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540ez

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540ez

540ez Index Symbols 1099-C, Persons who each receive a Form 1099-C showing the full amount of debt. 540ez 501(c)(3) organizations, Section 501(c)(3) organization. 540ez A Abandonments, Abandonments Canceled debt, Canceled debt. 540ez Assistance (see Tax help) B Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Reduction of tax attributes, Bankruptcy and Insolvency Business Real property indebtedness, Qualified Real Property Business Indebtedness C Canceled debt, Canceled Debts, Persons who each receive a Form 1099-C showing the full amount of debt. 540ez Exceptions Deductible debt, Deductible Debt Gifts, Gifts, Bequests, Devises, and Inheritances Price reduced after purchase, Price Reduced After Purchase Student loans, Student Loans Exclusions Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy Insolvency, Insolvency Qualified farm indebtedness, Qualified Farm Indebtedness Qualified principal residence indebtedness, Qualified Principal Residence Indebtedness Qualified real property business indebtedness, Qualified Real Property Business Indebtedness Co-owners, Persons who each receive a Form 1099-C showing the full amount of debt. 540ez D Debts Stockholder's, Stockholder debt Definitions Adjusted tax attributes, Adjusted tax attributes. 540ez Main home, Main home. 540ez Qualified acquisition indebtedness, Definition of qualified acquisition indebtedness. 540ez Qualified farm indebtedness, Qualified Farm Indebtedness Qualified principal residence indebtedness, Qualified Principal Residence Indebtedness Qualified real property business indebtedness, Qualified Real Property Business Indebtedness E Educational loans, Student Loans Exceptions Home Affordable Modification Program, Home Affordable Modification Program F Farm indebtedness, Qualified Farm Indebtedness Reduction of tax attributes, Qualified Farm Indebtedness Foreclosures, Foreclosures and Repossessions Form 1099-A, Forms 1099-A and 1099-C. 540ez , Forms 1099-A and 1099-C. 540ez 1099-C, Forms 1099-A and 1099-C. 540ez , Forms 1099-A and 1099-C. 540ez Free tax services, Free help with your tax return. 540ez G Gifts, Gifts, Bequests, Devises, and Inheritances H Help (see Tax help) Home Affordable Modification Program, Home Affordable Modification Program I Income from, Canceled Debts Income from canceled debt, Canceled Debts Insolvency, Insolvency Reduction of tax attributes, Bankruptcy and Insolvency L Limits Excluded farm debt, Exclusion limit. 540ez Excluded principal residence indebtedness, Exclusion limit. 540ez Qualified real property business indebtedness, Exclusion limit. 540ez Loans Student, Student Loans M Missing children, photographs of, Reminder Mortgage Debt Relief Act (see Qualified Principal Residence Indebtedness) P Principal residence indebtedness, Qualified Principal Residence Indebtedness Publications (see Tax help) Q Qualified farm indebtedness, Qualified Farm Indebtedness Reduction of tax attributes, Qualified Farm Indebtedness Qualified principal residence indebtedness, Qualified Principal Residence Indebtedness Reduction of tax attributes, Qualified Principal Residence Indebtedness Qualified real property business indebtedness, Qualified Real Property Business Indebtedness Reduction of tax attributes, Qualified Real Property Business Indebtedness R Real property business indebtedness, Qualified Real Property Business Indebtedness Recapture Basis reductions, Recapture of basis reductions. 540ez Repossessions, Foreclosures and Repossessions S Stockholder debts, Stockholder debt Student loans, Student Loans Suggestions for publication, Comments and suggestions. 540ez T Tax attributes, reduction of Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy and Insolvency Insolvency, Bankruptcy and Insolvency Qualified farm indebtedness, Qualified Farm Indebtedness Qualified principal residence indebtedness, Qualified Principal Residence Indebtedness Qualified real property business indebtedness, Qualified Real Property Business Indebtedness Tax help, How To Get Tax Help TTY/TDD information, How To Get Tax Help Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications
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Mortgages for Home Buyers and Homeowners

Find mortgage programs and resources to get and manage a mortgage.


Finding a mortgage is one of the first steps involved in buying a home. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is the nation's housing agency. They have a helpful list of 9 steps to buying a home, which includes figuring out how much you can afford, knowing your rights, shopping for a loan, making an offer, getting a home inspection, and much more.

Shop for a Loan

One of the first steps you'll take in buying a home is shopping for a loan. Learn about common types of home mortgages. There are many sites that can help you find a housing loan:

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Home Buying Programs

There are many home buying programs to help you:

  • Home Buying Programs in Your State – Find state or local government home buying programs in your state.
  • Good Neighbor Next Door – If you're a law enforcement officer, pre-kindergarten through 12th grade teacher, or a firefighter/emergency medical technician, this program allows you to become a homeowner. If approved, you'll receive a 50% discount off the list price of a home, on the condition that you commit to live in the property as a sole residence for 36 months.
  • Local Public Housing Agency – This program helps public housing residents own a home by converting rent into a mortgage payment.

Mortgage Calculator

Use these calculators to estimate your potential mortgage and costs. 

Check the tips that HUD provides to avoid loan fraud and predatory lenders. The Federal Reserve also has a great collection of featured publications and resources on homes and mortgages.

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Mortgage Refinancing

Consider refinancing your mortgage if you can get a rate that is at least one percentage point lower than your existing rate and if you plan to keep the new mortgage for several years. Learn more about refinancing your mortgage.

Mortgage Payment Assistance

  • Making Home Affordable – The Department of Treasury and HUD can help struggling homeowners get mortgage relief through a variety of programs.
  • Housing Counseling Agencies – HUD helps these agencies provide homeowners with free or low-cost advice on home related issues.
  • Reverse Mortgages – HUD provides answers to frequently asked questions about reverse mortgages.

Foreclosures

You can find more information on foreclosures on our Foreclosure Resources page and HUD's Avoiding Foreclosure page.

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The 540ez

540ez 13. 540ez   Basis of Property Table of Contents Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Cost BasisReal Property Adjusted BasisIncreases to Basis Decreases to Basis Basis Other Than CostProperty Received for Services Taxable Exchanges Involuntary Conversions Nontaxable Exchanges Property Transferred From a Spouse Property Received as a Gift Inherited Property Property Changed From Personal to Business or Rental Use Stocks and Bonds Introduction This chapter discusses how to figure your basis in property. 540ez It is divided into the following sections. 540ez Cost basis. 540ez Adjusted basis. 540ez Basis other than cost. 540ez Your basis is the amount of your investment in property for tax purposes. 540ez Use the basis to figure gain or loss on the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property. 540ez Also use it to figure deductions for depreciation, amortization, depletion, and casualty losses. 540ez If you use property for both business or investment purposes and for personal purposes, you must allocate the basis based on the use. 540ez Only the basis allocated to the business or investment use of the property can be depreciated. 540ez Your original basis in property is adjusted (increased or decreased) by certain events. 540ez For example, if you make improvements to the property, increase your basis. 540ez If you take deductions for depreciation or casualty losses, or claim certain credits, reduce your basis. 540ez Keep accurate records of all items that affect the basis of your property. 540ez For more information on keeping records, see chapter 1. 540ez Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 15-B Employer's Tax Guide to Fringe Benefits 525 Taxable and Nontaxable Income 535 Business Expenses 537 Installment Sales 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 550 Investment Income and Expenses 551 Basis of Assets 946 How To Depreciate Property Cost Basis The basis of property you buy is usually its cost. 540ez The cost is the amount you pay in cash, debt obligations, other property, or services. 540ez Your cost also includes amounts you pay for the following items: Sales tax, Freight, Installation and testing, Excise taxes, Legal and accounting fees (when they must be capitalized), Revenue stamps, Recording fees, and Real estate taxes (if you assume liability for the seller). 540ez In addition, the basis of real estate and business assets may include other items. 540ez Loans with low or no interest. 540ez    If you buy property on a time-payment plan that charges little or no interest, the basis of your property is your stated purchase price minus any amount considered to be unstated interest. 540ez You generally have unstated interest if your interest rate is less than the applicable federal rate. 540ez   For more information, see Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) in Publication 537. 540ez Real Property Real property, also called real estate, is land and generally anything built on, growing on, or attached to land. 540ez If you buy real property, certain fees and other expenses you pay are part of your cost basis in the property. 540ez Lump sum purchase. 540ez   If you buy buildings and the land on which they stand for a lump sum, allocate the cost basis among the land and the buildings. 540ez Allocate the cost basis according to the respective fair market values (FMVs) of the land and buildings at the time of purchase. 540ez Figure the basis of each asset by multiplying the lump sum by a fraction. 540ez The numerator is the FMV of that asset and the denominator is the FMV of the whole property at the time of purchase. 540ez    If you are not certain of the FMVs of the land and buildings, you can allocate the basis according to their assessed values for real estate tax purposes. 540ez Fair market value (FMV). 540ez   FMV is the price at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither having to buy or sell, and both having reasonable knowledge of all the necessary facts. 540ez Sales of similar property on or about the same date may be helpful in figuring the FMV of the property. 540ez Assumption of mortgage. 540ez   If you buy property and assume (or buy the property subject to) an existing mortgage on the property, your basis includes the amount you pay for the property plus the amount to be paid on the mortgage. 540ez Settlement costs. 540ez   Your basis includes the settlement fees and closing costs you paid for buying the property. 540ez (A fee for buying property is a cost that must be paid even if you buy the property for cash. 540ez ) Do not include fees and costs for getting a loan on the property in your basis. 540ez   The following are some of the settlement fees or closing costs you can include in the basis of your property. 540ez Abstract fees (abstract of title fees). 540ez Charges for installing utility services. 540ez Legal fees (including fees for the title search and preparation of the sales contract and deed). 540ez Recording fees. 540ez Survey fees. 540ez Transfer taxes. 540ez Owner's title insurance. 540ez Any amounts the seller owes that you agree to pay, such as back taxes or interest, recording or mortgage fees, charges for improvements or repairs, and sales commissions. 540ez   Settlement costs do not include amounts placed in escrow for the future payment of items such as taxes and insurance. 540ez   The following are some of the settlement fees and closing costs you cannot include in the basis of property. 540ez Casualty insurance premiums. 540ez Rent for occupancy of the property before closing. 540ez Charges for utilities or other services related to occupancy of the property before closing. 540ez Charges connected with getting a loan, such as points (discount points, loan origination fees), mortgage insurance premiums, loan assumption fees, cost of a credit report, and fees for an appraisal required by a lender. 540ez Fees for refinancing a mortgage. 540ez Real estate taxes. 540ez   If you pay real estate taxes the seller owed on real property you bought, and the seller did not reimburse you, treat those taxes as part of your basis. 540ez You cannot deduct them as an expense. 540ez    If you reimburse the seller for taxes the seller paid for you, you can usually deduct that amount as an expense in the year of purchase. 540ez Do not include that amount in the basis of your property. 540ez If you did not reimburse the seller, you must reduce your basis by the amount of those taxes. 540ez Points. 540ez   If you pay points to get a loan (including a mortgage, second mortgage, line of credit, or a home equity loan), do not add the points to the basis of the related property. 540ez Generally, you deduct the points over the term of the loan. 540ez For more information on how to deduct points, see chapter 23. 540ez Points on home mortgage. 540ez   Special rules may apply to points you and the seller pay when you get a mortgage to buy your main home. 540ez If certain requirements are met, you can deduct the points in full for the year in which they are paid. 540ez Reduce the basis of your home by any seller-paid points. 540ez Adjusted Basis Before figuring gain or loss on a sale, exchange, or other disposition of property or figuring allowable depreciation, depletion, or amortization, you must usually make certain adjustments (increases and decreases) to the cost basis or basis other than cost (discussed later) of the property. 540ez The result is the adjusted basis. 540ez Increases to Basis Increase the basis of any property by all items properly added to a capital account. 540ez Examples of items that increase basis are shown in Table 13-1. 540ez These include the items discussed below. 540ez Improvements. 540ez   Add to your basis in property the cost of improvements having a useful life of more than 1 year, that increase the value of the property, lengthen its life, or adapt it to a different use. 540ez For example, improvements include putting a recreation room in your unfinished basement, adding another bathroom or bedroom, putting up a fence, putting in new plumbing or wiring, installing a new roof, or paving your driveway. 540ez Assessments for local improvements. 540ez   Add to the basis of property assessments for improvements such as streets and sidewalks if they increase the value of the property assessed. 540ez Do not deduct them as taxes. 540ez However, you can deduct as taxes assessments for maintenance or repairs, or for meeting interest charges related to the improvements. 540ez Example. 540ez Your city changes the street in front of your store into an enclosed pedestrian mall and assesses you and other affected property owners for the cost of the conversion. 540ez Add the assessment to your property's basis. 540ez In this example, the assessment is a depreciable asset. 540ez Decreases to Basis Decrease the basis of any property by all items that represent a return of capital for the period during which you held the property. 540ez Examples of items that decrease basis are shown in Table 13-1. 540ez These include the items discussed below. 540ez Table 13-1. 540ez Examples of Adjustments to Basis Increases to Basis Decreases to Basis • Capital improvements: • Exclusion from income of   Putting an addition on your home subsidies for energy conservation   Replacing an entire roof measures   Paving your driveway     Installing central air conditioning • Casualty or theft loss deductions   Rewiring your home and insurance reimbursements       • Assessments for local improvements:     Water connections     Extending utility service lines to the property • Postponed gain from the sale of a home   Sidewalks • Alternative motor vehicle credit  (Form 8910)   Roads       • Alternative fuel vehicle refueling     property credit (Form 8911)           • Residential energy credits (Form 5695)       • Casualty losses: • Depreciation and section 179 deduction   Restoring damaged property     • Nontaxable corporate distributions • Legal fees:     Cost of defending and perfecting a title • Certain canceled debt excluded from   Fees for getting a reduction of an assessment income     • Zoning costs • Easements           • Adoption tax benefits Casualty and theft losses. 540ez   If you have a casualty or theft loss, decrease the basis in your property by any insurance proceeds or other reimbursement and by any deductible loss not covered by insurance. 540ez    You must increase your basis in the property by the amount you spend on repairs that restore the property to its pre-casualty condition. 540ez   For more information on casualty and theft losses, see chapter 25. 540ez Depreciation and section 179 deduction. 540ez   Decrease the basis of your qualifying business property by any section 179 deduction you take and the depreciation you deducted, or could have deducted (including any special depreciation allowance), on your tax returns under the method of depreciation you selected. 540ez   For more information about depreciation and the section 179 deduction, see Publication 946 and the Instructions for Form 4562. 540ez Example. 540ez You owned a duplex used as rental property that cost you $40,000, of which $35,000 was allocated to the building and $5,000 to the land. 540ez You added an improvement to the duplex that cost $10,000. 540ez In February last year, the duplex was damaged by fire. 540ez Up to that time, you had been allowed depreciation of $23,000. 540ez You sold some salvaged material for $1,300 and collected $19,700 from your insurance company. 540ez You deducted a casualty loss of $1,000 on your income tax return for last year. 540ez You spent $19,000 of the insurance proceeds for restoration of the duplex, which was completed this year. 540ez You must use the duplex's adjusted basis after the restoration to determine depreciation for the rest of the property's recovery period. 540ez Figure the adjusted basis of the duplex as follows: Original cost of duplex $35,000 Addition to duplex 10,000 Total cost of duplex $45,000 Minus: Depreciation 23,000 Adjusted basis before casualty $22,000 Minus: Insurance proceeds $19,700     Deducted casualty loss 1,000     Salvage proceeds 1,300 22,000 Adjusted basis after casualty $-0- Add: Cost of restoring duplex 19,000 Adjusted basis after restoration $19,000 Note. 540ez Your basis in the land is its original cost of $5,000. 540ez Easements. 540ez   The amount you receive for granting an easement is generally considered to be proceeds from the sale of an interest in real property. 540ez It reduces the basis of the affected part of the property. 540ez If the amount received is more than the basis of the part of the property affected by the easement, reduce your basis in that part to zero and treat the excess as a recognized gain. 540ez   If the gain is on a capital asset, see chapter 16 for information about how to report it. 540ez If the gain is on property used in a trade or business, see Publication 544 for information about how to report it. 540ez Exclusion of subsidies for energy conservation measures. 540ez   You can exclude from gross income any subsidy you received from a public utility company for the purchase or installation of an energy conservation measure for a dwelling unit. 540ez Reduce the basis of the property for which you received the subsidy by the excluded amount. 540ez For more information about this subsidy, see chapter 12. 540ez Postponed gain from sale of home. 540ez    If you postponed gain from the sale of your main home under rules in effect before May 7, 1997, you must reduce the basis of the home you acquired as a replacement by the amount of the postponed gain. 540ez For more information on the rules for the sale of a home, see chapter 15. 540ez Basis Other Than Cost There are many times when you cannot use cost as basis. 540ez In these cases, the fair market value or the adjusted basis of the property can be used. 540ez Fair market value (FMV) and adjusted basis were discussed earlier. 540ez Property Received for Services If you receive property for your services, include the FMV of the property in income. 540ez The amount you include in income becomes your basis. 540ez If the services were performed for a price agreed on beforehand, it will be accepted as the FMV of the property if there is no evidence to the contrary. 540ez Restricted property. 540ez   If you receive property for your services and the property is subject to certain restrictions, your basis in the property is its FMV when it becomes substantially vested. 540ez However, this rule does not apply if you make an election to include in income the FMV of the property at the time it is transferred to you, less any amount you paid for it. 540ez Property is substantially vested when it is transferable or when it is not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture (you do not have a good chance of losing it). 540ez For more information, see Restricted Property in Publication 525. 540ez Bargain purchases. 540ez   A bargain purchase is a purchase of an item for less than its FMV. 540ez If, as compensation for services, you buy goods or other property at less than FMV, include the difference between the purchase price and the property's FMV in your income. 540ez Your basis in the property is its FMV (your purchase price plus the amount you include in income). 540ez   If the difference between your purchase price and the FMV is a qualified employee discount, do not include the difference in income. 540ez However, your basis in the property is still its FMV. 540ez See Employee Discounts in Publication 15-B. 540ez Taxable Exchanges A taxable exchange is one in which the gain is taxable or the loss is deductible. 540ez A taxable gain or deductible loss also is known as a recognized gain or loss. 540ez If you receive property in exchange for other property in a taxable exchange, the basis of the property you receive is usually its FMV at the time of the exchange. 540ez Involuntary Conversions If you receive replacement property as a result of an involuntary conversion, such as a casualty, theft, or condemnation, figure the basis of the replacement property using the basis of the converted property. 540ez Similar or related property. 540ez   If you receive replacement property similar or related in service or use to the converted property, the replacement property's basis is the same as the converted property's basis on the date of the conversion, with the following adjustments. 540ez Decrease the basis by the following. 540ez Any loss you recognize on the involuntary conversion. 540ez Any money you receive that you do not spend on similar property. 540ez Increase the basis by the following. 540ez Any gain you recognize on the involuntary conversion. 540ez Any cost of acquiring the replacement property. 540ez Money or property not similar or related. 540ez    If you receive money or property not similar or related in service or use to the converted property, and you buy replacement property similar or related in service or use to the converted property, the basis of the replacement property is its cost decreased by the gain not recognized on the conversion. 540ez Example. 540ez The state condemned your property. 540ez The adjusted basis of the property was $26,000 and the state paid you $31,000 for it. 540ez You realized a gain of $5,000 ($31,000 − $26,000). 540ez You bought replacement property similar in use to the converted property for $29,000. 540ez You recognize a gain of $2,000 ($31,000 − $29,000), the unspent part of the payment from the state. 540ez Your unrecognized gain is $3,000, the difference between the $5,000 realized gain and the $2,000 recognized gain. 540ez The basis of the replacement property is figured as follows: Cost of replacement property $29,000 Minus: Gain not recognized 3,000 Basis of replacement property $26,000 Allocating the basis. 540ez   If you buy more than one piece of replacement property, allocate your basis among the properties based on their respective costs. 540ez Basis for depreciation. 540ez   Special rules apply in determining and depreciating the basis of MACRS property acquired in an involuntary conversion. 540ez For information, see What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property? in chapter 1 of Publication 946. 540ez Nontaxable Exchanges A nontaxable exchange is an exchange in which you are not taxed on any gain and you cannot deduct any loss. 540ez If you receive property in a nontaxable exchange, its basis is generally the same as the basis of the property you transferred. 540ez See Nontaxable Trades in chapter 14. 540ez Like-Kind Exchanges The exchange of property for the same kind of property is the most common type of nontaxable exchange. 540ez To qualify as a like-kind exchange, the property traded and the property received must be both of the following. 540ez Qualifying property. 540ez Like-kind property. 540ez The basis of the property you receive is generally the same as the adjusted basis of the property you gave up. 540ez If you trade property in a like-kind exchange and also pay money, the basis of the property received is the adjusted basis of the property you gave up increased by the money you paid. 540ez Qualifying property. 540ez   In a like-kind exchange, you must hold for investment or for productive use in your trade or business both the property you give up and the property you receive. 540ez Like-kind property. 540ez   There must be an exchange of like-kind property. 540ez Like-kind properties are properties of the same nature or character, even if they differ in grade or quality. 540ez The exchange of real estate for real estate and personal property for similar personal property are exchanges of like-kind property. 540ez Example. 540ez You trade in an old truck used in your business with an adjusted basis of $1,700 for a new one costing $6,800. 540ez The dealer allows you $2,000 on the old truck, and you pay $4,800. 540ez This is a like-kind exchange. 540ez The basis of the new truck is $6,500 (the adjusted basis of the old one, $1,700, plus the amount you paid, $4,800). 540ez If you sell your old truck to a third party for $2,000 instead of trading it in and then buy a new one from the dealer, you have a taxable gain of $300 on the sale (the $2,000 sale price minus the $1,700 adjusted basis). 540ez The basis of the new truck is the price you pay the dealer. 540ez Partially nontaxable exchanges. 540ez   A partially nontaxable exchange is an exchange in which you receive unlike property or money in addition to like-kind property. 540ez The basis of the property you receive is the same as the adjusted basis of the property you gave up, with the following adjustments. 540ez Decrease the basis by the following amounts. 540ez Any money you receive. 540ez Any loss you recognize on the exchange. 540ez Increase the basis by the following amounts. 540ez Any additional costs you incur. 540ez Any gain you recognize on the exchange. 540ez If the other party to the exchange assumes your liabilities, treat the debt assumption as money you received in the exchange. 540ez Allocation of basis. 540ez   If you receive like-kind and unlike properties in the exchange, allocate the basis first to the unlike property, other than money, up to its FMV on the date of the exchange. 540ez The rest is the basis of the like-kind property. 540ez More information. 540ez   See Like-Kind Exchanges in chapter 1 of Publication 544 for more information. 540ez Basis for depreciation. 540ez   Special rules apply in determining and depreciating the basis of MACRS property acquired in a like-kind exchange. 540ez For information, see What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property? in chapter 1 of Publication 946. 540ez Property Transferred From a Spouse The basis of property transferred to you or transferred in trust for your benefit by your spouse is the same as your spouse's adjusted basis. 540ez The same rule applies to a transfer by your former spouse that is incident to divorce. 540ez However, for property transferred in trust, adjust your basis for any gain recognized by your spouse or former spouse if the liabilities assumed, plus the liabilities to which the property is subject, are more than the adjusted basis of the property transferred. 540ez If the property transferred to you is a series E, series EE, or series I U. 540ez S. 540ez savings bond, the transferor must include in income the interest accrued to the date of transfer. 540ez Your basis in the bond immediately after the transfer is equal to the transferor's basis increased by the interest income includible in the transferor's income. 540ez For more information on these bonds, see chapter 7. 540ez At the time of the transfer, the transferor must give you the records needed to determine the adjusted basis and holding period of the property as of the date of the transfer. 540ez For more information about the transfer of property from a spouse, see chapter 14. 540ez Property Received as a Gift To figure the basis of property you receive as a gift, you must know its adjusted basis to the donor just before it was given to you, its FMV at the time it was given to you, and any gift tax paid on it. 540ez FMV less than donor's adjusted basis. 540ez   If the FMV of the property at the time of the gift is less than the donor's adjusted basis, your basis depends on whether you have a gain or a loss when you dispose of the property. 540ez Your basis for figuring gain is the same as the donor's adjusted basis plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. 540ez Your basis for figuring loss is its FMV when you received the gift plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. 540ez See Adjusted Basis , earlier. 540ez Example. 540ez You received an acre of land as a gift. 540ez At the time of the gift, the land had an FMV of $8,000. 540ez The donor's adjusted basis was $10,000. 540ez After you received the property, no events occurred to increase or decrease your basis. 540ez If you later sell the property for $12,000, you will have a $2,000 gain because you must use the donor's adjusted basis at the time of the gift ($10,000) as your basis to figure gain. 540ez If you sell the property for $7,000, you will have a $1,000 loss because you must use the FMV at the time of the gift ($8,000) as your basis to figure loss. 540ez If the sales price is between $8,000 and $10,000, you have neither gain nor loss. 540ez Business property. 540ez   If you hold the gift as business property, your basis for figuring any depreciation, depletion, or amortization deductions is the same as the donor's adjusted basis plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you hold the property. 540ez FMV equal to or greater than donor's adjusted basis. 540ez   If the FMV of the property is equal to or greater than the donor's adjusted basis, your basis is the donor's adjusted basis at the time you received the gift. 540ez Increase your basis by all or part of any gift tax paid, depending on the date of the gift, explained later. 540ez   Also, for figuring gain or loss from a sale or other disposition or for figuring depreciation, depletion, or amortization deductions on business property, you must increase or decrease your basis (the donor's adjusted basis) by any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. 540ez See Adjusted Basis , earlier. 540ez   If you received a gift during the tax year, increase your basis in the gift (the donor's adjusted basis) by the part of the gift tax paid on it due to the net increase in value of the gift. 540ez Figure the increase by multiplying the gift tax paid by a fraction. 540ez The numerator of the fraction is the net increase in value of the gift and the denominator is the amount of the gift. 540ez   The net increase in value of the gift is the FMV of the gift minus the donor's adjusted basis. 540ez The amount of the gift is its value for gift tax purposes after reduction by any annual exclusion and marital or charitable deduction that applies to the gift. 540ez Example. 540ez In 2013, you received a gift of property from your mother that had an FMV of $50,000. 540ez Her adjusted basis was $20,000. 540ez The amount of the gift for gift tax purposes was $36,000 ($50,000 minus the $14,000 annual exclusion). 540ez She paid a gift tax of $7,320 on the property. 540ez Your basis is $26,076, figured as follows: Fair market value $50,000 Minus: Adjusted basis −20,000 Net increase in value $30,000     Gift tax paid $7,320 Multiplied by ($30,000 ÷ $36,000) × . 540ez 83 Gift tax due to net increase in value $6,076 Adjusted basis of property to your mother +20,000 Your basis in the property $26,076 Note. 540ez If you received a gift before 1977, your basis in the gift (the donor's adjusted basis) includes any gift tax paid on it. 540ez However, your basis cannot exceed the FMV of the gift at the time it was given to you. 540ez Inherited Property Your basis in property you inherited from a decedent, who died before January 1, 2010, or after December 31, 2010, is generally one of the following: The FMV of the property at the date of the decedent's death. 540ez The FMV on the alternate valuation date if the personal representative for the estate elects to use alternate valuation. 540ez The value under the special-use valuation method for real property used in farming or a closely held business if elected for estate tax purposes. 540ez The decedent's adjusted basis in land to the extent of the value excluded from the decedent's taxable estate as a qualified conservation easement. 540ez If a federal estate tax return does not have to be filed, your basis in the inherited property is its appraised value at the date of death for state inheritance or transmission taxes. 540ez For more information, see the instructions to Form 706, United States Estate (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return. 540ez Property inherited from a decedent who died in 2010. 540ez   If you inherited property from a decedent who died in 2010, special rules may apply. 540ez For more information, see Publication 4895, Tax Treatment of Property Acquired From a Decedent Dying in 2010. 540ez Community property. 540ez   In community property states (Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin), husband and wife are each usually considered to own half the community property. 540ez When either spouse dies, the total value of the community property, even the part belonging to the surviving spouse, generally becomes the basis of the entire property. 540ez For this rule to apply, at least half the value of the community property interest must be includible in the decedent's gross estate, whether or not the estate must file a return. 540ez Example. 540ez You and your spouse owned community property that had a basis of $80,000. 540ez When your spouse died, half the FMV of the community interest was includible in your spouse's estate. 540ez The FMV of the community interest was $100,000. 540ez The basis of your half of the property after the death of your spouse is $50,000 (half of the $100,000 FMV). 540ez The basis of the other half to your spouse's heirs is also $50,000. 540ez For more information about community property, see Publication 555, Community Property. 540ez Property Changed From Personal to Business or Rental Use If you hold property for personal use and then change it to business use or use it to produce rent, you can begin to depreciate the property at the time of the change. 540ez To do so, you must figure its basis for depreciation at the time of the change. 540ez An example of changing property held for personal use to business or rental use would be renting out your former personal residence. 540ez Basis for depreciation. 540ez   The basis for depreciation is the lesser of the following amounts. 540ez The FMV of the property on the date of the change. 540ez Your adjusted basis on the date of the change. 540ez Example. 540ez Several years ago, you paid $160,000 to have your house built on a lot that cost $25,000. 540ez You paid $20,000 for permanent improvements to the house and claimed a $2,000 casualty loss deduction for damage to the house before changing the property to rental use last year. 540ez Because land is not depreciable, you include only the cost of the house when figuring the basis for depreciation. 540ez Your adjusted basis in the house when you changed its use was $178,000 ($160,000 + $20,000 − $2,000). 540ez On the same date, your property had an FMV of $180,000, of which $15,000 was for the land and $165,000 was for the house. 540ez The basis for figuring depreciation on the house is its FMV on the date of the change ($165,000) because it is less than your adjusted basis ($178,000). 540ez Sale of property. 540ez   If you later sell or dispose of property changed to business or rental use, the basis you use will depend on whether you are figuring gain or loss. 540ez Gain. 540ez   The basis for figuring a gain is your adjusted basis in the property when you sell the property. 540ez Example. 540ez Assume the same facts as in the previous example except that you sell the property at a gain after being allowed depreciation deductions of $37,500. 540ez Your adjusted basis for figuring gain is $165,500 ($178,000 + $25,000 (land) − $37,500). 540ez Loss. 540ez   Figure the basis for a loss starting with the smaller of your adjusted basis or the FMV of the property at the time of the change to business or rental use. 540ez Then make adjustments (increases and decreases) for the period after the change in the property's use, as discussed earlier under Adjusted Basis . 540ez Example. 540ez Assume the same facts as in the previous example, except that you sell the property at a loss after being allowed depreciation deductions of $37,500. 540ez In this case, you would start with the FMV on the date of the change to rental use ($180,000), because it is less than the adjusted basis of $203,000 ($178,000 + $25,000 (land)) on that date. 540ez Reduce that amount ($180,000) by the depreciation deductions ($37,500). 540ez The basis for loss is $142,500 ($180,000 − $37,500). 540ez Stocks and Bonds The basis of stocks or bonds you buy generally is the purchase price plus any costs of purchase, such as commissions and recording or transfer fees. 540ez If you get stocks or bonds other than by purchase, your basis is usually determined by the FMV or the previous owner's adjusted basis, as discussed earlier. 540ez You must adjust the basis of stocks for certain events that occur after purchase. 540ez For example, if you receive additional stock from nontaxable stock dividends or stock splits, reduce your basis for each share of stock by dividing the adjusted basis of the old stock by the number of shares of old and new stock. 540ez This rule applies only when the additional stock received is identical to the stock held. 540ez Also reduce your basis when you receive nontaxable distributions. 540ez They are a return of capital. 540ez Example. 540ez In 2011 you bought 100 shares of XYZ stock for $1,000 or $10 a share. 540ez In 2012 you bought 100 shares of XYZ stock for $1,600 or $16 a share. 540ez In 2013 XYZ declared a 2-for-1 stock split. 540ez You now have 200 shares of stock with a basis of $5 a share and 200 shares with a basis of $8 a share. 540ez Other basis. 540ez   There are other ways to figure the basis of stocks or bonds depending on how you acquired them. 540ez For detailed information, see Stocks and Bonds under Basis of Investment Property in chapter 4 of Publication 550. 540ez Identifying stocks or bonds sold. 540ez   If you can adequately identify the shares of stock or the bonds you sold, their basis is the cost or other basis of the particular shares of stocks or bonds. 540ez If you buy and sell securities at various times in varying quantities and you cannot adequately identify the shares you sell, the basis of the securities you sell is the basis of the securities you acquired first. 540ez For more information about identifying securities you sell, see Stocks and Bonds under Basis of Investment Property in chapter 4 of Publication 550. 540ez Mutual fund shares. 540ez   If you sell mutual fund shares you acquired at various times and prices and left on deposit in an account kept by a custodian or agent, you can elect to use an average basis. 540ez For more information, see Publication 550. 540ez Bond premium. 540ez   If you buy a taxable bond at a premium and elect to amortize the premium, reduce the basis of the bond by the amortized premium you deduct each year. 540ez See Bond Premium Amortization in chapter 3 of Publication 550 for more information. 540ez Although you cannot deduct the premium on a tax-exempt bond, you must amortize the premium each year and reduce your basis in the bond by the amortized amount. 540ez Original issue discount (OID) on debt instruments. 540ez   You must increase your basis in an OID debt instrument by the OID you include in income for that instrument. 540ez See Original Issue Discount (OID) in chapter 7 and Publication 1212, Guide To Original Issue Discount (OID) Instruments. 540ez Tax-exempt obligations. 540ez    OID on tax-exempt obligations is generally not taxable. 540ez However, when you dispose of a tax-exempt obligation issued after September 3, 1982, and acquired after March 1, 1984, you must accrue OID on the obligation to determine its adjusted basis. 540ez The accrued OID is added to the basis of the obligation to determine your gain or loss. 540ez See chapter 4 of Publication 550. 540ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications