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2013 Tax Form 1040ez

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2013 Tax Form 1040ez

2013 tax form 1040ez 7. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Depreciation, Depletion, and Amortization Table of Contents What's New for 2013 Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Overview of DepreciationWhat Property Can Be Depreciated? What Property Cannot Be Depreciated? When Does Depreciation Begin and End? Can You Use MACRS To Depreciate Your Property? What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property? How Do You Treat Repairs and Improvements? Do You Have To File Form 4562? How Do You Correct Depreciation Deductions? Section 179 Expense DeductionWhat Property Qualifies? What Property Does Not Qualify? How Much Can You Deduct? How Do You Elect the Deduction? When Must You Recapture the Deduction? Claiming the Special Depreciation AllowanceWhat is Qualified Property? How Can You Elect Not To Claim the Allowance? When Must You Recapture an Allowance Figuring Depreciation Under MACRSWhich Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies? Which Property Class Applies Under GDS? What Is the Placed-in-Service Date? What Is the Basis for Depreciation? Which Recovery Period Applies? Which Convention Applies? Which Depreciation Method Applies? How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured? How Do You Use General Asset Accounts? When Do You Recapture MACRS Depreciation? Additional Rules for Listed PropertyWhat Is Listed Property? What Is the Business-Use Requirement? Do the Passenger Automobile Limits Apply? Depletion Who Can Claim Depletion? Figuring Depletion AmortizationBusiness Start-Up Costs Reforestation Costs Section 197 Intangibles What's New for 2013 Increased section 179 expense deduction dollar limits. 2013 tax form 1040ez  The maximum amount you can elect to deduct for most section 179 property you placed in service in 2013 is $500,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez This limit is reduced by the amount by which the cost of the property placed in service during the tax year exceeds $2 million. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Dollar Limits under Section 179 Expense Deduction , later. 2013 tax form 1040ez Extension of special depreciation allowance for certain qualified property acquired after December 31, 2007. 2013 tax form 1040ez . 2013 tax form 1040ez  You may be able to take a 50% special depreciation allowance for certain qualified property acquired after December 31, 2007, and placed in service before January 1, 2014. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Claiming the Special Depreciation Allowance , later. 2013 tax form 1040ez Expiration of the 3- year recovery period for certain race horses. 2013 tax form 1040ez  The 3-year recovery period for race horses two years old or younger will expire for such horses placed in service after December 31, 2013. 2013 tax form 1040ez Introduction If you buy or make improvements to farm property such as machinery, equipment, livestock, or a structure with a useful life of more than a year, you generally cannot deduct its entire cost in one year. 2013 tax form 1040ez Instead, you must spread the cost over the time you use the property and deduct part of it each year. 2013 tax form 1040ez For most types of property, this is called depreciation. 2013 tax form 1040ez This chapter gives information on depreciation methods that generally apply to property placed in service after 1986. 2013 tax form 1040ez For information on depreciating pre-1987 property, see Publication 534, Depreciating Property Placed in Service Before 1987. 2013 tax form 1040ez Topics - This chapter discusses: Overview of depreciation Section 179 expense deduction Special depreciation allowance Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) Listed property Basic information on cost depletion (including timber depletion) and percentage depletion Amortization of the costs of going into business, reforestation costs, the costs of pollution control facilities, and the costs of section 197 intangibles Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 463 Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses 534 Depreciating Property Placed in Service Before 1987 535 Business Expenses 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 551 Basis of Assets 946 How To Depreciate Property Form (and Instructions) T (Timber), Forest Activities Schedule 3115 Application for Change in Accounting Method 4562 Depreciation and Amortization 4797 Sales of Business Property See chapter 16 for information about getting publications and forms. 2013 tax form 1040ez It is important to keep good records for property you depreciate. 2013 tax form 1040ez Do not file these records with your return. 2013 tax form 1040ez Instead, you should keep them as part of the permanent records of the depreciated property. 2013 tax form 1040ez They will help you verify the accuracy of the depreciation of assets placed in service in the current and previous tax years. 2013 tax form 1040ez For general information on recordkeeping, see Publication 583, Starting a Business and Keeping Records. 2013 tax form 1040ez For specific information on keeping records for section 179 property and listed property, see Publication 946, How To Depreciate Property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Overview of Depreciation This overview discusses basic information on the following. 2013 tax form 1040ez What property can be depreciated. 2013 tax form 1040ez What property cannot be depreciated. 2013 tax form 1040ez When depreciation begins and ends. 2013 tax form 1040ez Whether MACRS can be used to figure depreciation. 2013 tax form 1040ez What is the basis of your depreciable property. 2013 tax form 1040ez How to treat repairs and improvements. 2013 tax form 1040ez When you must file Form 4562. 2013 tax form 1040ez How you can correct depreciation claimed incorrectly. 2013 tax form 1040ez What Property Can Be Depreciated? You can depreciate most types of tangible property (except land), such as buildings, machinery, equipment, vehicles, certain livestock, and furniture. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can also depreciate certain intangible property, such as copyrights, patents, and computer software. 2013 tax form 1040ez To be depreciable, the property must meet all the following requirements. 2013 tax form 1040ez It must be property you own. 2013 tax form 1040ez It must be used in your business or income-producing activity. 2013 tax form 1040ez It must have a determinable useful life. 2013 tax form 1040ez It must have a useful life that extends substantially beyond the year you place it in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property You Own To claim depreciation, you usually must be the owner of the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez You are considered as owning property even if it is subject to a debt. 2013 tax form 1040ez Leased property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You can depreciate leased property only if you retain the incidents of ownership in the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez This means you bear the burden of exhaustion of the capital investment in the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Therefore, if you lease property from someone to use in your trade or business or for the production of income, you generally cannot depreciate its cost because you do not retain the incidents of ownership. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can, however, depreciate any capital improvements you make to the leased property. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Additions and Improvements under Which Recovery Period Applies in chapter 4 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you lease property to someone, you generally can depreciate its cost even if the lessee (the person leasing from you) has agreed to preserve, replace, renew, and maintain the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, you cannot depreciate the cost of the property if the lease provides that the lessee is to maintain the property and return to you the same property or its equivalent in value at the expiration of the lease in as good condition and value as when leased. 2013 tax form 1040ez Life tenant. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Generally, if you hold business or investment property as a life tenant, you can depreciate it as if you were the absolute owner of the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Certain term interests in property , later, for an exception. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property Used in Your Business or Income-Producing Activity To claim depreciation on property, you must use it in your business or income-producing activity. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you use property to produce income (investment use), the income must be taxable. 2013 tax form 1040ez You cannot depreciate property that you use solely for personal activities. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, if you use property for business or investment purposes and for personal purposes, you can deduct depreciation based only on the percentage of business or investment use. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example 1. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you use your car for farm business, you can deduct depreciation based on its percentage of use in farming. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you also use it for investment purposes, you can depreciate it based on its percentage of investment use. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example 2. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you use part of your home for business, you may be able to deduct depreciation on that part based on its business use. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see Business Use of Your Home in chapter 4. 2013 tax form 1040ez Inventory. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You can never depreciate inventory because it is not held for use in your business. 2013 tax form 1040ez Inventory is any property you hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of your business. 2013 tax form 1040ez Livestock. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Livestock purchased for draft, breeding, or dairy purposes can be depreciated only if they are not kept in an inventory account. 2013 tax form 1040ez Livestock you raise usually has no depreciable basis because the costs of raising them are deducted and not added to their basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, see Immature livestock under When Does Depreciation Begin and End , later, for a special rule. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property Having a Determinable Useful Life To be depreciable, your property must have a determinable useful life. 2013 tax form 1040ez This means it must be something that wears out, decays, gets used up, becomes obsolete, or loses its value from natural causes. 2013 tax form 1040ez Irrigation systems and water wells. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Irrigation systems and wells used in a trade or business can be depreciated if their useful life can be determined. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can depreciate irrigation systems and wells composed of masonry, concrete, tile, metal, or wood. 2013 tax form 1040ez In addition, you can depreciate costs for moving dirt to construct irrigation systems and water wells composed of these materials. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, land preparation costs for center pivot irrigation systems are not depreciable. 2013 tax form 1040ez Dams, ponds, and terraces. 2013 tax form 1040ez   In general, you cannot depreciate earthen dams, ponds, and terraces unless the structures have a determinable useful life. 2013 tax form 1040ez What Property Cannot Be Depreciated? Certain property cannot be depreciated, even if the requirements explained earlier are met. 2013 tax form 1040ez This includes the following. 2013 tax form 1040ez Land. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can never depreciate the cost of land because land does not wear out, become obsolete, or get used up. 2013 tax form 1040ez The cost of land generally includes the cost of clearing, grading, planting, and landscaping. 2013 tax form 1040ez Although you cannot depreciate land, you can depreciate certain costs incurred in preparing land for business use. 2013 tax form 1040ez See chapter 1 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property placed in service and disposed of in the same year. 2013 tax form 1040ez Determining when property is placed in service is explained later. 2013 tax form 1040ez Equipment used to build capital improvements. 2013 tax form 1040ez You must add otherwise allowable depreciation on the equipment during the period of construction to the basis of your improvements. 2013 tax form 1040ez Intangible property such as section 197 intangibles. 2013 tax form 1040ez This property does not have a determinable useful life and generally cannot be depreciated. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, see Amortization , later. 2013 tax form 1040ez Special rules apply to computer software (discussed below). 2013 tax form 1040ez Certain term interests (discussed below). 2013 tax form 1040ez Computer software. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Computer software is generally not a section 197 intangible even if acquired in connection with the acquisition of a business, if it meets all of the following tests. 2013 tax form 1040ez It is readily available for purchase by the general public. 2013 tax form 1040ez It is subject to a nonexclusive license. 2013 tax form 1040ez It has not been substantially modified. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If the software meets the tests above, it can be depreciated and may qualify for the section 179 expense deduction and the special depreciation allowance (if applicable), discussed later. 2013 tax form 1040ez Certain term interests in property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You cannot depreciate a term interest in property created or acquired after July 27, 1989, for any period during which the remainder interest is held, directly or indirectly, by a person related to you. 2013 tax form 1040ez This rule does not apply to the holder of a term interest in property acquired by gift, bequest, or inheritance. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see chapter 1 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez When Does Depreciation Begin and End? You begin to depreciate your property when you place it in service for use in your trade or business or for the production of income. 2013 tax form 1040ez You stop depreciating property either when you have fully recovered your cost or other basis or when you retire it from service, whichever happens first. 2013 tax form 1040ez Placed in Service Property is placed in service when it is ready and available for a specific use, whether in a business activity, an income-producing activity, a tax-exempt activity, or a personal activity. 2013 tax form 1040ez Even if you are not using the property, it is in service when it is ready and available for its specific use. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez You bought a planter for use in your farm business. 2013 tax form 1040ez The planter was delivered in December 2012 after harvest was over. 2013 tax form 1040ez You begin to depreciate the planter for 2012 because it was ready and available for its specific use in 2012, even though it will not be used until the spring of 2013. 2013 tax form 1040ez If your planter comes unassembled in December 2012 and is put together in February 2013, it is not placed in service until 2013. 2013 tax form 1040ez You begin to depreciate it in 2013. 2013 tax form 1040ez If your planter was delivered and assembled in February 2013 but not used until April 2013, it is placed in service in February 2013, because this is when the planter was ready for its specified use. 2013 tax form 1040ez You begin to depreciate it in 2013. 2013 tax form 1040ez Fruit or nut trees and vines. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you acquire an orchard, grove, or vineyard before the trees or vines have reached the income-producing stage, and they have a preproductive period of more than 2 years, you must capitalize the preproductive-period costs under the uniform capitalization rules (unless you elect not to use these rules). 2013 tax form 1040ez See chapter 6 for information about the uniform capitalization rules. 2013 tax form 1040ez Your depreciation begins when the trees and vines reach the income-producing stage (that is, when they bear fruit, nuts, or grapes in quantities sufficient to commercially warrant harvesting). 2013 tax form 1040ez Immature livestock. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Depreciation for livestock begins when the livestock reaches the age of maturity. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you bought immature livestock for drafting purposes, depreciation begins when they can be worked. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you bought immature livestock for dairy purposes, depreciation begins when they can be milked. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you bought immature livestock for breeding purposes, depreciation begins when they can be bred. 2013 tax form 1040ez Your basis for depreciation is your initial cost for the immature livestock. 2013 tax form 1040ez Idle Property Continue to claim a deduction for depreciation on property used in your business or for the production of income even if it is temporarily idle. 2013 tax form 1040ez For example, if you stop using a machine because there is a temporary lack of a market for a product made with that machine, continue to deduct depreciation on the machine. 2013 tax form 1040ez Cost or Other Basis Fully Recovered You stop depreciating property when you have fully recovered your cost or other basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez This happens when your section 179 and allowed or allowable depreciation deductions equal your cost or investment in the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Retired From Service You stop depreciating property when you retire it from service, even if you have not fully recovered its cost or other basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez You retire property from service when you permanently withdraw it from use in a trade or business or from use in the production of income because of any of the following events. 2013 tax form 1040ez You sell or exchange the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez You convert the property to personal use. 2013 tax form 1040ez You abandon the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez You transfer the property to a supplies or scrap account. 2013 tax form 1040ez The property is destroyed. 2013 tax form 1040ez For information on abandonment of property, see chapter 8. 2013 tax form 1040ez For information on destroyed property, see chapter 11 and Publication 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts. 2013 tax form 1040ez Can You Use MACRS To Depreciate Your Property? You must use the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) to depreciate most business and investment property placed in service after 1986. 2013 tax form 1040ez MACRS is explained later under Figuring Depreciation Under MACRS . 2013 tax form 1040ez You cannot use MACRS to depreciate the following property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property you placed in service before 1987. 2013 tax form 1040ez Use the methods discussed in Publication 534. 2013 tax form 1040ez Certain property owned or used in 1986. 2013 tax form 1040ez See chapter 1 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Intangible property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Films, video tapes, and recordings. 2013 tax form 1040ez Certain corporate or partnership property acquired in a nontaxable transfer. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property you elected to exclude from MACRS. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see chapter 1 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property? To figure your depreciation deduction, you must determine the basis of your property. 2013 tax form 1040ez To determine basis, you need to know the cost or other basis of your property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Cost or other basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez   The basis of property you buy is usually its cost plus amounts you paid for items such as sales tax, freight charges, and installation and testing fees. 2013 tax form 1040ez The cost includes the amount you pay in cash, debt obligations, other property, or services. 2013 tax form 1040ez   There are times when you cannot use cost as basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez In these situations, the fair market value (FMV) or the adjusted basis of the property may be used. 2013 tax form 1040ez Adjusted basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez   To find your property's basis for depreciation, you may have to make certain adjustments (increases and decreases) to the basis of the property for events occurring between the time you acquired the property and the time you placed it in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez Basis adjustment for depreciation allowed or allowable. 2013 tax form 1040ez   After you place your property in service, you must reduce the basis of the property by the depreciation allowed or allowable, whichever is greater. 2013 tax form 1040ez Depreciation allowed is depreciation you actually deducted (from which you received a tax benefit). 2013 tax form 1040ez Depreciation allowable is depreciation you are entitled to deduct. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you do not claim depreciation you are entitled to deduct, you must still reduce the basis of the property by the full amount of depreciation allowable. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you deduct more depreciation than you should, you must reduce your basis by any amount deducted from which you received a tax benefit (the depreciation allowed). 2013 tax form 1040ez   For more information, see chapter 6. 2013 tax form 1040ez How Do You Treat Repairs and Improvements? You generally deduct the cost of repairing business property in the same way as any other business expense. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, if a repair or replacement increases the value of your property, makes it more useful, or lengthens its life, you must treat it as an improvement and depreciate it. 2013 tax form 1040ez Treat improvements as separate depreciable property. 2013 tax form 1040ez See chapter 1 of Publication 946 for more information. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez You repair a small section on a corner of the roof of a barn that you rent to others. 2013 tax form 1040ez You deduct the cost of the repair as a business expense. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, if you replace the entire roof, the new roof is considered to be an improvement because it increases the value and lengthens the life for the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez You depreciate the cost of the new roof. 2013 tax form 1040ez Improvements to rented property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You can depreciate permanent improvements you make to business property you rent from someone else. 2013 tax form 1040ez Do You Have To File Form 4562? Use Form 4562 to claim your deduction for depreciation and amortization. 2013 tax form 1040ez You must complete and attach Form 4562 to your tax return if you are claiming any of the following. 2013 tax form 1040ez A section 179 expense deduction for the current year or a section 179 carryover from a prior year. 2013 tax form 1040ez Depreciation for property placed in service during the current year. 2013 tax form 1040ez Depreciation on any vehicle or other listed property, regardless of when it was placed in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez Amortization of costs that began in the current year. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see the Instructions for Form 4562. 2013 tax form 1040ez How Do You Correct Depreciation Deductions? If you deducted an incorrect amount of depreciation in any year, you may be able to make a correction by filing an amended return for that year. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can file an amended return to correct the amount of depreciation claimed for any property in any of the following situations. 2013 tax form 1040ez You claimed the incorrect amount because of a mathematical error made in any year. 2013 tax form 1040ez You claimed the incorrect amount because of a posting error made in any year, for example, omitting an asset from the depreciation schedule. 2013 tax form 1040ez You have not adopted a method of accounting for the property placed in service by you in tax years ending after December 29, 2003. 2013 tax form 1040ez You claimed the incorrect amount on property placed in service by you in tax years ending before December 30, 2003. 2013 tax form 1040ez Note. 2013 tax form 1040ez You have adopted a method of accounting if you used the same incorrect method of depreciation for two or more consecutively filed returns. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you are not allowed to make the correction on an amended return, you may be able to change your accounting method to claim the correct amount of depreciation. 2013 tax form 1040ez See the Instructions for Form 3115. 2013 tax form 1040ez Section 179 Expense Deduction You can elect to recover all or part of the cost of certain qualifying property, up to a limit, by deducting it in the year you place the property in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez This is the section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can elect the section 179 expense deduction instead of recovering the cost by taking depreciation deductions. 2013 tax form 1040ez This part of the chapter explains the rules for the section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez It explains what property qualifies for the deduction, what property does not qualify for the deduction, the limits that may apply, how to elect the deduction, and when you may have to recapture the deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez What Property Qualifies? To qualify for the section 179 expense deduction, your property must meet all the following requirements. 2013 tax form 1040ez It must be eligible property. 2013 tax form 1040ez It must be acquired for business use. 2013 tax form 1040ez It must have been acquired by purchase. 2013 tax form 1040ez Eligible Property To qualify for the section 179 expense deduction, your property must be one of the following types of depreciable property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Tangible personal property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Qualified real property. 2013 tax form 1040ez (Special rules apply to qualified real property that you elect to treat as qualified section 179 real property. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 946 and section 179(f) of the Internal Revenue Code. 2013 tax form 1040ez ) Other tangible property (except buildings and their structural components) used as: An integral part of manufacturing, production, or extraction or of furnishing transportation, communications, electricity, gas, water, or sewage disposal services; A research facility used in connection with any of the activities in (a) above; or A facility used in connection with any of the activities in (a) for the bulk storage of fungible commodities. 2013 tax form 1040ez Single purpose agricultural (livestock) or horticultural structures. 2013 tax form 1040ez Storage facilities (except buildings and their structural components) used in connection with distributing petroleum or any primary product of petroleum. 2013 tax form 1040ez Off-the-shelf computer software that is readily available for purchase by the general public, is subject to a nonexclusive lease, and has not been substantially modified. 2013 tax form 1040ez Tangible personal property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Tangible personal property is any tangible property that is not real property. 2013 tax form 1040ez It includes the following property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Machinery and equipment. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property contained in or attached to a building (other than structural components), such as milk tanks, automatic feeders, barn cleaners, and office equipment. 2013 tax form 1040ez Gasoline storage tanks and pumps at retail service stations. 2013 tax form 1040ez Livestock, including horses, cattle, hogs, sheep, goats, and mink and other fur-bearing animals. 2013 tax form 1040ez Facility used for the bulk storage of fungible commodities. 2013 tax form 1040ez   A facility used for the bulk storage of fungible commodities is qualifying property for purposes of the section 179 expense deduction if it is used in connection with any of the activities listed earlier in item (3)(a). 2013 tax form 1040ez Bulk storage means the storage of a commodity in a large mass before it is used. 2013 tax form 1040ez Grain bins. 2013 tax form 1040ez   A grain bin is an example of a storage facility that is qualifying section 179 property. 2013 tax form 1040ez It is a facility used in connection with the production of grain or livestock for the bulk storage of fungible commodities. 2013 tax form 1040ez Single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures. 2013 tax form 1040ez   A single purpose agricultural (livestock) or horticultural structure is qualifying property for purposes of the section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez Agricultural structure. 2013 tax form 1040ez   A single purpose agricultural (livestock) structure is any building or enclosure specifically designed, constructed, and used for both the following reasons. 2013 tax form 1040ez To house, raise, and feed a particular type of livestock and its produce. 2013 tax form 1040ez To house the equipment, including any replacements, needed to house, raise, or feed the livestock. 2013 tax form 1040ez For this purpose, livestock includes poultry. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Single purpose structures are qualifying property if used, for example, to breed chickens or hogs, produce milk from dairy cattle, or produce feeder cattle or pigs, broiler chickens, or eggs. 2013 tax form 1040ez The facility must include, as an integral part of the structure or enclosure, equipment necessary to house, raise, and feed the livestock. 2013 tax form 1040ez Horticultural structure. 2013 tax form 1040ez   A single purpose horticultural structure is either of the following. 2013 tax form 1040ez A greenhouse specifically designed, constructed, and used for the commercial production of plants. 2013 tax form 1040ez A structure specifically designed, constructed, and used for the commercial production of mushrooms. 2013 tax form 1040ez Use of structure. 2013 tax form 1040ez   A structure must be used only for the purpose that qualified it. 2013 tax form 1040ez For example, a hog barn will not be qualifying property if you use it to house poultry. 2013 tax form 1040ez Similarly, using part of your greenhouse to sell plants will make the greenhouse nonqualifying property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If a structure includes work space, the work space can be used only for the following activities. 2013 tax form 1040ez Stocking, caring for, or collecting livestock or plants or their produce. 2013 tax form 1040ez Maintaining the enclosure or structure. 2013 tax form 1040ez Maintaining or replacing the equipment or stock enclosed or housed in the structure. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property Acquired by Purchase To qualify for the section 179 expense deduction, your property must have been acquired by purchase. 2013 tax form 1040ez For example, property acquired by gift or inheritance does not qualify. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property acquired from a related person (that is, your spouse, ancestors, or lineal descendants) is not considered acquired by purchase. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez Ken is a farmer. 2013 tax form 1040ez He purchased two tractors, one from his brother and one from his father. 2013 tax form 1040ez He placed both tractors in service in the same year he bought them. 2013 tax form 1040ez The tractor purchased from his father does not qualify for the section 179 expense deduction because he is a related person (as defined above). 2013 tax form 1040ez The tractor purchased from his brother does qualify for the deduction because Ken is not a related person (as defined above). 2013 tax form 1040ez What Property Does Not Qualify? Land and improvements. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Land and land improvements, do not qualify as section 179 property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Land improvements include nonagricultural fences, swimming pools, paved parking areas, wharves, docks, bridges, and fences. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, agricultural fences do qualify as section 179 property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Similarly, field drainage tile also qualifies as section 179 property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Excepted property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Even if the requirements explained in the preceding discussions are met, farmers cannot elect the section 179 expense deduction for the following property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Certain property you lease to others (if you are a noncorporate lessor). 2013 tax form 1040ez Certain property used predominantly to furnish lodging or in connection with the furnishing of lodging. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property used by a tax-exempt organization (other than a tax-exempt farmers' cooperative) unless the property is used mainly in a taxable unrelated trade or business. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property used by governmental units or foreign persons or entities (except property used under a lease with a term of less than 6 months). 2013 tax form 1040ez How Much Can You Deduct? Your section 179 expense deduction is generally the cost of the qualifying property. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, the total amount you can elect to deduct under section 179 is subject to a dollar limit and a business income limit. 2013 tax form 1040ez These limits apply to each taxpayer, not to each business. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, see Married individuals under Dollar Limits , later. 2013 tax form 1040ez See also the special rules for applying the limits for partnerships and S corporations under Partnerships and S Corporations , later. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you deduct only part of the cost of qualifying property as a section 179 expense deduction, you can generally depreciate the cost you do not deduct. 2013 tax form 1040ez Use Part I of Form 4562 to figure your section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez Partial business use. 2013 tax form 1040ez   When you use property for business and nonbusiness purposes, you can elect the section 179 expense deduction only if you use it more than 50% for business in the year you place it in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you used the property more than 50% for business, multiply the cost of the property by the percentage of business use. 2013 tax form 1040ez Use the resulting business cost to figure your section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez Trade-in of other property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you buy qualifying property with cash and a trade-in, its cost for purposes of the section 179 expense deduction includes only the cash you paid. 2013 tax form 1040ez For example, if you buy (for cash and a trade-in) a new tractor for use in your business, your cost for the section 179 expense deduction is the cash you paid. 2013 tax form 1040ez It does not include the adjusted basis of the old tractor you trade for the new tractor. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez J-Bar Farms traded two cultivators having a total adjusted basis of $6,800 for a new cultivator costing $13,200. 2013 tax form 1040ez They received an $8,000 trade-in allowance for the old cultivators and paid $5,200 cash for the new cultivator. 2013 tax form 1040ez J-Bar also traded a used pickup truck with an adjusted basis of $8,000 for a new pickup truck costing $35,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez They received a $5,000 trade-in allowance and paid $30,000 cash for the new pickup truck. 2013 tax form 1040ez Only the cash paid by J-Bar qualifies for the section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez J-Bar's business costs that qualify for a section 179 expense deduction are $35,200 ($5,200 + $30,000). 2013 tax form 1040ez Dollar Limits The total amount you can elect to deduct under section 179 for most property placed in service in 2013 is $500,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you acquire and place in service more than one item of qualifying property during the year, you can allocate the section 179 expense deduction among the items in any way, as long as the total deduction is not more than $500,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Qualified real property that you elect to treat as section 179 property is limited to $250,000 of the maximum section 179 deduction of $500,000 for 2013. 2013 tax form 1040ez You do not have to claim the full $500,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez For specific information on the section 179 dollar limits, see chapter 2 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Reduced dollar limit for cost exceeding $2 million. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If the cost of your qualifying section 179 property placed in service in 2013 is over $2 million, you must reduce the dollar limit (but not below zero) by the amount of cost over $2 million. 2013 tax form 1040ez If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service during 2013 is $2,500,000 or more, you cannot take a section 179 expense deduction and you cannot carry over the cost that is more than $2,500,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez This year, James Smith placed in service machinery costing $2,050,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Because this cost is $50,000 more than $2 million, he must reduce his dollar limit to $450,000 ($500,000 − $50,000). 2013 tax form 1040ez Limits for sport utility vehicles. 2013 tax form 1040ez   The total amount you can elect to deduct for certain sport utility vehicles and certain other vehicles placed in service in 2013 is $25,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez This rule applies to any 4-wheeled vehicle primarily designed or used to carry passengers over public streets, roads, and highways that is rated at more than 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight and not more than 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. 2013 tax form 1040ez   For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Limits for passenger automobiles. 2013 tax form 1040ez   For a passenger automobile that is placed in service in 2013, the total section 179 and depreciation deduction is limited. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Do the Passenger Automobile Limits Apply , later. 2013 tax form 1040ez Married individuals. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you are married, how you figure your section 179 expense deduction depends on whether you file jointly or separately. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you file a joint return, you and your spouse are treated as one taxpayer in determining any reduction to the dollar limit, regardless of which of you purchased the property or placed it in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you and your spouse file separate returns, you are treated as one taxpayer for the dollar limit, including the reduction for costs over $2 million. 2013 tax form 1040ez You must allocate the dollar limit (after any reduction) equally between you, unless you both elect a different allocation. 2013 tax form 1040ez If the percentages elected by each of you do not total 100%, 50% will be allocated to each of you. 2013 tax form 1040ez Joint return after separate returns. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you and your spouse elect to amend your separate returns by filing a joint return after the due date for filing your return, the dollar limit on the joint return is the lesser of the following amounts. 2013 tax form 1040ez The dollar limit (after reduction for any cost of section 179 property over $2 million). 2013 tax form 1040ez The total cost of section 179 property you and your spouse elected to expense on your separate returns. 2013 tax form 1040ez Business Income Limit The total cost you can deduct each year after you apply the dollar limit is limited to the taxable income from the active conduct of any trade or business during the year. 2013 tax form 1040ez Generally, you are considered to actively conduct a trade or business if you meaningfully participate in the management or operations of the trade or business. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any cost not deductible in one year under section 179 because of this limit can be carried to the next year. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Carryover of disallowed deduction , later. 2013 tax form 1040ez Taxable income. 2013 tax form 1040ez   In general, figure taxable income for this purpose by totaling the net income and losses from all trades and businesses you actively conducted during the year. 2013 tax form 1040ez In addition to net income or loss from a sole proprietorship, partnership, or S corporation, net income or loss derived from a trade or business also includes the following items. 2013 tax form 1040ez Section 1231 gains (or losses) as discussed in chapter 9. 2013 tax form 1040ez Interest from working capital of your trade or business. 2013 tax form 1040ez Wages, salaries, tips, or other pay earned by you (or your spouse if you file a joint return) as an employee of any employer. 2013 tax form 1040ez   In addition, figure taxable income without regard to any of the following. 2013 tax form 1040ez The section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez The self-employment tax deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any net operating loss carryback or carryforward. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any unreimbursed employee business expenses. 2013 tax form 1040ez Two different taxable income limits. 2013 tax form 1040ez   In addition to the business income limit for your section 179 expense deduction, you may have a taxable income limit for some other deduction (for example, charitable contributions). 2013 tax form 1040ez You may have to figure the limit for this other deduction taking into account the section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez If so, complete the following steps. 2013 tax form 1040ez Step Action 1 Figure taxable income without the section 179 expense deduction or the other deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez 2 Figure a hypothetical section 179 expense deduction using the taxable income figured in Step 1. 2013 tax form 1040ez 3 Subtract the hypothetical section 179 expense deduction figured in Step 2 from the taxable income figured in Step 1. 2013 tax form 1040ez 4 Figure a hypothetical amount for the other deduction using the amount figured in Step 3 as taxable income. 2013 tax form 1040ez 5 Subtract the hypothetical other deduction figured in Step 4 from the taxable income figured in  Step 1. 2013 tax form 1040ez 6 Figure your actual section 179 expense deduction using the taxable income figured in Step 5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 7 Subtract your actual section 179 expense deduction figured in Step 6 from the taxable income figured in Step 1. 2013 tax form 1040ez 8 Figure your actual other deduction using the taxable income figured in Step 7. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez On February 1, 2013, the XYZ farm corporation purchased and placed in service qualifying section 179 property that cost $500,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez It elects to expense the entire $500,000 cost under section 179. 2013 tax form 1040ez In June, the corporation gave a charitable contribution of $10,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez A corporation's limit on charitable contributions is figured after subtracting any section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez The business income limit for the section 179 expense deduction is figured after subtracting any allowable charitable contributions. 2013 tax form 1040ez XYZ's taxable income figured without the section 179 expense deduction or the deduction for charitable contributions is $520,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez XYZ figures its section 179 expense deduction and its deduction for charitable contributions as follows. 2013 tax form 1040ez Step 1. 2013 tax form 1040ez Taxable income figured without either deduction is $520,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Step 2. 2013 tax form 1040ez Using $520,000 as taxable income, XYZ's hypothetical section 179 expense deduction is $500,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Step 3. 2013 tax form 1040ez $20,000 ($520,000 − $500,000). 2013 tax form 1040ez Step 4. 2013 tax form 1040ez Using $20,000 (from Step 3) as taxable income, XYZ's hypothetical charitable contribution (limited to 10% of taxable income) is $2,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Step 5. 2013 tax form 1040ez $518,000 ($520,000 − $2,000). 2013 tax form 1040ez Step 6. 2013 tax form 1040ez Using $518,000 (from Step 5) as taxable income, XYZ figures the actual section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez Because the taxable income is at least $500,000, XYZ can take a $500,000 section 179 expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez Step 7. 2013 tax form 1040ez $20,000 ($520,000 − $500,000). 2013 tax form 1040ez Step 8. 2013 tax form 1040ez Using $20,000 (from Step 7) as taxable income, XYZ's actual charitable contribution (limited to 10% of taxable income) is $2,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Carryover of disallowed deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You can carry over for an unlimited number of years the cost of any section 179 property you elected to expense but were unable to because of the business income limit. 2013 tax form 1040ez   The amount you carry over is used in determining your section 179 expense deduction in the next year. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, it is subject to the limits in that year. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you place more than one property in service in a year, you can select the properties for which all or a part of the cost will be carried forward. 2013 tax form 1040ez Your selections must be shown in your books and records. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez Last year, Joyce Jones placed in service a machine that cost $8,000 and elected to deduct all $8,000 under section 179. 2013 tax form 1040ez The taxable income from her business (determined without regard to both a section 179 expense deduction for the cost of the machine and the self-employment tax deduction) was $6,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Her section 179 expense deduction was limited to $6,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez The $2,000 cost that was not allowed as a section 179 expense deduction (because of the business income limit) is carried to this year. 2013 tax form 1040ez This year, Joyce placed another machine in service that cost $9,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Her taxable income from business (determined without regard to both a section 179 expense deduction for the cost of the machine and the self-employment tax deduction) is $10,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez Joyce can deduct the full cost of the machine ($9,000) but only $1,000 of the carryover from last year because of the business income limit. 2013 tax form 1040ez She can carry over the balance of $1,000 to next year. 2013 tax form 1040ez Partnerships and S Corporations The section 179 expense deduction limits apply both to the partnership or S corporation and to each partner or shareholder. 2013 tax form 1040ez The partnership or S corporation determines its section 179 expense deduction subject to the limits. 2013 tax form 1040ez It then allocates the deduction among its partners or shareholders. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you are a partner in a partnership or shareholder of an S corporation, you add the amount allocated from the partnership or S corporation to any section 179 costs not related to the partnership or S corporation and then apply the dollar limit to this total. 2013 tax form 1040ez To determine any reduction in the dollar limit for costs over $560,000, you do not include any of the cost of section 179 property placed in service by the partnership or S corporation. 2013 tax form 1040ez After you apply the dollar limit, you apply the business income limit to any remaining section 179 costs. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez In 2013, Partnership P placed in service section 179 property with a total cost of $2,160,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez P must reduce its dollar limit by $160,000 ($2,160,000 − $2,000,000). 2013 tax form 1040ez Its maximum section 179 expense deduction is $340,000 ($500,000 − $160,000), and it elects to expense that amount. 2013 tax form 1040ez Because P's taxable income from the active conduct of all its trades or businesses for the year was $400,000, it can deduct the full $340,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez P allocates $100,000 of its section 179 expense deduction and $110,000 of its taxable income to John, one of its partners. 2013 tax form 1040ez John also conducts a business as a sole proprietor and in 2013, placed in service in that business, section 179 property costing $28,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez John's taxable income from that business was $10,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez In addition to the $100,000 allocated from P, he elects to expense the $28,000 of his sole proprietorship's section 179 costs. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, John's deduction is limited to his business taxable income of $120,000 ($110,000 from P plus $10,000 from his sole proprietorship). 2013 tax form 1040ez He carries over $8,000 ($128,000 − $120,000) of the elected section 179 costs to 2014. 2013 tax form 1040ez How Do You Elect the Deduction? You elect to take the section 179 expense deduction by completing Part I of Form 4562. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you elect the deduction for listed property, complete Part V of  Form 4562 before completing Part I. 2013 tax form 1040ez   File Form 4562 with either of the following: Your original tax return (whether or not you filed it timely), or An amended return filed within the time prescribed by law. 2013 tax form 1040ez An election made on an amended return must specify the item of section 179 property to which the election applies and the part of the cost of each such item to be taken into account. 2013 tax form 1040ez The amended return must also include any resulting adjustments to taxable income. 2013 tax form 1040ez Revoking an election. 2013 tax form 1040ez   An election (or any specification made in the election) to take a section 179 expense deduction for 2013 can be revoked without IRS approval by filing an amended return. 2013 tax form 1040ez The amended return must be filed within the time prescribed by law. 2013 tax form 1040ez The amended return must also include any resulting adjustments to taxable income (for example, allowable depreciation in that tax year for the item of section 179 property for which the election pertains. 2013 tax form 1040ez ) Once made, the revocation is irrevocable. 2013 tax form 1040ez When Must You Recapture the Deduction? You may have to recapture the section 179 expense deduction if, in any year during the property's recovery period, the percentage of business use drops to 50% or less. 2013 tax form 1040ez In the year the business use drops to 50% or less, you include the recapture amount as ordinary income. 2013 tax form 1040ez You also increase the basis of the property by the recapture amount. 2013 tax form 1040ez Recovery periods for property are discussed later. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you sell, exchange, or otherwise dispose of the property, do not figure the recapture amount under the rules explained in this discussion. 2013 tax form 1040ez Instead, use the rules for recapturing depreciation explained in  chapter 9 under Section 1245 Property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If the property is listed property, do not figure the recapture amount under the rules explained in this discussion when the percentage of business use drops to 50% or less. 2013 tax form 1040ez Instead, use the rules for recapturing depreciation explained in chapter 5 of Publication 946 under Recapture of Excess Depreciation. 2013 tax form 1040ez Figuring the recapture amount. 2013 tax form 1040ez   To figure the amount to recapture, take the following steps. 2013 tax form 1040ez Figure the allowable depreciation for the section 179 expense deduction you claimed. 2013 tax form 1040ez Begin with the year you placed the property in service and include the year of recapture. 2013 tax form 1040ez Subtract the depreciation figured in (1) from the section 179 expense deduction you actually claimed. 2013 tax form 1040ez The result is the amount you must recapture. 2013 tax form 1040ez Example. 2013 tax form 1040ez In January 2011, Paul Lamb, a calendar year taxpayer, bought and placed in service section 179 property costing $10,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez The property is not listed property. 2013 tax form 1040ez He elected a $5,000 section 179 expense deduction for the property and also elected not to claim a special depreciation allowance. 2013 tax form 1040ez He used the property only for business in 2011 and 2012. 2013 tax form 1040ez During 2013, he used the property 40% for business and 60% for personal use. 2013 tax form 1040ez He figures his recapture amount as follows. 2013 tax form 1040ez Section 179 expense deduction claimed (2011) $5,000 Minus: Allowable depreciation (instead of section 179 expense deduction):   2011 $1,250   2012 1,875   2013 ($1,250 × 40% (business)) 500 3,625 2013 — Recapture amount $1,375     Paul must include $1,375 in income for 2013. 2013 tax form 1040ez Where to report recapture. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Report any recapture of the section 179 expense deduction as ordinary income in Part IV of Form 4797 and include it in income on Schedule F (Form 1040). 2013 tax form 1040ez Recapture for qualified section 179 GO Zone property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If any qualified section 179 GO Zone property ceases to be used in the GO Zone in a later year, you must recapture the benefit of the increased section 179 expense deduction as “other income. 2013 tax form 1040ez ” Claiming the Special Depreciation Allowance For qualified property (defined below) placed in service in 2013, you can take an additional 50% special depreciation allowance. 2013 tax form 1040ez The allowance is an additional deduction you can take after any section 179 expense deduction and before you figure regular depreciation under MACRS. 2013 tax form 1040ez Figure the special depreciation allowance by multiplying the depreciable basis of the qualified property by 50%. 2013 tax form 1040ez What is Qualified Property? For farmers, qualified property generally is certain qualified property acquired after December 31, 2007, and placed in service before January 1, 2014. 2013 tax form 1040ez Certain qualified property acquired after December 31, 2007, and placed in service before January 1, 2014. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Certain qualified property (defined below) acquired after December 31, 2007, and before January 1, 2014, is eligible for a 50% special depreciation allowance. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Qualified property includes the following: Tangible property depreciated under the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) with a recovery period of 20 years or less. 2013 tax form 1040ez Water utility property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Off-the-shelf computer software. 2013 tax form 1040ez Qualified leasehold improvement property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Qualified property must also meet all of the following tests: You must have acquired qualified property by purchase after December 31, 2007. 2013 tax form 1040ez If a binding contract to acquire the property existed before January 1, 2008, the property does not qualify. 2013 tax form 1040ez Qualified property must be placed in service after December 31, 2007 and placed in service before January 1, 2014 (before January 1, 2015 for certain property with a long production period and for certain aircraft). 2013 tax form 1040ez The original use of the property must begin with you after December 31, 2007. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see chapter 3 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez How Can You Elect Not To Claim the Allowance? You can elect, for any class of property, not to deduct the special depreciation allowance for all property in such class placed in service during the tax year. 2013 tax form 1040ez To make the election, attach a statement to your return indicating the class of property for which you are making the election. 2013 tax form 1040ez Generally, you must make the election on a timely filed tax return (including extensions) for the year in which you place the property in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, if you timely filed your return for the year without making the election, you still can make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of the original return (not including extensions). 2013 tax form 1040ez Attach the election statement to the amended return. 2013 tax form 1040ez On the amended return, write “Filed pursuant to section 301. 2013 tax form 1040ez 9100-2. 2013 tax form 1040ez ” Once made, the election may not be revoked without IRS consent. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you elect not to have the special depreciation allowance apply, the property may be subject to an alternative minimum tax adjustment for depreciation. 2013 tax form 1040ez When Must You Recapture an Allowance When you dispose of property for which you claimed a special depreciation allowance, any gain on the disposition is generally recaptured (included in income) as ordinary income up to the amount of the special depreciation allowance previously allowed or allowable. 2013 tax form 1040ez For more information, see chapter 3 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Figuring Depreciation Under MACRS The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) is used to recover the basis of most business and investment property placed in service after 1986. 2013 tax form 1040ez MACRS consists of two depreciation systems, the General Depreciation System (GDS) and the Alternative Depreciation System (ADS). 2013 tax form 1040ez Generally, these systems provide different methods and recovery periods to use in figuring depreciation deductions. 2013 tax form 1040ez To be sure you can use MACRS to figure depreciation for your property, see Can You Use MACRS To Depreciate Your Property, earlier. 2013 tax form 1040ez This part explains how to determine which MACRS depreciation system applies to your property. 2013 tax form 1040ez It also discusses the following information that you need to know before you can figure depreciation under MACRS. 2013 tax form 1040ez Property's recovery class. 2013 tax form 1040ez Placed-in-service date. 2013 tax form 1040ez Basis for depreciation. 2013 tax form 1040ez Recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez Convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez Depreciation method. 2013 tax form 1040ez Finally, this part explains how to use this information to figure your depreciation deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies? Your use of either the General Depreciation System (GDS) or the Alternative Depreciation System (ADS) to depreciate property under MACRS determines what depreciation method and recovery period you use. 2013 tax form 1040ez You generally must use GDS unless you are specifically required by law to use ADS or you elect to use ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez Required use of ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You must use ADS for the following property. 2013 tax form 1040ez All property used predominantly in a farming business and placed in service in any tax year during which an election not to apply the uniform capitalization rules to certain farming costs is in effect. 2013 tax form 1040ez Listed property used 50% or less in a qualified business use. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Additional Rules for Listed Property , later. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any tax-exempt use property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any tax-exempt bond-financed property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any property imported from a foreign country for which an Executive Order is in effect because the country maintains trade restrictions or engages in other discriminatory acts. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any tangible property used predominantly outside the United States during the year. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you are required to use ADS to depreciate your property, you cannot claim the special depreciation allowance. 2013 tax form 1040ez Electing ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Although your property may qualify for GDS, you can elect to use ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez The election generally must cover all property in the same property class you placed in service during the year. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, the election for residential rental property and nonresidential real property can be made on a property-by-property basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez Once you make this election, you can never revoke it. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You make the election by completing line 20 in Part III of Form 4562. 2013 tax form 1040ez Which Property Class Applies Under GDS? The following is a list of the nine property classes under GDS. 2013 tax form 1040ez 3-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez 5-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez 7-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez 10-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez 15-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez 20-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez 25-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Residential rental property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Nonresidential real property. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Which Property Class Applies Under GDS in chapter 4 of Publication 946 for examples of the types of property included in each class. 2013 tax form 1040ez What Is the Placed-in-Service Date? You begin to claim depreciation when your property is placed in service for use either in a trade or business or for the production of income. 2013 tax form 1040ez The placed-in-service date for your property is the date the property is ready and available for a specific use. 2013 tax form 1040ez It is therefore not necessarily the date it is first used. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you converted property held for personal use to use in a trade or business or for the production of income, treat the property as being placed in service on the conversion date. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Placed in Service under When Does Depreciation Begin and End , earlier, for examples illustrating when property is placed in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez What Is the Basis for Depreciation? The basis for depreciation of MACRS property is the property's cost or other basis multiplied by the percentage of business/investment use. 2013 tax form 1040ez Reduce that amount by any credits and deductions allocable to the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez The following are examples of some of the credits and deductions that reduce basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any deduction for section 179 property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any deduction for removal of barriers to the disabled and the elderly. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any disabled access credit, enhanced oil recovery credit, and credit for employer-provided childcare facilities and services. 2013 tax form 1040ez Any special depreciation allowance. 2013 tax form 1040ez Basis adjustment for investment credit property under section 50(c) of the Internal Revenue Code. 2013 tax form 1040ez For information about how to determine the cost or other basis of property, see What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property , earlier. 2013 tax form 1040ez Also, see chapter 6. 2013 tax form 1040ez For additional credits and deductions that affect basis, see section 1016 of the Internal Revenue Code. 2013 tax form 1040ez Which Recovery Period Applies? The recovery period of property is the number of years over which you recover its cost or other basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez It is determined based on the depreciation system (GDS or ADS) used. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Table 7-1 for recovery periods under both GDS and ADS for some commonly used assets. 2013 tax form 1040ez For a complete list of recovery periods, see the Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods in Appendix B of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez House trailers for farm laborers. 2013 tax form 1040ez   To depreciate a house trailer you supply as housing for those who work on your farm, use one of the following recovery periods if the house trailer is mobile (it has wheels and a history of movement). 2013 tax form 1040ez A 7-year recovery period under GDS. 2013 tax form 1040ez A 10-year recovery period under ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez   However, if the house trailer is not mobile (its wheels have been removed and permanent utilities and pipes attached to it), use one of the following recovery periods. 2013 tax form 1040ez A 20-year recovery period under GDS. 2013 tax form 1040ez A 25-year recovery period under ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez Water wells. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Water wells used to provide water for raising poultry and livestock are land improvements. 2013 tax form 1040ez If they are depreciable, use one of the following recovery periods. 2013 tax form 1040ez A 15-year recovery period under GDS. 2013 tax form 1040ez A 20-year recovery period under ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez   The types of water wells that can be depreciated were discussed earlier in Irrigation systems and water wells under Property Having a Determinable Useful Life . 2013 tax form 1040ez Table 7-1. 2013 tax form 1040ez Farm Property Recovery Periods   Recovery Period in Years Assets GDS ADS Agricultural structures (single purpose) 10 15 Automobiles 5 5 Calculators and copiers 5 6 Cattle (dairy or breeding) 5 7 Communication equipment1 7 10 Computer and peripheral equipment 5 5 Drainage facilities 15 20 Farm buildings2 20 25 Farm machinery and equipment 7 10 Fences (agricultural) 7 10 Goats and sheep (breeding) 5 5 Grain bin 7 10 Hogs (breeding) 3 3 Horses (age when placed in service)     Breeding and working (12 years or less) 7 10 Breeding and working (more than 12 years) 3 10 Racing horses 3 12 Horticultural structures (single purpose) 10 15 Logging machinery and equipment3 5 6 Nonresidential real property 394 40 Office furniture, fixtures, and equipment (not calculators, copiers, or typewriters) 7 10 Paved lots 15 20 Residential rental property 27. 2013 tax form 1040ez 5 40 Tractor units (over-the-road) 3 4 Trees or vines bearing fruit or nuts 10 20 Truck (heavy duty, unloaded weight 13,000 lbs. 2013 tax form 1040ez or more) 5 6 Truck (actual weight less than 13,000 lbs) 5 5 Water wells 15 20 1 Not including communication equipment listed in other classes. 2013 tax form 1040ez 2 Not including single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures. 2013 tax form 1040ez 3 Used by logging and sawmill operators for cutting of timber. 2013 tax form 1040ez 4 For property placed in service after May 12, 1993; for property placed in service before May 13, 1993,  the recovery period is 31. 2013 tax form 1040ez 5 years. 2013 tax form 1040ez Which Convention Applies? Under MACRS, averaging conventions establish when the recovery period begins and ends. 2013 tax form 1040ez The convention you use determines the number of months for which you can claim depreciation in the year you place property in service and in the year you dispose of the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Use one of the following conventions. 2013 tax form 1040ez The half-year convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez The mid-month convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez The mid-quarter convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez For a detailed explanation of each convention, see Which Convention Applies in chapter 4 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Also, see the Instructions for Form 4562. 2013 tax form 1040ez Which Depreciation Method Applies? MACRS provides three depreciation methods under GDS and one depreciation method under ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez The 200% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez The 150% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez The straight line method over a GDS recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez The straight line method over an ADS recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez Depreciation Table. 2013 tax form 1040ez   The following table lists the types of property you can depreciate under each method. 2013 tax form 1040ez The declining balance method is abbreviated as DB and the straight line method is abbreviated as SL. 2013 tax form 1040ez Depreciation Table System/Method   Type of Property GDS using  150% DB • All property used in a farming business (except real property)   • All 15- and 20-year property   • Nonfarm 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property1 GDS using SL • Nonresidential real property   • Residential rental property   • Trees or vines bearing fruit or nuts   • All 3-, 5-, 7-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year property1 ADS using SL • Property used predomi- nantly outside the United States   • Farm property used when an election not to apply the uniform capitalization rules is in effect   • Tax-exempt property   • Tax-exempt bond-financed property   • Imported property2   • Any property for which you elect to use this method1 GDS using  200% DB • Nonfarm 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-year property 1Elective method 2See section 168(g)(6) of the Internal Revenue  Code Property used in farming business. 2013 tax form 1040ez   For personal property placed in service after 1988 in a farming business, you must use the 150% declining balance method over a GDS recovery period or you can elect one of the following methods. 2013 tax form 1040ez The straight line method over a GDS recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez The straight line method over an ADS recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez For property placed in service before 1999, you could have elected to use the 150% declining balance method using the ADS recovery periods for certain property classes. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you made this election, continue to use the same method and recovery period for that property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Real property. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You can depreciate real property using the straight line method under either GDS or ADS. 2013 tax form 1040ez Switching to straight line. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you use a declining balance method, you switch to the straight line method in the year it provides an equal or greater deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you use the MACRS percentage tables, discussed later under How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured , you do not need to determine in which year your deduction is greater using the straight line method. 2013 tax form 1040ez The tables have the switch to the straight line method built into their rates. 2013 tax form 1040ez Fruit or nut trees and vines. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Depreciate trees and vines bearing fruit or nuts under GDS using the straight line method over a 10-year recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez ADS required for some farmers. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you elect not to apply the uniform capitalization rules to any plant shown in Table 6-1 of chapter 6 and produced in your farming business, you must use ADS for all property you place in service in any year the election is in effect. 2013 tax form 1040ez See chapter 6 for a discussion of the application of the uniform capitalization rules to farm property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Electing a different method. 2013 tax form 1040ez   As shown in the Depreciation Table , you can elect a different method for depreciation for certain types of property. 2013 tax form 1040ez You must make the election by the due date of the return (including extensions) for the year you placed the property in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, if you timely filed your return for the year without making the election, you can still make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of your return (excluding extensions). 2013 tax form 1040ez Attach the election to the amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. 2013 tax form 1040ez 9100-2” on the election statement. 2013 tax form 1040ez File the amended return at the same address you filed the original return. 2013 tax form 1040ez Once you make the election, you cannot change it. 2013 tax form 1040ez    If you elect to use a different method for one item in a property class, you must apply the same method to all property in that class placed in service during the year of the election. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, you can make the election on a property-by-property basis for residential rental and nonresidential real property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Straight line election. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Instead of using the declining balance method, you can elect to use the straight line method over the GDS recovery period. 2013 tax form 1040ez Make the election by entering “S/L” under column (f) in Part III of Form 4562. 2013 tax form 1040ez ADS election. 2013 tax form 1040ez   As explained earlier under Which Depreciation System (GDS or ADS) Applies , you can elect to use ADS even though your property may come under GDS. 2013 tax form 1040ez ADS uses the straight line method of depreciation over the ADS recovery periods, which are generally longer than the GDS recovery periods. 2013 tax form 1040ez The ADS recovery periods for many assets used in the business of farming are listed in Table 7–1. 2013 tax form 1040ez Additional ADS recovery periods for other classes of property may be found in the Table of Class Lives and Recovery Periods in Appendix B of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez How Is the Depreciation Deduction Figured? To figure your depreciation deduction under MACRS, you first determine the depreciation system, property class, placed-in-service date, basis amount, recovery period, convention, and depreciation method that applies to your property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Then you are ready to figure your depreciation deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can figure it in one of two ways. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can use the percentage tables provided by the IRS. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can figure your own deduction without using the tables. 2013 tax form 1040ez Figuring your own MACRS deduction will generally result in a slightly different amount than using the tables. 2013 tax form 1040ez Using the MACRS Percentage Tables To help you figure your deduction under MACRS, the IRS has established percentage tables that incorporate the applicable convention and depreciation method. 2013 tax form 1040ez These percentage tables are in Appendix A of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Rules for using the tables. 2013 tax form 1040ez   The following rules cover the use of the percentage tables. 2013 tax form 1040ez You must apply the rates in the percentage tables to your property's unadjusted basis. 2013 tax form 1040ez Unadjusted basis is the same basis amount you would use to figure gain on a sale but figured without reducing your original basis by any MACRS depreciation taken in earlier years. 2013 tax form 1040ez You cannot use the percentage tables for a short tax year. 2013 tax form 1040ez See chapter 4 of Publication 946 for information on how to figure the deduction for a short tax year. 2013 tax form 1040ez You generally must continue to use them for the entire recovery period of the property. 2013 tax form 1040ez You must stop using the tables if you adjust the basis of the property for any reason other than— Depreciation allowed or allowable, or An addition or improvement to the property, which is depreciated as a separate property. 2013 tax form 1040ez Basis adjustment due to casualty loss. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you reduce the basis of your property because of a casualty, you cannot continue to use the percentage tables. 2013 tax form 1040ez For the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, you must figure the depreciation yourself using the property's adjusted basis at the end of the year. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables in chapter 4 of Publication 946. 2013 tax form 1040ez Figuring depreciation using the 150% DB method and half-year convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez    Table 7-2 has the percentages for 3-, 5-, 7-, and 20-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez The percentages are based on the 150% declining balance method with a change to the straight line method. 2013 tax form 1040ez This table covers only the half-year convention and the first 8 years for 20-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Appendix A in Publication 946 for complete MACRS tables, including tables for the mid-quarter and mid-month convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez   The following examples show how to figure depreciation under MACRS using the percentages in Table 7-2 . 2013 tax form 1040ez Example 1. 2013 tax form 1040ez During the year, you bought an item of 7-year property for $10,000 and placed it in service. 2013 tax form 1040ez You do not elect a section 179 expense deduction for this property. 2013 tax form 1040ez In addition, the property is not qualified property for purposes of the special depreciation allowance. 2013 tax form 1040ez The unadjusted basis of the property is $10,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez You use the percentages in Table 7-2 to figure your deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez Since this is 7-year property, you multiply $10,000 by 10. 2013 tax form 1040ez 71% to get this year's depreciation of $1,071. 2013 tax form 1040ez For next year, your depreciation will be $1,913 ($10,000 × 19. 2013 tax form 1040ez 13%). 2013 tax form 1040ez Example 2. 2013 tax form 1040ez You had a barn constructed on your farm at a cost of $20,000. 2013 tax form 1040ez You placed the barn in service this year. 2013 tax form 1040ez You elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. 2013 tax form 1040ez The barn is 20-year property and you use the table percentages to figure your deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez You figure this year's depreciation by multiplying $20,000 (unadjusted basis) by 3. 2013 tax form 1040ez 75% to get $750. 2013 tax form 1040ez For next year, your depreciation will be $1,443. 2013 tax form 1040ez 80 ($20,000 × 7. 2013 tax form 1040ez 219%). 2013 tax form 1040ez Table 7-2. 2013 tax form 1040ez 150% Declining Balance Method (Half-Year Convention) Year 3-Year 5-Year 7-Year 20-Year 1 25. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0 % 15. 2013 tax form 1040ez 00 % 10. 2013 tax form 1040ez 71 % 3. 2013 tax form 1040ez 750 % 2 37. 2013 tax form 1040ez 5   25. 2013 tax form 1040ez 50   19. 2013 tax form 1040ez 13   7. 2013 tax form 1040ez 219   3 25. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0   17. 2013 tax form 1040ez 85   15. 2013 tax form 1040ez 03   6. 2013 tax form 1040ez 677   4 12. 2013 tax form 1040ez 5   16. 2013 tax form 1040ez 66   12. 2013 tax form 1040ez 25   6. 2013 tax form 1040ez 177   5     16. 2013 tax form 1040ez 66   12. 2013 tax form 1040ez 25   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 713   6     8. 2013 tax form 1040ez 33   12. 2013 tax form 1040ez 25   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 285   7         12. 2013 tax form 1040ez 25   4. 2013 tax form 1040ez 888   8         6. 2013 tax form 1040ez 13   4. 2013 tax form 1040ez 522   Figuring depreciation using the straight line method and half-year convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez   The following table has the straight line percentages for 3-, 5-, 7-, and 20-year property using the half-year convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez The table covers only the first 8 years for 20-year property. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Appendix A in Publication 946 for complete MACRS tables, including tables for the mid-quarter and mid-month convention. 2013 tax form 1040ez Table 7-3. 2013 tax form 1040ez Straight Line Method (Half-Year Convention) Year 3-Year 5-Year 7-Year 20-Year 1 16. 2013 tax form 1040ez 67 % 10 % 7. 2013 tax form 1040ez 14 % 2. 2013 tax form 1040ez 5 % 2 33. 2013 tax form 1040ez 33   20   14. 2013 tax form 1040ez 29   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0   3 33. 2013 tax form 1040ez 33   20   14. 2013 tax form 1040ez 29   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0   4 16. 2013 tax form 1040ez 67   20   14. 2013 tax form 1040ez 28   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0   5     20   14. 2013 tax form 1040ez 29   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0   6     10   14. 2013 tax form 1040ez 28   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0   7         14. 2013 tax form 1040ez 29   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0   8         7. 2013 tax form 1040ez 14   5. 2013 tax form 1040ez 0    
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SOI Tax Stats - SOI Working Papers

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Statistics of Income Working Papers

The Statistics of Income (SOI) working papers present new and exciting research on the U.S. Federal tax system and the methods used to produce tax statistics. Papers are presented at professional conferences, such as the Joint Statistical Meeting of the American Statistical Association and the National Tax Association’s annual conference on taxation, and are often published in professional journals. Below you will find a selection of papers organized by presentation year.

Papers in this series generally do not undergo the extensive review and editorial process accorded official SOI publications. Instead, these working papers are intended to make results of research available to others and to encourage discussion on a variety of topics. As a result, papers may be occasionally revised or updated.

Jump to a year:

1997  1998  1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008  2009  2011  2013  2014


2014

Older Taxpayers’ Response to Taxation of Social Security Benefits
Leonard Burman, Syracuse University and the Tax Policy Center, Norma B. Coe, University of Washington and the National Bureau of Economic Research, Kevin Pierce, Internal Revenue Service, Liu Tian, Syracuse University

Over the Top: How Tax Returns Show that the Very Rich Are Different from You and Me
Jenny Bourne and Lisa Rosenmerkel

The Economic Impact of Tax Expenditures: Evidence from Spatial Variation Across the U.S.
Associated Tables (.xls format)
Raj Chetty and Nathaniel Hendren, Harvard University and the National Bureau of Economic Research, and, Patrick Kline and Emmanuel Saez, University of California, Berkeley and the National Bureau of Economic Research

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2013

The Home Mortgage Interest Deduction and Migratory Insurance Over the Great Recession
Danny Yagan, University of California, Berkeley

Do Financial Frictions Amplify Fiscal Policy? Evidence from Business Investment Stimulus
Eric Zwick and James Mahon, Harvard University

A New Look at the Income-Wealth Connection for America’s Wealthiest Decedents
Barry Johnson, Brian Raub, and Joseph Newcomb, Statistics of Income, IRS

A Comparison of Wealth Estimates For America’s Wealthiest Decedents Using Tax Data and Data From The Forbes 400
Barry Johnson, Brian Raub, and Joseph Newcomb, Statistics of Income, IRS

Capital Tax Reform and the Real Economy: The Effects of the 2003 Dividend Tax Cut
Danny Yagan, University of California, Berkeley

Do Tax Credits for Parents Affect Child College Enrollment?
Nathaniel G. Hilger, Brown University

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2011

New Evidence on the Long-Term Impacts of Tax Credits
Raj Chetty and JohnFriedman, Harvard University and the National Bureau of Economic Research, and Jonah Rockoff, Columbia University and the National Bureau of Economic Research

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2009

Variance Estimation for Estimators of Between-Year Change in Totals from Two Stratified Bernoulli Samples
Henry, Kimberly; Testa, Valerie; Valliant, Richard

The Effect of Late-Filed Returns on Population Estimates: A Comparative Analysis
Raub, Brian; Belmonte, Cynthia; Arnsberger, Paul; Ludlum, Melissa

Variance Estimation for Estimators of Between-Year Change in Totals from Two Stratified Bernoulli Samples
Kimberly Henry and Valerie Testa, Internal Revenue Service and Richard Valliant, University of Michigan

The Effect of Late-Filed Returns on Population Estimates: A Comparative Analysis
Brian Raub, Cynthia Belmonte, Paul Arnsberger, and Melissa Ludlum, Internal Revenue Service

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2008

Dissemination Of Statistical Products: The IRS’s Journey
Gangi, Martha Eller

Attrition in the Individual Income Tax Return Panel, Tax Years 1999–2005
Bryant, Victoria

Statistics of Income Sales of Capital Assets Sample Redesign for Tax Year 2007
Liu, Yan; Scali, Jana; Strudler, Michael; Wilson, Janette

90 Years of SOI: A Collection of Historical Articles
Multiple Authors

Using Audit Data To Estimate Taxpayer Reporting Error in the Statistics of Income Division's Individual Tax Return Sample
Henry, Kimberly

Differences in Income Estimates Derived from Survey and Tax Data
Johnson, Barry; Moore, Kevin

Old Tabulations, Old Files, and a Brief History of Individual Tax Return Sampling
Weber, Michael; Paris, David; Sailer, Peter

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2007

Measuring Disclosure Risk and an Examination of the Possibilities of Using Synthetic Data in the Individual Income Tax Return Public Use File
Vartivarian, Sonya; Czajka, John; Weber, Michael

Measuring the Quality of Service to Taxpayers in Volunteer Sites
Cecco, Kevin; Walsh, Ronald; Hooker, Rachael

SOI Develops Better Survey Questions Through Pretesting
Milleville, Diane; Wells, Tara

Using the Statistics of Income Division's Sample Data To Reduce Measurement and Processing Error in Small-Area Estimates Produced from Administrative Tax Records
Henry, Kimberly; Lahiri, Partha; Fisher, Robin

An Empirical Evaluation of Various Direct, Synthetic, and Traditional Composite Small-Area Estimators
Henry, Kimberly; Strudler, Michael; Chen, William

Evaluating Alternative One-Sided Coverage Intervals for an Extreme Binomial Proportion
Liu, Yan; Kott, Phillip

Improving the Quality of U.S. Tax Statistics: Recent Innovations in Editing and Imputation Techniques at the Statistics of Income Division of the U.S. Internal Revenue Service
Scott M. Hollenbeck, Melissa Ludlum, and Barry W. Johnson, Internal Revenue Service

Using an Individual Income Tax Panel File To Measure Changes in Marginal Tax Rates: Opportunities
Diamond, John; Rector, Ralph; Weber, Michael

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2006

Social Security Taxes, Social Security Benefits, and Social Security Benefits Taxation, 2003
Sailer, Peter; Pierce, Kevin; Lomize, Evgenia

Analysis of the Distributions of Income, Taxes, and Payroll Taxes via Cross Section and Panel Data, 1979–2004
Strudler, Michael; Hentz, Lori; Petska, Tom; Petska, Ryan

Performance Measurement within the Statistics of Income Division
Cecco, Kevin

Customer Satisfaction Initiatives at IRS’s Statistics of Income: Using Surveys to Improve Customer Service
Schwartz, Ruth; Kilss, Beth

Tying Website Performance to Mission Achievement in the Federal Government
Milleville, Diane

The Tax Year 1999–2003 Individual Income Tax Return Panel: A First Look at the Data
Weber, Michael

Application of an Evolutionary Algorithm to Multivariate Optimal Allocation in Stratified Sample Designs
Day, Charles

Factors in Estates’ Utilization of Special Tax Provisions for Family-Owned Farms and Closely Held Businesses
Gangi, Martha Eller; Henry, Kimberly; Raub, Brian

Corporation Life Cycles: Examining Attrition Trends and Return Characteristics in Statistics of Income Cross-Sectional 1120 Samples
Matthew L. Scoffic

An Analysis of the Free File Program
Chu, Michelle; Kovalick, Melissa

Comparing Strategies To Estimate a Measure of Heteroscedasticity
Henry, Kimberly; Valliant, Richard

Creativity and Compromise: Constructing a Panel of Income and Estate Tax Data for Wealthy Individuals
Johnson, Barry; Schreiber, Lisa

Monitoring Statistics of Income (SOI) Samples
Koshansky, Joseph

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2005

Trends in 401(k) and IRA Contribution Activity, 1999–2002—Results from a Panel of Matched Tax Returns and Information Documents
Sailer, Peter; Bryant, Victoria Holden, Sarah

The 1999 Individual Income Tax Return Edited Panel
Weber, Michael; Bryant, Victoria

A Cluster Analysis Approach To Describing Tax Data
Raub, Brian; Chen, William

Origins of the Estate and Personal Wealth Sample Design
McMahon, Paul

Corporation Supercritical Cases: How Do Imputed Returns on the Corporate File Compare to the Actual Returns?
Davitian, Lucy

Internal Revenue Service Area-To-Area Migration Data: Strengths, Limitations, and Current Trends
Gross, Emily

A Comparison of Income Concepts: IRS Statistics of Income, Census Current Population Survey, and BLS Consumer Expenditure Survey
Henry, Eric; Day, Charles

Measuring Nonsampling Error in the Statistics of Income Individual Tax Return Study
Scali, Jana; Testa, Valerie; Kahr, Maureen; Strudler, Michael

The Impact of the Followup Process on the 2002 Foreign Tax Credit Study Data
Singmaster, Rob; Redmiles, Lissa

Prelude to Schedule M–3: Schedule M–1 Corporate Book-Tax Difference Data, 1990–2003
Boynton, Charles; DeFilippes, Portia; Legel, Ellen

An Essay on the Effects of Taxation on the Corporate Financial Policy
Contos, George

An Analysis of Business Organizational Structure and Activity from Tax Data
Petska, Tom; Parisi, Michael; Luttrell, Kelly; Davitian, Lucy; Scoffic, Matt

Geographic Variation in Schedule H Filing Rates: Why Should Location Influence the Decision To Report Nanny Taxes?
Bloomquist, Kim; An, Zhiyong

Current Research in the Nonprofit Sector
Arnsberger, Paul; Ludlum, Melissa; Riley, Margaret

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2004

Use of Individual Retirement Arrangements to Save for Retirement—Results From a Matched File of Tax Returns and Information Documents for Tax Year 2001
Sailer, Peter; Holden, Sarah

Further Analysis of the Distribution of Income and Taxes, 1979–2003
Strudler, Michael; Petska, Tom; Petska, Ryan

The Statistics of Income 1979–2002 Continuous Work History Sample Individual Income Tax Return Panel
Weber, Michael

Assessing Industry Codes on the IRS Business Master File
McMahon, Paul

Customer Satisfaction Initiatives within the Statistics of Income Division of the Internal Revenue Service
Cecco, Kevin

The Evolution of IRS Telephone Quality Measures
Rosage, Laura

Some New Tables for Upper Probability Points of the Largest Root of a Determinantal Equation
Chen, William

Editor Judgment Effect: Modeling a Key Component of Nonsampling Error in Administrative Data
Henry, Kimberly; Ahmed, Yahia; Legel, Ellen

The Effect of Content Errors on Bias and Nonsampling Variance in Estimates Derived From Samples
Johnson, Barry; Jacobson,Darien B.

Data Interpretation across Sources: A Study of Form 990–PF Information Collected from Multiple Databases
Ludlum, Melissa

Recent Research on Small Business Compliance Burden
Guyton, John; Kindlon, Audrey; Zhou, Jian

The Mismeasure of Man’s Well-Being: Refining Realized Income Measures with Wealth, Portfolio, and Mortality Information
Johnson, Barry; Wahl, Jenny

Tax Evasion and Entrepreneurship: The Effect of Income Reporting Policies on Evasion. An Experimental Approach
Alm, James; Deskins, John; McKee, Michael

Audit Information Dissemination, Taxpayer Communication and Tax Compliance: An Experimental Investigation of Indirect Audit Effects
Alm, James; Jackson, Betty; McKee, Michael

Multi-Agent Based Simulation of the Deterrent Effects of Taxpayer Audits
Bloomquist, Kim

Developing Adoptable Disclosure Protection Techniques: Lessons Learned From a U.S. Experience
Greenia, Nicholas

Consider the Source: Differences in Income Estimates Derived from Survey and Tax Data
Johnson, Barry; Moore, Kevin

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2003

The Effects of Tax Reform on the Structure of U.S. Business
Legel, Ellen; Bennett, Kelly; Parisi, Michael

Accumulation and Distributions of Retirement Assets, 1996–2000—Results from a Matched File of Tax Returns and Information Returns
Sailer, Peter; Gurka, Kurt; Holden, Sarah

An Analysis of the Distribution of Individual Income and Taxes, 1979–2001
Strudler, Michael; Petska, Tom; Petska, Ryan

IRS Seeks to Develop New Web-Based Measurement Indicators for IRS.gov
Dixon, Diane

Statistical Information Services at IRS: Improving Dissemination of Data and Satisfying the Customer
Kilss, Beth; Jordan, David

Recent Efforts to Maximize Benefits from the Statistics of Income Advisory Panel
Petska, Tom; Kilss, Beth

Regulatory Exemptions and Item Nonresponse
McMahon, Paul

Comparing Scoring Systems From Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis Using Random Samples
Wong, William; Ho, Chih-Chin

Estimating the Compliance Cost of the U.S. Individual Income Tax
Toder, Eric J.; Guyton, John; O'Hare, John; Stavrianos, Michael

Tax Evasion, Income Inequality and Opportunity Costs of Compliance
Bloomquist, Kim

IRS's Comprehensive Approach to Compliance Measurement
Brown, Robert; Mazur, Mark

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2002

Salaries and Wages and Deferred Income, 1989–1999
Sailer, Peter; Yau, Ellen; Gurka, Kurt; Weber, Michael

Proxies in Administrative Records Surveys
McMahon, Paul

Assessing Disclosure Protection for a SOI Public Use File
Winglee, Marianne; Valliant, Richard; Clark, Jay; Lim, Yunhee; Weber, Michael; Strudler, Michael

Electronic Dissemination of Internal Revenue Service Locality Data
Gross, Emily; Kilss, Beth

Analysis of the 1998 Gift Tax Panel Study
Eller, Martha Britton; Rib, Tamara

Evaluating the Effect of Sample Size Changes on Scoring System Performance Using Bootstraps and Random Samples
Wong, William; Ho, Chih-Chin

Using Auxiliary Information to Adjust for Non-Response in Weighting a Linked Sample of Administrative Records
Johnson, Barry: McMahon, Paul

Developing an Econometric Model for Measuring Tax Noncompliance Using Operational Audit Data
Erard, Brian; Ho, Chih-Chin

Some New Tables of the Largest Root of a Matrix in Multivariate Analysis: A Computer Approach from 2 to 6
Chen, William

Are Taxpayers Increasing the Buildup of Retirement Assets? Preliminary Results from a Matched File of Tax Year 1999 Tax Returns and Information Returns
Sailer, Peter; Weber, Michael; Gurka, Kurt

New Estimates of the Distribution of Individual Income and Taxes
Strudler, Michael; Petska, Tom; Petska, Ryan

How the Quality of Responses the IRS Provides to Taxpayer Inquiries is Measured
Cecco, Kevin; Hoopengardner, Rachael

The Impact of the IRS on Voluntary Tax Compliance: Preliminary Empirical Results
Plumley, Alan

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2001

Taxing Charity: Linking Income Tax Returns to Samples of Nonexempt Charitable and Charitable Remainder
Belvedere, Melissa; Mikow, Jacob; Whitten, Melissa

The 1998 Gift Tax Panel Study: Using The IRS Returns Transaction File as a Sample Frame
Eller, Martha Britton; Rib, Tamara

Sample Design Revisions in the Wake of NAICS and Regulatory Changes
McMahon, Paul

Statistical Information from Administrative Records in the Federal Tax System
Petska, Tom

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2000

Exporting a Statistical System: Towards Establishing a Tax Statistics Function in South Africa
Petska, Tom

Beyond Andrew Carnegie: Using a Linked Sample of Federal Income and Estate Tax Returns to Examine the Effects of Bequests on Beneficiary Behavior
Mikow, Jacob; Berkowitz, Darien

Statistical Consulting Within the Internal Revenue Service
Cecco, Kevin; Walsh, Ronald

Attrition in a Panel of Individual Income Tax Returns, 1992–1997
Sailer, Peter; Weber, Michael; Wong, William

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1999

The Distribution of Individual Income and Taxes: A New Look at an Old Issue
Petska, Tom; Strudler, Mike

Personal Wealth, 1995
Johnson, Barry

Further Examination of the Distribution of Individual Income and Taxes Using a Consistent and Comprehensive Measure of Income
Petska, Tom; Strudler, Mike; Petska, Ryan

Customer Service Satisfaction Survey: Cognitive and Prototype Test
Cecco, Kevin; Young, Anthony

On Computing Gaussian Curvature of Some Well Known Distributions
Chen, William

The Feasiblity of State Corporate Data
Francis, Brian

Using a Sample of Federal Estate Tax Returns to Examine the Effects of Audit Revaluation on Pre-Audit Estimates
Eller, Martha Britton; Johnson, Barry

Occupation and Industry Data from Tax Year 1993 Individual Tax Returns
Sailer, Peter; Nuriddin, Terry

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1998

Income, Tax, and Tax Progressivity: An Examination of Recent Trends in the Distribution of Individual Income and Taxes
Petska, Tom; Strudler, Mike

Updating Techniques for Estimating Wealth from Federal Estate Tax Returns
Johnson, Barry

The IRS Population Count: An Update
Sailer, Peter; Weber, Michael

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1997

Taxes and Business Organizational Choice: Deja Vu All Over Again?
Petska, Tom

Partnerships in Data Sharing: The Internal Revenue Service and the Bureau of Economic Analysis
Petska, Tom

Federal Taxation of Inheritance and Wealth Transfers
Johnson, Barry; Eller, Martha Britton

Household and Individual Income Data from Tax Returns
Sailer, Peter; Weber, Michael

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Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 10-Mar-2014

The 2013 Tax Form 1040ez

2013 tax form 1040ez Publication 521 - Introductory Material Table of Contents What's New Reminders IntroductionOrdering forms and publications. 2013 tax form 1040ez Tax questions. 2013 tax form 1040ez Useful Items - You may want to see: What's New Standard mileage rate. 2013 tax form 1040ez  For 2013, the standard mileage rate for using your vehicle to move to a new home is 24 cents per mile. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Travel by car under Deductible Moving Expenses. 2013 tax form 1040ez Reminders Future developments. 2013 tax form 1040ez  For the latest information about developments related to Publication 521, such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to www. 2013 tax form 1040ez irs. 2013 tax form 1040ez gov/pub521. 2013 tax form 1040ez Change of address. 2013 tax form 1040ez  If you change your mailing address, be sure to notify the IRS using Form 8822, Change of Address. 2013 tax form 1040ez Mail it to the Internal Revenue Service Center for your old address. 2013 tax form 1040ez Addresses for the service centers are on the back of the form. 2013 tax form 1040ez If you change your business address or the identity of your responsible party, use Form 8822-B, Change of Address or Responsible Party—Business. 2013 tax form 1040ez Photographs of missing children. 2013 tax form 1040ez  The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. 2013 tax form 1040ez Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. 2013 tax form 1040ez You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) if you recognize a child. 2013 tax form 1040ez Introduction This publication explains the deduction of certain expenses of moving to a new home because you changed job locations or started a new job. 2013 tax form 1040ez It includes the following topics. 2013 tax form 1040ez Who can deduct moving expenses. 2013 tax form 1040ez What moving expenses are deductible. 2013 tax form 1040ez What moving expenses are not deductible. 2013 tax form 1040ez How a reimbursement affects your moving expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez How and when to report moving expenses. 2013 tax form 1040ez Special rules for members of the Armed Forces. 2013 tax form 1040ez Form 3903, Moving Expenses, is used to claim the moving expense deduction. 2013 tax form 1040ez An example of how to report your moving expenses, including a filled-in Form 3903, is shown near the end of the publication. 2013 tax form 1040ez You may be able to deduct moving expenses whether you are self-employed or an employee. 2013 tax form 1040ez Your expenses generally must be related to starting work at your new job location. 2013 tax form 1040ez However, certain retirees and survivors may qualify to claim the deduction even though they are not starting work at a new job location. 2013 tax form 1040ez See Who Can Deduct Moving Expenses. 2013 tax form 1040ez Recordkeeping. 2013 tax form 1040ez    It is important to maintain an accurate record of expenses you paid to move. 2013 tax form 1040ez You should save items such as receipts, bills, cancelled checks, credit card statements, and mileage logs. 2013 tax form 1040ez Also, you should save your Form W-2 and statements of reimbursement from your employer. 2013 tax form 1040ez Comments and suggestions. 2013 tax form 1040ez   We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You can write to us at the following address: Internal Revenue Service Tax Forms and Publications Division 1111 Constitution Ave. 2013 tax form 1040ez NW, IR-6526 Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. 2013 tax form 1040ez Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. 2013 tax form 1040ez   You can send your comments from www. 2013 tax form 1040ez irs. 2013 tax form 1040ez gov/formspubs/. 2013 tax form 1040ez Click on “More Information” and then on “Comment on Tax Forms and Publications”. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax products. 2013 tax form 1040ez Ordering forms and publications. 2013 tax form 1040ez   Visit www. 2013 tax form 1040ez irs. 2013 tax form 1040ez gov/formspubs/ to download forms and publications, call 1-800-TAX-FORM (1-800-829-3676), or write to the address below and receive a response within 10 days after your request is received. 2013 tax form 1040ez Internal Revenue Service 1201 N. 2013 tax form 1040ez Mitsubishi Motorway Bloomington, IL 61705-6613 Tax questions. 2013 tax form 1040ez   If you have a tax question, check the information available on IRS. 2013 tax form 1040ez gov or call 1-800-829-1040. 2013 tax form 1040ez We cannot answer tax questions sent to either of the above addresses. 2013 tax form 1040ez Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 3 Armed Forces' Tax Guide Forms (and Instructions) 1040 U. 2013 tax form 1040ez S. 2013 tax form 1040ez Individual Income Tax Return 1040X Amended U. 2013 tax form 1040ez S. 2013 tax form 1040ez Individual Income Tax Return 3903 Moving Expenses 8822 Change of Address 8822–B Change of Address or Responsible Party-Business See How To Get Tax Help, near the end of this publication, for information about getting the publications and the forms listed above. 2013 tax form 1040ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications