any trade or business activity in which the taxpayer does not materially participate. Efile taxes To determine material participation, see Publication 925. Efile taxes Rental activities are passive activities regardless of the taxpayer's participation, unless the taxpayer meets certain eligibility requirements. Efile taxes   Individuals, estates, and trusts can offset passive activity losses only against passive activity income. Efile taxes Passive activity losses or credits not allowed in one tax year can be carried forward to the next year. Efile taxes   If a passive activity interest is transferred because a taxpayer dies, the accumulated unused passive activity losses are allowed as a deduction against the decedent's income in the year of death. Efile taxes Losses are allowed only to the extent they are greater than the excess of the transferee's (recipient of the interest transferred) basis in the property over the decedent's adjusted basis in the property immediately before death. Efile taxes The part of the accumulated losses equal to the excess is not allowed as a deduction for any tax year. Efile taxes   Use Form 8582, Passive Activity Loss Limitations, to summarize losses and income from passive activities and to figure the amounts allowed. Efile taxes For more information, see Publication 925. Efile taxes Credits, Other Taxes, and Payments Discussed below are some of the tax credits, types of taxes that may be owed, income tax withheld, and estimated tax payments reported on the final return of a decedent. Efile taxes Credits On the final income tax return, you can claim any tax credits that applied to the decedent before death. Efile taxes Some of these credits are discussed next. Efile taxes Earned income credit. Efile taxes   If the decedent was an eligible individual, you can claim the earned income credit on the decedent's final return even though the return covers less than 12 months. Efile taxes If the allowable credit is more than the tax liability for the year, the excess is refunded. Efile taxes   For more information, see Publication 596, Earned Income Credit (EIC). Efile taxes Credit for the elderly or the disabled. Efile taxes   This credit is allowable on a decedent's final income tax return if the decedent met both of the following requirements in the year of death. Efile taxes The decedent: Was a “qualified individual,” and Had income (adjusted gross income (AGI) and nontaxable social security and pensions) less than certain limits. Efile taxes   For details on qualifying for or figuring the credit, see Publication 524, Credit for the Elderly or the Disabled. Efile taxes Child tax credit. Efile taxes   If the decedent had a qualifying child, you may be able to claim the child tax credit on the decedent's final return even though the return covers less than 12 months. Efile taxes You may be able to claim the additional child tax credit and get a refund if the credit is more than the decedent's liability. Efile taxes For more information, see the Instructions for Form 1040. Efile taxes Adoption credit. Efile taxes   Depending upon when the adoption was finalized, this credit may be taken on a decedent's final income tax return if the decedent: Adopted an eligible child and paid qualified adoption expenses, or Has a carryforward of an adoption credit from a prior year. Efile taxes   Also, if the decedent is survived by a spouse who meets the filing status of qualifying widow(er), unused adoption credit may be carried forward and used following the death of the decedent. Efile taxes See Form 8839, Qualified Adoption Expenses, and its instructions for more details. Efile taxes General business tax credit. Efile taxes   The general business credit available to a taxpayer is limited. Efile taxes Any credit arising in a tax year beginning before 1998 that has not been used up can be carried forward for up to 15 years. Efile taxes Any unused credit arising in a tax year beginning after 1997 has a 1-year carryback and a 20-year carryforward period. Efile taxes   After the carryforward period, a deduction may be allowed for any unused business credit. Efile taxes If the taxpayer dies before the end of the carryforward period, the deduction generally is allowed in the year of death. Efile taxes   For more information on the general business credit, see Publication 334, Tax Guide for Small Business. Efile taxes Other Taxes Taxes other than income tax that may be owed on the final return of a decedent include self-employment tax and alternative minimum tax, which are reported on Form 1040. Efile taxes Self-employment tax. Efile taxes   Self-employment tax may be owed on the final return if either of the following applied to the decedent in the year of death: Net earnings from self-employment (excluding income described in (2)) were $400 or more; or Wages from services performed as a church employee were $108. Efile taxes 28 or more. Efile taxes Alternative minimum tax (AMT). Efile taxes   The tax laws give special treatment to certain types of income and allow special deductions and credits for certain types of expenses. Efile taxes The alternative minimum tax (AMT) was enacted so taxpayers who benefit from these laws still pay at least a minimum amount of tax. Efile taxes In general, the AMT is the excess of the tentative minimum tax over the regular tax shown on the return. Efile taxes Form 6251. Efile taxes    Use Form 6251, Alternative Minimum Tax—Individuals, to determine if this tax applies to the decedent. Efile taxes See the form instructions for information on when you must attach Form 6251 to Form 1040. Efile taxes Form 8801. Efile taxes   If the decedent paid AMT in a previous year or had a credit carryforward, the decedent may be eligible for a minimum tax credit. Efile taxes See Form 8801, Credit for Prior Year Minimum Tax—Individuals, Estates, and Trusts. Efile taxes Payments of Tax The income tax withheld from the decedent's salary, wages, pensions, or annuities, and the amount paid as estimated tax are credits (advance payments of tax) that must be claimed on the final return. Efile taxes Tax Forgiveness for Armed Forces Members, Victims of Terrorism, and Astronauts Income tax liability may be forgiven for a decedent who dies due to service in a combat zone, due to military or terrorist actions, as a result of a terrorist attack, or while serving in the line of duty as an astronaut. Efile taxes Combat Zone If a member of the Armed Forces of the United States dies while in active service in a combat zone or from wounds, disease, or injury incurred in a combat zone, the decedent's income tax liability is abated (forgiven) for the entire year in which death occurred and for any prior tax year ending on or after the first day the person served in a combat zone in active service. Efile taxes For this purpose, a qualified hazardous duty area is treated as a combat zone. Efile taxes If the tax (including interest, additions to the tax, and additional amounts) for these years has been assessed, the assessment will be forgiven. Efile taxes If the tax has been collected (regardless of the date of collection), that tax will be credited or refunded. Efile taxes Any of the decedent's income tax for tax years before those mentioned above that remains unpaid as of the actual (or presumptive) date of death will not be assessed. Efile taxes If any unpaid tax (including interest, additions to the tax, and additional amounts) has been assessed, this assessment will be forgiven. Efile taxes Also, if any tax was collected after the date of death, that amount will be credited or refunded. Efile taxes The date of death of a member of the Armed Forces reported as missing in action or as a prisoner of war is the date his or her name is removed from missing status for military pay purposes. Efile taxes This is true even if death actually occurred earlier. Efile taxes For other tax information for members of the Armed Forces, see Publication 3, Armed Forces' Tax Guide. Efile taxes Military or Terrorist Actions The decedent's income tax liability is forgiven if, at death, he or she was a military or civilian employee of the United States who died because of wounds or injury incurred: While a U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes employee, and In a military or terrorist action. Efile taxes The forgiveness applies to the tax year in which death occurred and for any earlier tax year, beginning with the year before the year in which the wounds or injury occurred. Efile taxes Example. Efile taxes The income tax liability of a civilian employee of the United States who died in 2013 because of wounds incurred while a U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes employee in a terrorist attack that occurred in 2008 will be forgiven for 2013 and for all prior tax years in the period 2007 through 2012. Efile taxes Refunds are allowed for the tax years for which the period for filing a claim for refund has not ended, as discussed later. Efile taxes Military or terrorist action defined. Efile taxes   A military or terrorist action means the following. Efile taxes Any terrorist activity that most of the evidence indicates was directed against the United States or any of its allies. Efile taxes Any military action involving the U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes Armed Forces and resulting from violence or aggression against the United States or any of its allies, or the threat of such violence or aggression. Efile taxes   Terrorist activity includes criminal offenses intended to coerce, intimidate, or retaliate against the government or civilian population. Efile taxes Military action does not include training exercises. Efile taxes Any multinational force in which the United States is participating is treated as an ally of the United States. Efile taxes Determining if a terrorist activity or military action has occurred. Efile taxes   You may rely on published guidance from the IRS to determine if a particular event is considered a terrorist activity or military action. Efile taxes Specified Terrorist Victim The Victims of Terrorism Tax Relief Act of 2001 (the Act) provides tax relief for those injured or killed as a result of terrorist attacks, certain survivors of those killed as a result of terrorist attacks, and others who were affected by terrorist attacks. Efile taxes Under the Act, the federal income tax liability of those killed in the following attacks (specified terrorist victim) is forgiven for certain tax years. Efile taxes The April 19, 1995, terrorist attack on the Alfred P. Efile taxes Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City). Efile taxes The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Efile taxes The terrorist attacks involving anthrax occurring after September 10, 2001, and before January 1, 2002. Efile taxes The Act also exempts from federal income tax the following types of income. Efile taxes Qualified disaster relief payments made after September 10, 2001, to cover personal, family, living, or funeral expenses incurred because of a terrorist attack. Efile taxes Certain disability payments received in tax years ending after September 10, 2001, for injuries sustained in a terrorist attack. Efile taxes Certain death benefits paid by an employer to the survivor of an employee because the employee died as a result of a terrorist attack. Efile taxes Payments from the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund 2001. Efile taxes The Act also reduces the estate tax of individuals who die as a result of a terrorist attack. Efile taxes See Publication 3920, Tax Relief for Victims of Terrorist Attacks, for more information. Efile taxes Astronauts Legislation extended the tax relief available under the Victims of Terrorism Tax Relief Act of 2001 (the Act) to astronauts who died in the line of duty after December 31, 2002. Efile taxes The decedent's income tax liability is forgiven for the tax year in which death occurs, and for the tax year prior to death. Efile taxes For information on death benefit payments and the reduction of federal estate taxes, see Publication 3920. Efile taxes However, the discussions in that publication under Death Benefits and Estate Tax Reduction should be modified for astronauts (for example, by using the date of death of the astronaut instead of September 11, 2001). Efile taxes For more information on the Act, see Publication 3920. Efile taxes Claim for Credit or Refund If any of these tax-forgiveness situations applies to a prior year tax, any tax paid for which the period for filing a claim has not ended will be credited or refunded. Efile taxes If any tax is still due, it will be canceled. Efile taxes The normal period for filing a claim for credit or refund is 3 years after the return was filed or 2 years after the tax was paid, whichever is later. Efile taxes If death occurred in a combat zone or from wounds, disease, or injury incurred in a combat zone, the period for filing the claim is extended by: The amount of time served in the combat zone (including any period in which the individual was in missing status), plus The period of continuous qualified hospitalization for injury from service in the combat zone, if any, plus The next 180 days. Efile taxes Qualified hospitalization means any hospitalization outside the United States and any hospitalization in the United States of not more than 5 years. Efile taxes This extended period for filing the claim also applies to a member of the Armed Forces who was deployed outside the United States in a designated contingency operation. Efile taxes Filing a claim. Efile taxes   Use the following procedures to file a claim. Efile taxes If a U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes individual income tax return (Form 1040, 1040A, or 1040EZ) has not been filed, you should make a claim for refund of any withheld income tax or estimated tax payments by filing Form 1040. Efile taxes Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, must accompany all returns. Efile taxes If a U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes individual income tax return has been filed, you should make a claim for refund by filing Form 1040X. Efile taxes You must file a separate Form 1040X for each year in question. Efile taxes   You must file these returns and claims at the following address for regular mail (U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes Postal Service). Efile taxes    Internal Revenue Service 333 W. Efile taxes Pershing, P5–6503 Kansas City, MO 64108   Identify all returns and claims for refund by writing “Iraq—KIA,” “Enduring Freedom—KIA,” “Kosovo Operation—KIA,” “Desert Storm—KIA,” or “Former Yugoslavia—KIA” in bold letters on the top of page 1 of the return or claim. Efile taxes On the applicable return, write the same phrase on the line for total tax. Efile taxes If the individual was killed in a terrorist or military action, put “KITA” on the front of the return and on the line for total tax. Efile taxes   Include an attachment showing the computation of the decedent's tax liability and a computation of the amount to be forgiven. Efile taxes On joint returns, make an allocation of the tax as described below under Joint returns. Efile taxes If you cannot make a proper allocation, attach a statement of all income and deductions allocable to each spouse and the IRS will make the proper allocation. Efile taxes   You must attach Form 1310 to all returns and claims for refund. Efile taxes However, for exceptions to filing Form 1310, see Form 1310. Efile taxes Statement of Person Claiming Refund Due a Deceased Taxpayer, under Refund, earlier. Efile taxes   You must also attach proof of death that includes a statement that the individual was a U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes employee on the date of injury and on the date of death and died as the result of a military or terrorist action. Efile taxes For military and civilian employees of the Department of Defense, attach DD Form 1300, Report of Casualty. Efile taxes For other U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes civilian employees killed in the United States, attach a death certificate and a certification (letter) from the federal employer. Efile taxes For other U. Efile taxes S. Efile taxes civilian employees killed overseas, attach a certification from the Department of State. Efile taxes   If you do not have enough tax information to file a timely claim for refund, you can suspend the period for filing a claim by filing Form 1040X. Efile taxes Attach Form 1310, any required documentation currently available, and a statement that you will file an amended claim as soon as you have the required tax information. Efile taxes Joint returns. Efile taxes   If a joint return was filed, only the decedent's part of the income tax liability is eligible for forgiveness. Efile taxes Determine the decedent's tax liability as follows. Efile taxes Figure the income tax for which the decedent would have been liable if a separate return had been filed. Efile taxes Figure the income tax for which the spouse would have been liable if a separate return had been filed. Efile taxes Multiply the joint tax liability by a fraction. Efile taxes The numerator of the fraction is the amount in (1), above. Efile taxes The denominator of the fraction is the total of (1) and (2). Efile taxes   The resulting amount from (3) above is the decedent's tax liability eligible for forgiveness. Efile taxes Filing Reminders To minimize the time needed to process the decedent's final return and issue any refund, be sure to follow these procedures. Efile taxes Write “DECEASED,” the decedent's name, and the date of death across the top of the tax return. Efile taxes If a personal representative has been appointed, the personal representative must sign the return. Efile taxes If it is a joint return, the surviving spouse must also sign it. Efile taxes If you are the decedent's spouse filing a joint return with the decedent and no personal representative has been appointed, write “Filing as surviving spouse” in the area where you sign the return. Efile taxes If no personal representative has been appointed and if there is no surviving spouse, the person in charge of the decedent's property must file and sign the return as “personal representative. Efile taxes ” To claim a refund for the decedent, do the following. Efile taxes If you are the decedent's spouse filing a joint return with the decedent, file only the tax return to claim the refund. Efile taxes If you are the personal representative and the return is not a joint return filed with the decedent's surviving spouse, file the return and attach a copy of the certificate that shows your appointment by the court. Efile taxes (A power of attorney or a copy of the decedent's will is not acceptable evidence of your appointment as the personal representative. Efile taxes ) If you are filing an amended return, attach Form 1310 and a copy of the certificate of appointment (or, if you have already sent the certificate of appointment to IRS, write “Certificate Previously Filed” at the bottom of Form 1310). Efile taxes If you are not filing a joint return as the surviving spouse and a personal representative has not been appointed, file the return and attach Form 1310. Efile taxes Other Tax Information Discussed below is information about the effect of an individual's death on the income tax liability of the survivors (including widows and widowers), the beneficiaries, and the estate. Efile taxes Tax Benefits for Survivors Survivors can qualify for certain benefits when filing their own income tax returns. Efile taxes Joint return by surviving spouse. Efile taxes   A surviving spouse can file a joint return for the year of death and may qualify for special tax rates for the following 2 years, as explained under Qualifying widows and widowers, later. Efile taxes Decedent as your dependent. Efile taxes   If the decedent qualified as your dependent for a part of the year before death, you can claim the exemption for the dependent on your tax return, regardless of when death occurred during the year. Efile taxes   If the decedent was your qualifying child, you may be able to claim the child tax credit or the earned income credit. Efile taxes To determine if you qualify for the child tax credit, see the instructions for Form 1040, line 51; Form 1040A, line 33; or Form 1040NR, line 48. Efile taxes To determine if you qualify for the earned income credit, see the instructions for Form 1040, lines 64a and 64b or Form 1040A, lines 38a and 38b. Efile taxes Qualifying widows and widowers. Efile taxes   If your spouse died within the 2 tax years preceding the year for which your return is being filed, you may be eligible to claim the filing status of qualifying widow(er) with dependent child and qualify to use the married-filing-jointly tax rates. Efile taxes Requirements. Efile taxes   Generally, you qualify for this special benefit if you meet all of the following requirements. Efile taxes You were entitled to file a joint return with your spouse for the year of death—whether or not you actually filed jointly. Efile taxes You did not remarry before the end of the current tax year. Efile taxes You have a child, stepchild, or foster child who qualifies as your dependent for the tax year. Efile taxes You provide more than half the cost of maintaining your home, which is the principal residence of that child for the entire year except for temporary absences. Efile taxes Example. Efile taxes William Burns' wife died in 2010. Efile taxes William has not remarried and continued throughout 2011 and 2012 to maintain a home for himself and his dependent child. Efile taxes For 2010, he was entitled to file a joint return for himself and his deceased wife. Efile taxes For 2011 and 2012, he qualifies to file as a qualifying widower with dependent child. Efile taxes For later years, he may qualify to file as a head of household. Efile taxes Figuring your tax. Efile taxes   Check the box on line 5 (Form 1040 or 1040A) under Filing Status on your tax return. Efile taxes Use the Tax Rate Schedule or the column in the Tax Table for Married filing jointly, which gives you the split-income benefits. Efile taxes   The last year you can file jointly with, or claim an exemption for, your deceased spouse is the year of death. Efile taxes Joint return filing rules. Efile taxes   If you are the surviving spouse and a personal representative is handling the estate for the decedent, you should coordinate filing your return for the year of death with this personal representative. Efile taxes See Joint Return under Final Income Tax Return for Decedent—Form 1040, earlier. Efile taxes Income in Respect of a Decedent All income the decedent would have received had death not occurred that was not properly includible on the final return, discussed earlier, is income in respect of a decedent. Efile taxes If the decedent is a specified terrorist victim (see Specified Terrorist Victim, earlier), income received after the date of death and before the end of the decedent's tax year (determined without regard to death) is excluded from the recipient's gross income. Efile taxes This exclusion does not apply to certain income. Efile taxes For more information, see Publication 3920. Efile taxes How To Report Income in respect of a decedent must be included in the income of one of the following. Efile taxes The decedent's estate, if the estate receives it. Efile taxes The beneficiary, if the right to income is passed directly to the beneficiary and the beneficiary receives it. Efile taxes Any person to whom the estate properly distributes the right to receive it. Efile taxes If you have to include income in respect of a decedent in your gross income and an estate tax return (Form 706) was filed for the decedent, you may be able to claim a deduction for the estate tax paid on that income. Efile taxes See Estate Tax Deduction, later. Efile taxes Example 1. Efile taxes Frank Johnson owned and operated an apple orchard. Efile taxes He used the cash method of accounting. Efile taxes He sold and delivered 1,000 bushels of apples to a canning factory for $2,000, but did not receive payment before his death. Efile taxes The proceeds from the sale are income in respect of a decedent. Efile taxes When the estate was settled, payment had not been made and the estate transferred the right to the payment to his widow. Efile taxes When Frank's widow collects the $2,000, she must include that amount in her return. Efile taxes It is not reported on the final return of the decedent or on the return of the estate. Efile taxes Example 2. Efile taxes Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that Frank used the accrual method of accounting. Efile taxes The amount accrued from the sale of the apples would be included on his final return. Efile taxes Neither the estate nor the widow would realize income in respect of a decedent when the money is later paid. Efile taxes Example 3. Efile taxes On February 1, George High, a cash method taxpayer, sold his tractor for $3,000, payable March 1 of the same year. Efile taxes His adjusted basis in the tractor was $2,000. Efile taxes George died on February 15, before receiving payment. Efile taxes The gain to be reported as income in respect of a decedent is the $1,000 difference between the decedent's basis in the property and the sale proceeds. Efile taxes In other words, the income in respect of a decedent is the gain the decedent would have realized had he lived. Efile taxes Example 4. Efile taxes Cathy O'Neil was entitled to a large salary payment at the date of her death. Efile taxes The amount was to be paid in five annual installments. Efile taxes The estate, after collecting two installments, distributed the right to the remaining installments to you, the beneficiary. Efile taxes The payments are income in respect of a decedent. Efile taxes None of the payments were includible on Cathy's final return. Efile taxes The estate must include in its income the two installments it received, and you must include in your income each of the three installments as you receive them. Efile taxes Example 5. Efile taxes You inherited the right to receive renewal commissions on life insurance sold by your father before his death. Efile taxes You inherited the right from your mother, who acquired it by bequest from your father. Efile taxes Your mother died before she received all the commissions she had the right to receive, so you received the rest. Efile taxes The commissions are income in respect of a decedent. Efile taxes None of these commissions were includible in your father's final return. Efile taxes The commissions received by your mother were included in her income. Efile taxes The commissions you received are not includible in your mother's income, even on her final return. Efile taxes You must include them in your income. Efile taxes Character of income. Efile taxes   The character of the income you receive in respect of a decedent remains the same as it would have been to the decedent if he or she were alive. Efile taxes If the income would have been a capital gain to the decedent, it will be a capital gain to you. Efile taxes Transfer of right to income. Efile taxes   If you transfer your right to income in respect of a decedent, you must include in your income the greater of: The amount you receive for the right, or The fair market value of the right you transfer. Efile taxes   If you make a gift of such a right, you must include in your income the fair market value of the right at the time of the gift. Efile taxes   If the right to income from an installment obligation is transferred, the amount you must include in income is reduced by the basis of the obligation. Efile taxes See Installment obligations, later. Efile taxes Transfer defined. Efile taxes   A transfer for this purpose includes a sale, exchange, or other disposition, the satisfaction of an installment obligation at other than face value, or the cancellation of an installment obligation. Efile taxes Installment obligations. Efile taxes   If the decedent sold property using the installment method and you are collecting payments on an installment obligation acquired from the decedent, use the same gross profit percentage the decedent used to figure the part of each payment that represents profit. Efile taxes Include in your income the same profit the decedent would have included had death not occurred. Efile taxes For more information, see Publication 537, Installment Sales. Efile taxes   If you dispose of an installment obligation acquired from a decedent (other than by transfer to the obligor), the rules explained in Publication 537 for figuring gain or loss on the disposition apply to you. Efile taxes Transfer to obligor. Efile taxes   A transfer of a right to income, discussed earlier, has occurred if the decedent (seller) sold property using the installment method and the installment obligation was transferred to the obligor (buyer or person legally obligated to pay the installments). Efile taxes A transfer also occurs if the obligation was canceled either at death or by the estate or person receiving the obligation from the decedent. Efile taxes An obligation that becomes unenforceable is treated as having been canceled. Efile taxes   If such a transfer occurs, the amount included in the income of the transferor (the estate or beneficiary) is the greater of the amount received or the fair market value of the installment obligation at the time of transfer, reduced by the basis of the obligation. Efile taxes The basis of the obligation is the decedent's basis, adjusted for all installment payments received after the decedent's death and before the transfer. Efile taxes   If the decedent and obligor were related persons, the fair market value of the obligation cannot be less than its face value. Efile taxes Specific Types of Income in Respect of a Decedent This section explains and provides examples of some specific types of income in respect of a decedent. Efile taxes Wages. Efile taxes   The entire amount of wages or other employee compensation earned by the decedent but unpaid at the time of death is income in respect of a decedent. Efile taxes The income is not reduced by any amounts withheld by the employer. Efile taxes If the income is $600 or more, the employer should report it in box 3 of Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, and give the recipient a copy of the form or a similar statement. Efile taxes   Wages paid as income in respect of a decedent are not subject to federal income tax withholding. Efile taxes However, if paid during the calendar year of death, they are subject to withholding for social security and Medicare taxes. Efile taxes These taxes should be included on the decedent's Form W-2 along with the taxes withheld before death. Efile taxes These wages are not included in box 1 of Form W-2. Efile taxes   Wages paid as income in respect of a decedent after the year of death generally are not subject to withholding for any federal taxe
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Government Benefits, Grants, and Financial Aid

Learn how to get benefits from the government and browse popular benefits by topic.

Free Money from the Government

Many people have heard that the government will give you money for almost any reason. This is not true.

You must complete an application and meet specific eligibility requirements in order to receive financial assistance from the government.

Benefits.gov can help you determine which types of government assistance you might qualify for and tell you where to apply.

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Benefits.gov can help you identify grants, loans, financial aid, and other benefits from the federal government, determine if you are eligible, and then tell you how and where to apply.

When looking for financial assistance, remember that there are differences between grants and loans. You are required to pay back a loan, often with interest. You are not required to pay back a grant.

Your state's human service or social service agency might also be able to provide financial assistance or refer you to local community organizations for help.

Grants

There are very few grants available to individuals, sometimes called “personal grants.” The best place to find money to help you and your family is Benefits.gov.

Most grants are awarded to universities, researchers, cities, states, counties, and non-profit organizations. You can find grants for organizations at Grants.gov.

Loans

GovLoans.gov can help you find loans from the government including business and education loans. You are required to pay back loans, often with interest.

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Agricultural and Rural Assistance

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The Efile Taxes

Efile taxes Publication 530 - Introductory Material Table of Contents What's New Reminders IntroductionOrdering forms and publications. Efile taxes Tax questions. Efile taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: What's New Simplified method for business use of home deduction. Efile taxes  The IRS now provides a simplified method to determine your expenses for business use of your home. Efile taxes For more information, see the Instructions for Schedule C (Form 1040). Efile taxes Reminders Future developments. Efile taxes  For the latest information about developments related to Publication 530, such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to www. Efile taxes irs. Efile taxes gov/pub530. Efile taxes Residential energy credits. Efile taxes  You may be able to take a credit if you made energy saving improvements to your home located in the United States in 2013. Efile taxes See Form 5695, Residential Energy Credits, for more information. Efile taxes Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP). Efile taxes  If you benefit from Pay-for-Performance Success Payments, the payments are not taxable under HAMP. Efile taxes Hardest Hit Fund and Emergency Homeowners' Loan Programs. Efile taxes  If you are a homeowner who received assistance under a State Housing Finance Agency Hardest Hit Fund program or an Emergency Homeowners' Loan Program, you may be able to deduct all of the payments you made on your mortgage during the year. Efile taxes For details, see Hardest Hit Fund and Emergency Homeowners' Loan Programs under What You Can and Cannot Deduct, later. Efile taxes Mortgage debt forgiveness. Efile taxes  You can exclude from gross income any discharges of qualified principal residence indebtedness made after 2006 and before 2014. Efile taxes You must reduce the basis of your principal residence (but not below zero) by the amount you exclude. Efile taxes See Discharges of qualified principal residence indebtedness , later, and Form 982, Reduction of Tax Attributes Due to Discharge of Indebtedness (and Section 1082 Basis Adjustment), for more information. Efile taxes Repayment of first-time homebuyer credit. Efile taxes  Generally, you must repay any credit you claimed for a home you bought if you disposed of the home or it ceased to be your main home in 2013. Efile taxes If you bought the home in 2008 and you owned and used it as your main home for all of 2013, you generally must continue repaying the credit with your 2013 tax return, but you do not have to attach Form 5405, Repayment of the First-Time Homebuyer Credit. Efile taxes See Form 5405 and its instructions for details and for exceptions to the repayment rule. Efile taxes Photographs of missing children. Efile taxes  The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Efile taxes Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. Efile taxes You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child. Efile taxes Introduction This publication provides tax information for homeowners. Efile taxes Your home may be a house, condominium, cooperative apartment, mobile home, houseboat, or house trailer that contains sleeping space and toilet and cooking facilities. Efile taxes The following topics are explained. Efile taxes How you treat items such as settlement and closing costs, real estate taxes, sales taxes, home mortgage interest, and repairs. Efile taxes What you can and cannot deduct on your tax return. Efile taxes The tax credit you can claim if you received a mortgage credit certificate when you bought your home. Efile taxes Why you should keep track of adjustments to the basis of your home. Efile taxes (Your home's basis generally is what it cost; adjustments include the cost of any improvements you might make. Efile taxes ) What records you should keep as proof of the basis and adjusted basis. Efile taxes Comments and suggestions. Efile taxes   We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions. Efile taxes   You can write to us at the following address: Internal Revenue Service Tax Forms and Publications Division 1111 Constitution Ave. Efile taxes NW, IR-6526 Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. Efile taxes Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. Efile taxes   You can send your comments from www. Efile taxes irs. Efile taxes gov/formspubs/. Efile taxes Click on “More Information” and then on “Comment on Tax Forms and Publications”. Efile taxes   Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products. Efile taxes Ordering forms and publications. Efile taxes   Visit www. Efile taxes irs. Efile taxes gov/formspubs/ to download forms and publications, call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676), or write to the address below and receive a response within 10 days after your request is received. Efile taxes Internal Revenue Service 1201 N. Efile taxes Mitsubishi Motorway Bloomington, IL 61705-6613 Tax questions. Efile taxes   If you have a tax question, check the information available on IRS. Efile taxes gov or call 1-800-829-1040. Efile taxes We cannot answer tax questions sent to either of the above addresses. Efile taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 523 Selling Your Home 527 Residential Rental Property 547 Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts 551 Basis of Assets 555 Community Property 587 Business Use of Your Home 936 Home Mortgage Interest Deduction Form (and Instructions) 5405 Repayment of the First-Time Homebuyer Credit 5695 Residential Energy Credits 8396 Mortgage Interest Credit See How To Get Tax Help , near the end of this publication, for information about getting publications and forms. Efile taxes Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications