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2012 Income Tax Booklet

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2012 Income Tax Booklet

2012 income tax booklet Index A Accounting methods, Accounting Methods Accrual method, Accrual method. 2012 income tax booklet Change in accounting method Section 481(a) adjustment. 2012 income tax booklet , Change in accounting method. 2012 income tax booklet Mark-to-market accounting method, Mark-to-market accounting method. 2012 income tax booklet Nonaccrual experience method, Nonaccrual experience method. 2012 income tax booklet Percentage of completion method, Percentage of completion method. 2012 income tax booklet Accounting periods, Accounting Periods Accumulated earnings tax, Accumulated Earnings Tax Alternative minimum tax (AMT), Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) At-risk limits, At-Risk Limits B Backup withholding, Backup withholding. 2012 income tax booklet Below-market loans, Below-Market Loans C Capital contributions, Capital Contributions Capital losses, Capital Losses Charitable contributions, Charitable Contributions Closely held corporation: At-risk limits, Closely held corporation. 2012 income tax booklet Closely held corporations:, Closely held corporations. 2012 income tax booklet Comments, Comments and suggestions. 2012 income tax booklet Corporate preference items, Corporate Preference Items Corporations, businesses taxed as, Businesses Taxed as Corporations Credits, Credits Credits: Foreign tax, Credits General business credit, Credits Prior year minimum tax, Credits D Distributions: Money or property. 2012 income tax booklet , Money or Property Distributions Other, Constructive Distributions Reporting, Reporting Dividends and Other Distributions Stock or stock rights, Distributions of Stock or Stock Rights To shareholders, Distributions to Shareholders Dividends-received deduction, Dividends-Received Deduction E EFTPS, Electronic Federal Tax Payment System, Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS). 2012 income tax booklet Electronic filing, Electronic filing. 2012 income tax booklet Energy-efficient commercial building property deduction, Energy-Efficient Commercial Building Property Deduction Estimated tax, Estimated Tax Extraordinary dividends, Extraordinary Dividends F Figuring: NOL carryovers, Figuring the NOL Carryover Tax, Figuring Tax Foreign tax credit, Credits Form: 1096, Form 1099-DIV. 2012 income tax booklet 1099–DIV, Form 1099-DIV. 2012 income tax booklet 1118, Credits 1120, Which form to file. 2012 income tax booklet 1120-W, How to figure each required installment. 2012 income tax booklet 1120X, Refunds. 2012 income tax booklet , NOL carryback. 2012 income tax booklet 1138, Carryback expected. 2012 income tax booklet 1139, Refunds. 2012 income tax booklet , NOL carryback. 2012 income tax booklet 2220, Form 2220. 2012 income tax booklet 3800, Credits, Recapture Taxes 4255, Recapture Taxes 4626, Form 4626. 2012 income tax booklet 5452, Form 5452. 2012 income tax booklet 7004, Extension of time to file. 2012 income tax booklet 8611, Recapture Taxes 8827, Credits 8832, Business formed after 1996. 2012 income tax booklet 8834, Recapture Taxes 8845, Recapture Taxes 8874, Recapture Taxes 8882, Recapture Taxes 8912, Credits G Going into business, Costs of Going Into Business I Income tax returns, Income Tax Return L Loans, below-market, Below-Market Loans M Minimum tax credit, Credits N Net operating losses, Net Operating Losses Nontaxable exchange of property for stock, Property Exchanged for Stock P Paid-in capital, Paid-in capital. 2012 income tax booklet Passive activity limits, Passive Activity Limits Paying estimated tax, How to pay estimated tax. 2012 income tax booklet Penalties Other, Other penalties. 2012 income tax booklet Trust fund recovery, Trust fund recovery penalty. 2012 income tax booklet Penalties: Estimated tax, Underpayment penalty. 2012 income tax booklet Late filing of return, Late filing of return. 2012 income tax booklet Late payment of tax, Late payment of tax. 2012 income tax booklet Personal service corporation: Figuring tax, Qualified personal service corporation. 2012 income tax booklet Personal service corporations:, Personal service corporations. 2012 income tax booklet Preference items, Corporate Preference Items Q Qualified refinery property, election to expense, Election to Expense Qualified Refinery Property Qualifying shipping activities, income from, Income From Qualifying Shipping Activities R Recapture taxes: Childcare facilities and services credit , Recapture Taxes Indian employment credit, Recapture Taxes Investment credit, Recapture Taxes Low-income housing credit, Recapture Taxes New markets credit, Recapture Taxes Qualified plug-in electric and electric vehicle credit, Recapture Taxes Recordkeeping, Recordkeeping Related persons, Related Persons Retained earnings, Accumulated Earnings Tax S Suggestions, Comments and suggestions. 2012 income tax booklet T Tax help, How To Get Tax Help Tax rate schedule, Tax Rate Schedule Tax, figuring, Figuring Tax Taxpayer Advocate, Contacting your Taxpayer Advocate. 2012 income tax booklet TTY/TDD information, How To Get Tax Help Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications
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Total Information Processing Support Services (TIPSS-4)

The TIPSS-4 Office is located at:

Internal Revenue Service
Oxon Hill, Maryland

TIPSS-4 Hotline Number: 240-613-8430

TIPSS-4 e-mail

 

NOTE:

TIPSS-4 SB (TIRNO-09-R-00013) was awarded on June 23, 2011.

TIPSS-4 ITS (TIRNO-09-R-00012) was awarded on December 28, 2010.


TIPSS-4 Offers 2 - Contract Vehicles
 

 

Information Technology Services (ITS) Contract
(Full and Open)

Small Business (SB) Contract
(Set-Aside)

TIPSS-3 Contract no longer available. For historic information only.


 

 


Mission
: We are committed Information Technology (IT) Procurement professionals responsible to facilitate and ensure the success of all customers. We deliver quality and cost-effective contractual and technical service to successfully plan, acquire, and manage our customer’s IT investments.

Vision: To be the preferred single-source provider of high-quality cost-effective Information Technology acquisition services for all our customers IT requirements.



Goal 1
: Increase Customer Awareness and Confidence:
Ensure that all customers’ needs are met in a timely, accurate, cost-effective, and professional manner.

Goal 2: Workforce Development:
Build and sustain a workforce that is trained, knowledgeable, and well-versed in the latest developments in the IT and acquisition fields.

Goal 3: Create & Streamline Business Processes:
Implement an ongoing review of processes and procedures to ensure continuous improvement focused on exemplary customer service.

NOTE: The ordering process from TIPSS-3 is unchanged to TIPSS-4.

What’s New?

Competitive Action Status Report
A listing of all competitions issued under the TIPSS-4 ITS Contract. This report shows what stage the competition is in the process.

Forecast Report
A listing of upcoming TIPSS-4 ITS RTCP Releases. This report will show the fiscal year and quarter of the anticipated release date.


 

 

 

Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 22-Jan-2014

The 2012 Income Tax Booklet

2012 income tax booklet 4. 2012 income tax booklet   Transportation Table of Contents Parking fees. 2012 income tax booklet Advertising display on car. 2012 income tax booklet Car pools. 2012 income tax booklet Hauling tools or instruments. 2012 income tax booklet Union members' trips from a union hall. 2012 income tax booklet Car ExpensesStandard Mileage Rate Actual Car Expenses Leasing a Car Disposition of a Car This chapter discusses expenses you can deduct for business transportation when you are not traveling away from home as defined in chapter 1. 2012 income tax booklet These expenses include the cost of transportation by air, rail, bus, taxi, etc. 2012 income tax booklet , and the cost of driving and maintaining your car. 2012 income tax booklet Transportation expenses include the ordinary and necessary costs of all of the following. 2012 income tax booklet Getting from one workplace to another in the course of your business or profession when you are traveling within the city or general area that is your tax home. 2012 income tax booklet Tax home is defined in chapter 1. 2012 income tax booklet Visiting clients or customers. 2012 income tax booklet Going to a business meeting away from your regular workplace. 2012 income tax booklet Getting from your home to a temporary workplace when you have one or more regular places of work. 2012 income tax booklet These temporary workplaces can be either within the area of your tax home or outside that area. 2012 income tax booklet Transportation expenses do not include expenses you have while traveling away from home overnight. 2012 income tax booklet Those expenses are travel expenses discussed in chapter 1 . 2012 income tax booklet However, if you use your car while traveling away from home overnight, use the rules in this chapter to figure your car expense deduction. 2012 income tax booklet See Car Expenses , later. 2012 income tax booklet Daily transportation expenses you incur while traveling from home to one or more regular places of business are generally nondeductible commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet However, there may be exceptions to this general rule. 2012 income tax booklet You can deduct daily transportation expenses incurred going between your residence and a temporary work station outside the metropolitan area where you live. 2012 income tax booklet Also, daily transportation expenses can be deducted if: (1) you have one or more regular work locations away from your residence or (2) your residence is your principal place of business and you incur expenses going between the residence and another work location in the same trade or business, regardless of whether the work is temporary or permanent and regardless of the distance. 2012 income tax booklet Illustration of transportation expenses. 2012 income tax booklet    Figure B , earlier, illustrates the rules that apply for deducting transportation expenses when you have a regular or main job away from your home. 2012 income tax booklet You may want to refer to it when deciding whether you can deduct your transportation expenses. 2012 income tax booklet Temporary work location. 2012 income tax booklet   If you have one or more regular work locations away from your home and you commute to a temporary work location in the same trade or business, you can deduct the expenses of the daily round-trip transportation between your home and the temporary location, regardless of distance. 2012 income tax booklet   If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last (and does in fact last) for 1 year or less, the employment is temporary unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise. 2012 income tax booklet   If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last for more than 1 year or if there is no realistic expectation that the employment will last for 1 year or less, the employment is not temporary, regardless of whether it actually lasts for more than 1 year. 2012 income tax booklet   If employment at a work location initially is realistically expected to last for 1 year or less, but at some later date the employment is realistically expected to last more than 1 year, that employment will be treated as temporary (unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise) until your expectation changes. 2012 income tax booklet It will not be treated as temporary after the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. 2012 income tax booklet   If the temporary work location is beyond the general area of your regular place of work and you stay overnight, you are traveling away from home. 2012 income tax booklet You may have deductible travel expenses as discussed in chapter 1 . 2012 income tax booklet No regular place of work. 2012 income tax booklet   If you have no regular place of work but ordinarily work in the metropolitan area where you live, you can deduct daily transportation costs between home and a temporary work site outside that metropolitan area. 2012 income tax booklet   Generally, a metropolitan area includes the area within the city limits and the suburbs that are considered part of that metropolitan area. 2012 income tax booklet   You cannot deduct daily transportation costs between your home and temporary work sites within your metropolitan area. 2012 income tax booklet These are nondeductible commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet Two places of work. 2012 income tax booklet   If you work at two places in one day, whether or not for the same employer, you can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other. 2012 income tax booklet However, if for some personal reason you do not go directly from one location to the other, you cannot deduct more than the amount it would have cost you to go directly from the first location to the second. 2012 income tax booklet   Transportation expenses you have in going between home and a part-time job on a day off from your main job are commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet You cannot deduct them. 2012 income tax booklet Armed Forces reservists. 2012 income tax booklet   A meeting of an Armed Forces reserve unit is a second place of business if the meeting is held on a day on which you work at your regular job. 2012 income tax booklet You can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other as just discussed under Two places of work . 2012 income tax booklet   You usually cannot deduct the expense if the reserve meeting is held on a day on which you do not work at your regular job. 2012 income tax booklet In this case, your transportation generally is a nondeductible commuting expense. 2012 income tax booklet However, you can deduct your transportation expenses if the location of the meeting is temporary and you have one or more regular places of work. 2012 income tax booklet   If you ordinarily work in a particular metropolitan area but not at any specific location and the reserve meeting is held at a temporary location outside that metropolitan area, you can deduct your transportation expenses. 2012 income tax booklet   If you travel away from home overnight to attend a guard or reserve meeting, you can deduct your travel expenses. 2012 income tax booklet These expenses are discussed in chapter 1 . 2012 income tax booklet   If you travel more than 100 miles away from home in connection with your performance of services as a member of the reserves, you may be able to deduct some of your reserve-related travel costs as an adjustment to gross income rather than as an itemized deduction. 2012 income tax booklet For more information, see Armed Forces Reservists Traveling More Than 100 Miles From Home under Special Rules, in chapter 6. 2012 income tax booklet Commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet   You cannot deduct the costs of taking a bus, trolley, subway, or taxi, or of driving a car between your home and your main or regular place of work. 2012 income tax booklet These costs are personal commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet You cannot deduct commuting expenses no matter how far your home is from your regular place of work. 2012 income tax booklet You cannot deduct commuting expenses even if you work during the commuting trip. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet You sometimes use your cell phone to make business calls while commuting to and from work. 2012 income tax booklet Sometimes business associates ride with you to and from work, and you have a business discussion in the car. 2012 income tax booklet These activities do not change the trip from personal to business. 2012 income tax booklet You cannot deduct your commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet Parking fees. 2012 income tax booklet    Fees you pay to park your car at your place of business are nondeductible commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet You can, however, deduct business-related parking fees when visiting a customer or client. 2012 income tax booklet Advertising display on car. 2012 income tax booklet   Putting display material that advertises your business on your car does not change the use of your car from personal use to business use. 2012 income tax booklet If you use this car for commuting or other personal uses, you still cannot deduct your expenses for those uses. 2012 income tax booklet Car pools. 2012 income tax booklet   You cannot deduct the cost of using your car in a nonprofit car pool. 2012 income tax booklet Do not include payments you receive from the passengers in your income. 2012 income tax booklet These payments are considered reimbursements of your expenses. 2012 income tax booklet However, if you operate a car pool for a profit, you must include payments from passengers in your income. 2012 income tax booklet You can then deduct your car expenses (using the rules in this publication). 2012 income tax booklet Hauling tools or instruments. 2012 income tax booklet   Hauling tools or instruments in your car while commuting to and from work does not make your car expenses deductible. 2012 income tax booklet However, you can deduct any additional costs you have for hauling tools or instruments (such as for renting a trailer you tow with your car). 2012 income tax booklet Union members' trips from a union hall. 2012 income tax booklet   If you get your work assignments at a union hall and then go to your place of work, the costs of getting from the union hall to your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet Although you need the union to get your work assignments, you are employed where you work, not where the union hall is located. 2012 income tax booklet Office in the home. 2012 income tax booklet   If you have an office in your home that qualifies as a principal place of business, you can deduct your daily transportation costs between your home and another work location in the same trade or business. 2012 income tax booklet (See Publication 587, Business Use of Your Home, for information on determining if your home office qualifies as a principal place of business. 2012 income tax booklet ) Examples of deductible transportation. 2012 income tax booklet   The following examples show when you can deduct transportation expenses based on the location of your work and your home. 2012 income tax booklet Example 1. 2012 income tax booklet You regularly work in an office in the city where you live. 2012 income tax booklet Your employer sends you to a 1-week training session at a different office in the same city. 2012 income tax booklet You travel directly from your home to the training location and return each day. 2012 income tax booklet You can deduct the cost of your daily round-trip transportation between your home and the training location. 2012 income tax booklet Example 2. 2012 income tax booklet Your principal place of business is in your home. 2012 income tax booklet You can deduct the cost of round-trip transportation between your qualifying home office and your client's or customer's place of business. 2012 income tax booklet Example 3. 2012 income tax booklet You have no regular office, and you do not have an office in your home. 2012 income tax booklet In this case, the location of your first business contact inside the metropolitan area is considered your office. 2012 income tax booklet Transportation expenses between your home and this first contact are nondeductible commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet Transportation expenses between your last business contact and your home are also nondeductible commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet While you cannot deduct the costs of these trips, you can deduct the costs of going from one client or customer to another. 2012 income tax booklet Car Expenses If you use your car for business purposes, you ordinarily can deduct car expenses. 2012 income tax booklet You generally can use one of the two following methods to figure your deductible expenses. 2012 income tax booklet Standard mileage rate. 2012 income tax booklet Actual car expenses. 2012 income tax booklet If you use actual expenses to figure your deduction for a car you lease, there are rules that affect the amount of your lease payments you can deduct. 2012 income tax booklet See Leasing a Car , later. 2012 income tax booklet In this publication, “car” includes a van, pickup, or panel truck. 2012 income tax booklet For the definition of “car” for depreciation purposes, see Car defined under Actual Car Expenses, later. 2012 income tax booklet Rural mail carriers. 2012 income tax booklet   If you are a rural mail carrier, you may be able to treat the qualified reimbursement you received as your allowable expense. 2012 income tax booklet Because the qualified reimbursement is treated as paid under an accountable plan, your employer should not include the reimbursement in your income. 2012 income tax booklet   If your vehicle expenses are more than the amount of your reimbursement, you can deduct the unreimbursed expenses as an itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040). 2012 income tax booklet You must complete Form 2106 and attach it to your Form 1040, U. 2012 income tax booklet S. 2012 income tax booklet Individual Income Tax Return. 2012 income tax booklet   A “qualified reimbursement” is the reimbursement you receive that meets both of the following conditions. 2012 income tax booklet It is given as an equipment maintenance allowance (EMA) to employees of the U. 2012 income tax booklet S. 2012 income tax booklet Postal Service. 2012 income tax booklet It is at the rate contained in the 1991 collective bargaining agreement. 2012 income tax booklet Any later agreement cannot increase the qualified reimbursement amount by more than the rate of inflation. 2012 income tax booklet See your employer for information on your reimbursement. 2012 income tax booklet    If you are a rural mail carrier and received a qualified reimbursement, you cannot use the standard mileage rate. 2012 income tax booklet Standard Mileage Rate You may be able to use the standard mileage rate to figure the deductible costs of operating your car for business purposes. 2012 income tax booklet For 2013, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car for business use is 56½ cents per mile. 2012 income tax booklet If you use the standard mileage rate for a year, you cannot deduct your actual car expenses for that year. 2012 income tax booklet You cannot deduct depreciation, lease payments, maintenance and repairs, gasoline (including gasoline taxes), oil, insurance, or vehicle registration fees. 2012 income tax booklet See Choosing the standard mileage rate and Standard mileage rate not allowed, later. 2012 income tax booklet You generally can use the standard mileage rate whether or not you are reimbursed and whether or not any reimbursement is more or less than the amount figured using the standard mileage rate. 2012 income tax booklet See chapter 6 for more information on reimbursements . 2012 income tax booklet Choosing the standard mileage rate. 2012 income tax booklet   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you own, you must choose to use it in the first year the car is available for use in your business. 2012 income tax booklet Then, in later years, you can choose to use either the standard mileage rate or actual expenses. 2012 income tax booklet   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you lease, you must use it for the entire lease period. 2012 income tax booklet For leases that began on or before December 31, 1997, the standard mileage rate must be used for the entire portion of the lease period (including renewals) that is after 1997. 2012 income tax booklet   You must make the choice to use the standard mileage rate by the due date (including extensions) of your return. 2012 income tax booklet You cannot revoke the choice. 2012 income tax booklet However, in later years, you can switch from the standard mileage rate to the actual expenses method. 2012 income tax booklet If you change to the actual expenses method in a later year, but before your car is fully depreciated, you have to estimate the remaining useful life of the car and use straight line depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet Larry is an employee who occasionally uses his own car for business purposes. 2012 income tax booklet He purchased the car in 2011, but he did not claim any unreimbursed employee expenses on his 2011 tax return. 2012 income tax booklet Because Larry did not use the standard mileage rate the first year the car was available for business use, he cannot use the standard mileage rate in 2013 to claim unreimbursed employee business expenses. 2012 income tax booklet   For more information about depreciation included in the standard mileage rate, see Exception under Methods of depreciation, later. 2012 income tax booklet Standard mileage rate not allowed. 2012 income tax booklet   You cannot use the standard mileage rate if you: Use five or more cars at the same time (such as in fleet operations), Claimed a depreciation deduction for the car using any method other than straight line, for example, MACRS (as discussed later under Depreciation Deduction), Claimed a section 179 deduction (discussed later) on the car, Claimed the special depreciation allowance on the car, Claimed actual car expenses after 1997 for a car you leased, or Are a rural mail carrier who received a qualified reimbursement. 2012 income tax booklet (See Rural mail carriers , earlier. 2012 income tax booklet ) Note. 2012 income tax booklet You can elect to use the standard mileage rate if you used a car for hire (such as a taxi) unless the standard mileage rate is otherwise not allowed, as discussed above. 2012 income tax booklet Five or more cars. 2012 income tax booklet   If you own or lease five or more cars that are used for business at the same time, you cannot use the standard mileage rate for the business use of any car. 2012 income tax booklet However, you may be able to deduct your actual expenses for operating each of the cars in your business. 2012 income tax booklet See Actual Car Expenses , later, for information on how to figure your deduction. 2012 income tax booklet   You are not using five or more cars for business at the same time if you alternate using (use at different times) the cars for business. 2012 income tax booklet   The following examples illustrate the rules for when you can and cannot use the standard mileage rate for five or more cars. 2012 income tax booklet Example 1. 2012 income tax booklet Marcia, a salesperson, owns three cars and two vans that she alternates using for calling on her customers. 2012 income tax booklet She can use the standard mileage rate for the business mileage of the three cars and the two vans because she does not use them at the same time. 2012 income tax booklet Example 2. 2012 income tax booklet Tony and his employees use his four pickup trucks in his landscaping business. 2012 income tax booklet During the year, he traded in two of his old trucks for two newer ones. 2012 income tax booklet Tony can use the standard mileage rate for the business mileage of all six of the trucks he owned during the year. 2012 income tax booklet Example 3. 2012 income tax booklet Chris owns a repair shop and an insurance business. 2012 income tax booklet He and his employees use his two pickup trucks and van for the repair shop. 2012 income tax booklet Chris alternates using his two cars for the insurance business. 2012 income tax booklet No one else uses the cars for business purposes. 2012 income tax booklet Chris can use the standard mileage rate for the business use of the pickup trucks, van, and the cars because he never has more than four vehicles used for business at the same time. 2012 income tax booklet Example 4. 2012 income tax booklet Maureen owns a car and four vans that are used in her housecleaning business. 2012 income tax booklet Her employees use the vans, and she uses the car to travel to various customers. 2012 income tax booklet Maureen cannot use the standard mileage rate for the car or the vans. 2012 income tax booklet This is because all five vehicles are used in Maureen's business at the same time. 2012 income tax booklet She must use actual expenses for all vehicles. 2012 income tax booklet Interest. 2012 income tax booklet   If you are an employee, you cannot deduct any interest paid on a car loan. 2012 income tax booklet This applies even if you use the car 100% for business as an employee. 2012 income tax booklet   However, if you are self-employed and use your car in your business, you can deduct that part of the interest expense that represents your business use of the car. 2012 income tax booklet For example, if you use your car 60% for business, you can deduct 60% of the interest on Schedule C (Form 1040). 2012 income tax booklet You cannot deduct the part of the interest expense that represents your personal use of the car. 2012 income tax booklet    If you use a home equity loan to purchase your car, you may be able to deduct the interest. 2012 income tax booklet See Publication 936, Home Mortgage Interest Deduction, for more information. 2012 income tax booklet Personal property taxes. 2012 income tax booklet   If you itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040), you can deduct on line 7 state and local personal property taxes on motor vehicles. 2012 income tax booklet You can take this deduction even if you use the standard mileage rate or if you do not use the car for business. 2012 income tax booklet   If you are self-employed and use your car in your business, you can deduct the business part of state and local personal property taxes on motor vehicles on Schedule C (Form 1040), Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), or Schedule F (Form 1040). 2012 income tax booklet If you itemize your deductions, you can include the remainder of your state and local personal property taxes on the car on Schedule A (Form 1040). 2012 income tax booklet Parking fees and tolls. 2012 income tax booklet   In addition to using the standard mileage rate, you can deduct any business-related parking fees and tolls. 2012 income tax booklet (Parking fees you pay to park your car at your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses. 2012 income tax booklet ) Sale, trade-in, or other disposition. 2012 income tax booklet   If you sell, trade in, or otherwise dispose of your car, you may have a gain or loss on the transaction or an adjustment to the basis of your new car. 2012 income tax booklet See Disposition of a Car , later. 2012 income tax booklet Actual Car Expenses If you do not use the standard mileage rate, you may be able to deduct your actual car expenses. 2012 income tax booklet If you qualify to use both methods, you may want to figure your deduction both ways to see which gives you a larger deduction. 2012 income tax booklet Actual car expenses include: Depreciation Licenses Lease  payments Registration  fees Gas Insurance Repairs Oil Garage rent Tires Tolls Parking fees   If you have fully depreciated a car that you still use in your business, you can continue to claim your other actual car expenses. 2012 income tax booklet Continue to keep records, as explained later in chapter 5 . 2012 income tax booklet Business and personal use. 2012 income tax booklet   If you use your car for both business and personal purposes, you must divide your expenses between business and personal use. 2012 income tax booklet You can divide your expense based on the miles driven for each purpose. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet You are a sales representative for a clothing firm and drive your car 20,000 miles during the year: 12,000 miles for business and 8,000 miles for personal use. 2012 income tax booklet You can claim only 60% (12,000 ÷ 20,000) of the cost of operating your car as a business expense. 2012 income tax booklet Employer-provided vehicle. 2012 income tax booklet   If you use a vehicle provided by your employer for business purposes, you can deduct your actual unreimbursed car expenses. 2012 income tax booklet You cannot use the standard mileage rate. 2012 income tax booklet See Vehicle Provided by Your Employer in chapter 6. 2012 income tax booklet Interest on car loans. 2012 income tax booklet   If you are an employee, you cannot deduct any interest paid on a car loan. 2012 income tax booklet This interest is treated as personal interest and is not deductible. 2012 income tax booklet If you are self-employed and use your car in that business, see Interest , earlier, under Standard Mileage Rate. 2012 income tax booklet Taxes paid on your car. 2012 income tax booklet   If you are an employee, you can deduct personal property taxes paid on your car if you itemize deductions. 2012 income tax booklet Enter the amount paid on line 7 of Schedule A (Form 1040). 2012 income tax booklet Sales taxes. 2012 income tax booklet   Generally, sales taxes on your car are part of your car's basis and are recovered through depreciation, discussed later. 2012 income tax booklet Fines and collateral. 2012 income tax booklet   You cannot deduct fines you pay or collateral you forfeit for traffic violations. 2012 income tax booklet Casualty and theft losses. 2012 income tax booklet   If your car is damaged, destroyed, or stolen, you may be able to deduct part of the loss not covered by insurance. 2012 income tax booklet See Publication 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts, for information on deducting a loss on your car. 2012 income tax booklet Depreciation and section 179 deductions. 2012 income tax booklet   Generally, the cost of a car, plus sales tax and improvements, is a capital expense. 2012 income tax booklet Because the benefits last longer than 1 year, you generally cannot deduct a capital expense. 2012 income tax booklet However, you can recover this cost through the section 179 deduction (the deduction allowed by section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code), special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions. 2012 income tax booklet Depreciation allows you to recover the cost over more than 1 year by deducting part of it each year. 2012 income tax booklet The section 179 deduction , special depreciation allowance , and depreciation deductions are discussed later. 2012 income tax booklet   Generally, there are limits on these deductions. 2012 income tax booklet Special rules apply if you use your car 50% or less in your work or business. 2012 income tax booklet   You can claim a section 179 deduction and use a depreciation method other than straight line only if you do not use the standard mileage rate to figure your business-related car expenses in the year you first place a car in service. 2012 income tax booklet   If, in the year you first place a car in service, you claim either a section 179 deduction or use a depreciation method other than straight line for its estimated useful life, you cannot use the standard mileage rate on that car in any future year. 2012 income tax booklet Car defined. 2012 income tax booklet   For depreciation purposes, a car is any four-wheeled vehicle (including a truck or van) made primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. 2012 income tax booklet Its unloaded gross vehicle weight must not be more than 6,000 pounds. 2012 income tax booklet A car includes any part, component, or other item physically attached to it or usually included in the purchase price. 2012 income tax booklet   A car does not include: An ambulance, hearse, or combination ambulance-hearse used directly in a business, A vehicle used directly in the business of transporting persons or property for pay or hire, or A truck or van that is a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. 2012 income tax booklet Qualified nonpersonal use vehicles. 2012 income tax booklet   These are vehicles that by their nature are not likely to be used more than a minimal amount for personal purposes. 2012 income tax booklet They include trucks and vans that have been specially modified so that they are not likely to be used more than a minimal amount for personal purposes, such as by installation of permanent shelving and painting the vehicle to display advertising or the company's name. 2012 income tax booklet Delivery trucks with seating only for the driver, or only for the driver plus a folding jump seat, are qualified nonpersonal use vehicles. 2012 income tax booklet More information. 2012 income tax booklet   See Depreciation Deduction , later, for more information on how to depreciate your vehicle. 2012 income tax booklet Section 179 Deduction The section 179 deduction allows you to treat a portion or all of the cost of a car as a current expense. 2012 income tax booklet If you choose to deduct all or part of the cost as a current expense, you must reduce your depreciable basis in the car by the amount of the section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet There is a limit on the total section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction for cars, trucks, and vans that may reduce or eliminate any benefit from claiming the section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation Limits, later. 2012 income tax booklet You can claim the section 179 deduction only in the year you place the car in service. 2012 income tax booklet For this purpose, a car is placed in service when it is ready and available for a specifically assigned use, whether in a trade or business, a tax-exempt activity, a personal activity, or for the production of income. 2012 income tax booklet Even if you are not using the property, it is in service when it is ready and available for its specifically assigned use. 2012 income tax booklet A car first used for personal purposes cannot qualify for the deduction in a later year when its use changes to business. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet In 2012, you bought a new car and used it for personal purposes. 2012 income tax booklet In 2013, you began to use it for business. 2012 income tax booklet Changing its use to business use does not qualify the cost of your car for a section 179 deduction in 2013. 2012 income tax booklet However, you can claim a depreciation deduction for the business use of the car starting in 2013. 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation Deduction , later. 2012 income tax booklet More than 50% business use requirement. 2012 income tax booklet   You must use the property more than 50% for business to claim any section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet If you used the property more than 50% for business, multiply the cost of the property by the percentage of business use. 2012 income tax booklet The result is the cost of the property that can qualify for the section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet Peter purchased a car in April 2013 for $24,500 and used it 60% for business. 2012 income tax booklet Based on his business usage, the total cost of Peter's car that qualifies for the section 179 deduction is $14,700 ($24,500 cost × 60% business use). 2012 income tax booklet But see Limit on total section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction , discussed later. 2012 income tax booklet Limits. 2012 income tax booklet   There are limits on: The amount of the section 179 deduction, The section 179 deduction for sport utility and certain other vehicles, and The total amount of the section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction (discussed later ) you can claim for a qualified property. 2012 income tax booklet Limit on the amount of the section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet   For 2013, the total amount you can choose to deduct under section 179 generally cannot be more than $500,000. 2012 income tax booklet   If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service in 2013 is over $2,000,000, you must reduce the $500,000 dollar limit (but not below zero) by the amount of cost over $2,000,000. 2012 income tax booklet If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service during 2013 is $2,500,000 or more, you cannot take a section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet   The total amount you can deduct under section 179 each year after you apply the limits listed above cannot be more than the taxable income from the active conduct of any trade or business during the year. 2012 income tax booklet   If you are married and file a joint return, you and your spouse are treated as one taxpayer in determining any reduction to the dollar limit, regardless of which of you purchased the property or placed it in service. 2012 income tax booklet   If you and your spouse file separate returns, you are treated as one taxpayer for the dollar limit. 2012 income tax booklet You must allocate the dollar limit (after any reduction) between you. 2012 income tax booklet   For more information on the above section 179 deduction limits, see Publication 946. 2012 income tax booklet Limit for sport utility and certain other vehicles. 2012 income tax booklet   For sport utility and certain other vehicles placed in service in 2013, the portion of the vehicle's cost taken into account in figuring your section 179 deduction is limited to $25,000. 2012 income tax booklet This rule applies to any four-wheeled vehicle primarily designed or used to carry passengers over public streets, roads, or highways, that is not subject to any of the passenger automobile limits explained under Depreciation Limits , later, and that is rated at no more than 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. 2012 income tax booklet However, the $25,000 limit does not apply to any vehicle: Designed to have a seating capacity of more than nine persons behind the driver's seat, Equipped with a cargo area of at least 6 feet in interior length that is an open area or is designed for use as an open area but is enclosed by a cap and is not readily accessible directly from the passenger compartment, or That has an integral enclosure, fully enclosing the driver compartment and load carrying device, does not have seating rearward of the driver's seat, and has no body section protruding more than 30 inches ahead of the leading edge of the windshield. 2012 income tax booklet    Limit on total section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet   Generally, the total amount of section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction you can claim for a car that is qualified property and that you placed in service in 2013 is $11,160. 2012 income tax booklet The limit is reduced if your business use of the car is less than 100%. 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation Limits , later, for more information. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet In the earlier example under More than 50% business use requirement, Peter had a car with a cost (for purposes of the section 179 deduction) of $14,700. 2012 income tax booklet However, based on Peter's business usage of his car, the total of his section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions is limited to $6,696 ($11,160 limit x 60% business use). 2012 income tax booklet Cost of car. 2012 income tax booklet   For purposes of the section 179 deduction, the cost of the car does not include any amount figured by reference to any other property held by you at any time. 2012 income tax booklet For example, if you buy (for cash and a trade-in) a new car to use in your business, your cost for purposes of the section 179 deduction does not include your adjusted basis in the car you trade in for the new car. 2012 income tax booklet Your cost includes only the cash you paid. 2012 income tax booklet Basis of car for depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet   The amount of the section 179 deduction reduces your basis in your car. 2012 income tax booklet If you choose the section 179 deduction, you must subtract the amount of the deduction from the cost of your car. 2012 income tax booklet The resulting amount is the basis in your car you use to figure your depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet When to choose. 2012 income tax booklet   If you want to take the section 179 deduction, you must make the choice in the tax year you place the car in service for business or work. 2012 income tax booklet How to choose. 2012 income tax booklet    Employees use Form 2106 to make this choice and report the section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet All others use Form 4562. 2012 income tax booklet   File the appropriate form with either of the following. 2012 income tax booklet Your original tax return filed for the year the property was placed in service (whether or not you file it timely). 2012 income tax booklet An amended return filed within the time prescribed by law. 2012 income tax booklet An election made on an amended return must specify the item of section 179 property to which the election applies and the part of the cost of each such item to be taken into account. 2012 income tax booklet The amended return must also include any resulting adjustments to taxable income. 2012 income tax booklet    You must keep records that show the specific identification of each piece of qualifying section 179 property. 2012 income tax booklet These records must show how you acquired the property, the person you acquired it from, and when you placed it in service. 2012 income tax booklet Revoking an election. 2012 income tax booklet   An election (or any specification made in the election) to take a section 179 deduction for 2013 can only be revoked with the Commissioner's approval. 2012 income tax booklet Recapture of section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet   To be eligible to claim the section 179 deduction, you must use your car more than 50% for business or work in the year you acquired it. 2012 income tax booklet If your business use of the car is 50% or less in a later tax year during the recovery period, you have to recapture (include in income) in that later year any excess depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet Any section 179 deduction claimed on the car is included in calculating the excess depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet For information on this calculation, see Excess depreciation , later in this chapter under Car Used 50% or Less for Business. 2012 income tax booklet Dispositions. 2012 income tax booklet   If you dispose of a car on which you had claimed the section 179 deduction, the amount of that deduction is treated as a depreciation deduction for recapture purposes. 2012 income tax booklet You treat any gain on the disposition of the property as ordinary income up to the amount of the section 179 deduction and any allowable depreciation (unless you establish the amount actually allowed). 2012 income tax booklet For information on the disposition of a car, see Disposition of a Car , later. 2012 income tax booklet Special Depreciation Allowance You may be able to claim the special depreciation allowance for your car, truck, or van, if it is qualified property and was placed in service in 2013. 2012 income tax booklet The allowance is an additional depreciation deduction of 50% of the car's depreciable basis (after any section 179 deduction, but before figuring your regular depreciation deduction under MACRS). 2012 income tax booklet The special depreciation allowance applies only for the first year the car is placed in service. 2012 income tax booklet To qualify for the allowance more than 50% of the use of the car must be in a qualified business use (as defined under Depreciation Deduction, later). 2012 income tax booklet Combined depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet   Your combined section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and regular MACRS depreciation deduction is limited to the maximum allowable depreciation deduction for cars of $11,160 ($3,160 if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance). 2012 income tax booklet For trucks and vans, the first-year limit remains at $11,360 ($3,360 if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance). 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation Limits , later in this chapter. 2012 income tax booklet Qualified car. 2012 income tax booklet   To be a qualified car (including trucks and vans), the car must meet all of the following tests. 2012 income tax booklet You purchased the car new on or after January 1, 2008, but only if no binding written contract to acquire the car existed before January 1, 2008, You placed the car in service in your trade or business before January 1, 2014, You used the car more than 50% in a qualified business use. 2012 income tax booklet Election not to claim the special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax booklet   You can elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance for your car, truck, or van, that is qualified property. 2012 income tax booklet If you make this election, it applies to all 5-year property placed in service during the year. 2012 income tax booklet   To make the election, attach a statement to your timely filed return (including extensions) indicating the class of property (5-year for cars) for which you are making the election and that you are electing not to claim the special depreciation allowance for qualified property acquired on or after January 1, 2008. 2012 income tax booklet    Unless you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance, you must reduce the car's adjusted basis by the amount of the allowance, even if the allowance was not claimed. 2012 income tax booklet Depreciation Deduction If you use actual car expenses to figure your deduction for a car you own and use in your business, you can claim a depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet This means you can deduct a certain amount each year as a recovery of your cost or other basis in your car. 2012 income tax booklet You generally need to know the following things about the car you intend to depreciate. 2012 income tax booklet Your basis in the car. 2012 income tax booklet The date you place the car in service. 2012 income tax booklet The method of depreciation and recovery period you will use. 2012 income tax booklet Basis. 2012 income tax booklet   Your basis in a car for figuring depreciation is generally its cost. 2012 income tax booklet This includes any amount you borrow or pay in cash, other property, or services. 2012 income tax booklet   Generally, you figure depreciation on your car, truck, or van using your unadjusted basis (see Unadjusted basis , later). 2012 income tax booklet However, in some situations you will use your adjusted basis (your basis reduced by depreciation allowed or allowable in earlier years). 2012 income tax booklet For one of these situations see Exception under Methods of depreciation, later. 2012 income tax booklet   If you change the use of a car from personal to business, your basis for depreciation is the lesser of the fair market value or your adjusted basis in the car on the date of conversion. 2012 income tax booklet Additional rules concerning basis are discussed later in this chapter under Unadjusted basis . 2012 income tax booklet Placed in service. 2012 income tax booklet   You generally place a car in service when it is available for use in your work or business, in an income-producing activity, or in a personal activity. 2012 income tax booklet Depreciation begins when the car is placed in service for use in your work or business or for the production of income. 2012 income tax booklet   For purposes of computing depreciation, if you first start using the car only for personal use and later convert it to business use, you place the car in service on the date of conversion. 2012 income tax booklet Car placed in service and disposed of in the same year. 2012 income tax booklet   If you place a car in service and dispose of it in the same tax year, you cannot claim any depreciation deduction for that car. 2012 income tax booklet Methods of depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet   Generally, you figure depreciation on cars using the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS). 2012 income tax booklet MACRS is discussed later in this chapter. 2012 income tax booklet Exception. 2012 income tax booklet   If you used the standard mileage rate in the first year of business use and change to the actual expenses method in a later year, you cannot depreciate your car under the MACRS rules. 2012 income tax booklet You must use straight line depreciation over the estimated remaining useful life of the car. 2012 income tax booklet   To figure depreciation under the straight line method, you must reduce your basis in the car (but not below zero) by a set rate per mile for all miles for which you used the standard mileage rate. 2012 income tax booklet The rate per mile varies depending on the year(s) you used the standard mileage rate. 2012 income tax booklet For the rate(s) to use, see Depreciation adjustment when you used the standard mileage rate under Disposition of a Car, later. 2012 income tax booklet   This reduction of basis is in addition to those basis adjustments described later under Unadjusted basis . 2012 income tax booklet You must use your adjusted basis in your car to figure your depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet For additional information on the straight line method of depreciation, see Publication 946. 2012 income tax booklet More-than-50%-use test. 2012 income tax booklet   Generally, you must use your car more than 50% for qualified business use (defined next) during the year to use MACRS. 2012 income tax booklet You must meet this more-than-50%-use test each year of the recovery period (6 years under MACRS) for your car. 2012 income tax booklet   If your business use is 50% or less, you must use the straight line method to depreciate your car. 2012 income tax booklet This is explained later under Car Used 50% or Less for Business . 2012 income tax booklet Qualified business use. 2012 income tax booklet   A qualified business use is any use in your trade or business. 2012 income tax booklet It does not include use for the production of income (investment use). 2012 income tax booklet However, you do combine your business and investment use to compute your depreciation deduction for the tax year. 2012 income tax booklet Use of your car by another person. 2012 income tax booklet   Do not treat any use of your car by another person as use in your trade or business unless that use meets one of the following conditions. 2012 income tax booklet It is directly connected with your business. 2012 income tax booklet It is properly reported by you as income to the other person (and, if you have to, you withhold tax on the income). 2012 income tax booklet It results in a payment of fair market rent. 2012 income tax booklet This includes any payment to you for the use of your car. 2012 income tax booklet Business use changes. 2012 income tax booklet   If you used your car more than 50% in qualified business use in the year you placed it in service, but 50% or less in a later year (including the year of disposition), you have to change to the straight line method of depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet See Qualified business use 50% or less in a later year under Car Used 50% or Less for Business, later. 2012 income tax booklet    Property does not cease to be used more than 50% in qualified business use by reason of a transfer at death. 2012 income tax booklet Use for more than one purpose. 2012 income tax booklet   If you use your car for more than one purpose during the tax year, you must allocate the use to the various purposes. 2012 income tax booklet You do this on the basis of mileage. 2012 income tax booklet Figure the percentage of qualified business use by dividing the number of miles you drive your car for business purposes during the year by the total number of miles you drive the car during the year for any purpose. 2012 income tax booklet Change from personal to business use. 2012 income tax booklet   If you change the use of a car from 100% personal use to business use during the tax year, you may not have mileage records for the time before the change to business use. 2012 income tax booklet In this case, you figure the percentage of business use for the year as follows. 2012 income tax booklet Determine the percentage of business use for the period following the change. 2012 income tax booklet Do this by dividing business miles by total miles driven during that period. 2012 income tax booklet Multiply the percentage in (1) by a fraction. 2012 income tax booklet The numerator (top number) is the number of months the car is used for business and the denominator (bottom number) is 12. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet You use a car only for personal purposes during the first 6 months of the year. 2012 income tax booklet During the last 6 months of the year, you drive the car a total of 15,000 miles of which 12,000 miles are for business. 2012 income tax booklet This gives you a business use percentage of 80% (12,000 ÷ 15,000) for that period. 2012 income tax booklet Your business use for the year is 40% (80% × 6/12). 2012 income tax booklet Limits. 2012 income tax booklet   The amount you can claim for section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions may be limited. 2012 income tax booklet The maximum amount you can claim depends on the year in which you placed your car in service. 2012 income tax booklet You have to reduce the maximum amount if you did not use the car exclusively for business. 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation Limits , later. 2012 income tax booklet Unadjusted basis. 2012 income tax booklet   You use your unadjusted basis (often referred to as your basis or your basis for depreciation) to figure your depreciation using the MACRS depreciation chart, explained later under Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) . 2012 income tax booklet Your unadjusted basis for figuring depreciation is your original basis increased or decreased by certain amounts. 2012 income tax booklet   To figure your unadjusted basis, begin with your car's original basis, which generally is its cost. 2012 income tax booklet Cost includes sales taxes (see Sales taxes , earlier), destination charges, and dealer preparation. 2012 income tax booklet Increase your basis by any substantial improvements you make to your car, such as adding air conditioning or a new engine. 2012 income tax booklet Decrease your basis by any section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, gas guzzler tax, clean-fuel vehicle deduction (for vehicles placed in service before Jan. 2012 income tax booklet 1, 2006), and alternative motor vehicle credit. 2012 income tax booklet   See Form 8910 for information on the alternative motor vehicle credit. 2012 income tax booklet If your business use later falls to 50% or less, you may have to recapture (include in your income) any excess depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet See Car Used 50% or Less for Business, later, for more information. 2012 income tax booklet If you acquired the car by gift or inheritance, see Publication 551, Basis of Assets, for information on your basis in the car. 2012 income tax booklet Improvements. 2012 income tax booklet   A major improvement to a car is treated as a new item of 5-year recovery property. 2012 income tax booklet It is treated as placed in service in the year the improvement is made. 2012 income tax booklet It does not matter how old the car is when the improvement is added. 2012 income tax booklet Follow the same steps for depreciating the improvement as you would for depreciating the original cost of the car. 2012 income tax booklet However, you must treat the improvement and the car as a whole when applying the limits on the depreciation deductions. 2012 income tax booklet Your car's depreciation deduction for the year (plus any section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation on any improvements) cannot be more than the depreciation limit that applies for that year. 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation Limits , later. 2012 income tax booklet Car trade-in. 2012 income tax booklet   If you traded one car (the “old car”) for another car (the “new car”) in 2013, there are two ways you can treat the transaction. 2012 income tax booklet You can elect to treat the transaction as a tax-free disposition of the old car and the purchase of the new car. 2012 income tax booklet If you make this election, you treat the old car as disposed of at the time of the trade-in. 2012 income tax booklet The depreciable basis of the new car is the adjusted basis of the old car (figured as if 100% of the car's use had been for business purposes) plus any additional amount you paid for the new car. 2012 income tax booklet You then figure your depreciation deduction for the new car beginning with the date you placed it in service. 2012 income tax booklet You make this election by completing Form 2106, Part II, Section D. 2012 income tax booklet This method is explained later, beginning at Effect of trade-in on basis . 2012 income tax booklet If you do not make the election described in (1), you must figure depreciation separately for the remaining basis of the old car and for any additional amount you paid for the new car. 2012 income tax booklet You must apply two depreciation limits (see Depreciation Limits , later). 2012 income tax booklet The limit that applies to the remaining basis of the old car generally is the amount that would have been allowed had you not traded in the old car. 2012 income tax booklet The limit that applies to the additional amount you paid for the new car generally is the limit that applies for the tax year, reduced by the depreciation allowance for the remaining basis of the old car. 2012 income tax booklet You must use Form 4562 to compute your depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet You cannot use Form 2106, Part II, Section D. 2012 income tax booklet This method is explained in Publication 946. 2012 income tax booklet   If you elect to use the method described in (1), you must do so on a timely filed tax return (including extensions). 2012 income tax booklet Otherwise, you must use the method described in (2). 2012 income tax booklet Effect of trade-in on basis. 2012 income tax booklet   The discussion that follows applies to trade-ins of cars in 2013, where the election was made to treat the transaction as a tax-free disposition of the old car and the purchase of the new car. 2012 income tax booklet For information on how to figure depreciation for cars involved in a like-kind exchange (trade-in) in 2013, for which the election was not made, see Publication 946 and Regulations section 1. 2012 income tax booklet 168(i)-6(d)(3). 2012 income tax booklet Traded car used only for business. 2012 income tax booklet   If you trade in a car you used only in your business for another car that will be used only in your business, your original basis in the new car is your adjusted basis in the old car, plus any additional amount you pay for the new car. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet Paul trades in a car that has an adjusted basis of $5,000 for a new car. 2012 income tax booklet In addition, he pays cash of $20,000 for the new car. 2012 income tax booklet His original basis of the new car is $25,000 (his $5,000 adjusted basis in the old car plus the $20,000 cash paid). 2012 income tax booklet Paul's unadjusted basis is $25,000 unless he claims the section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, or has other increases or decreases to his original basis, discussed under Unadjusted basis , earlier. 2012 income tax booklet Traded car used partly in business. 2012 income tax booklet   If you trade in a car you used partly in your business for a new car you will use in your business, you must make a “trade-in” adjustment for the personal use of the old car. 2012 income tax booklet This adjustment has the effect of reducing your basis in your old car, but not below zero, for purposes of figuring your depreciation deduction for the new car. 2012 income tax booklet (This adjustment is not used, however, when you determine the gain or loss on the later disposition of the new car. 2012 income tax booklet See Publication 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets, for information on how to report the disposition of your car. 2012 income tax booklet )   To figure the unadjusted basis of your new car for depreciation, first add to your adjusted basis in the old car any additional amount you pay for the new car. 2012 income tax booklet Then subtract from that total the excess, if any, of: The total of the amounts that would have been allowable as depreciation during the tax years before the trade if 100% of the use of the car had been business and investment use, over The total of the amounts actually allowed as depreciation during those years. 2012 income tax booklet For information about figuring depreciation, see Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) , which follows Example 2, later. 2012 income tax booklet Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS). 2012 income tax booklet   The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) is the name given to the tax rules for getting back (recovering) through depreciation deductions the cost of property used in a trade or business or to produce income. 2012 income tax booklet   The maximum amount you can deduct is limited, depending on the year you placed your car in service. 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation Limits , later. 2012 income tax booklet Recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet   Under MACRS, cars are classified as 5-year property. 2012 income tax booklet You actually depreciate the cost of a car, truck, or van over a period of 6 calendar years. 2012 income tax booklet This is because your car is generally treated as placed in service in the middle of the year, and you claim depreciation for one-half of both the first year and the sixth year. 2012 income tax booklet Depreciation deduction for certain Indian reservation property. 2012 income tax booklet   Shorter recovery periods are provided under MACRS for qualified Indian reservation property placed in service on Indian reservations after 1993 and before 2014. 2012 income tax booklet The recovery that applies for a business-use car is 3 years instead of 5 years. 2012 income tax booklet However, the depreciation limits, discussed later, will still apply. 2012 income tax booklet   For more information on the qualifications for this shorter recovery period and the percentages to use in figuring the depreciation deduction, see chapter 4 of Publication 946. 2012 income tax booklet Depreciation methods. 2012 income tax booklet   You can use one of the following methods to depreciate your car. 2012 income tax booklet The 200% declining balance method (200% DB) over a 5-year recovery period that switches to the straight line method when that method provides an equal or greater deduction. 2012 income tax booklet The 150% declining balance method (150% DB) over a 5-year recovery period that switches to the straight line method when that method provides an equal or greater deduction. 2012 income tax booklet The straight line method (SL) over a 5-year recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet    If you use Table 4-1 (discussed later under MACRS depreciation chart) to determine your depreciation rate for 2013, you do not need to determine in what year using the straight line method provides an equal or greater deduction. 2012 income tax booklet This is because the chart has the switch to the straight line method built into its rates. 2012 income tax booklet   Before choosing a method, you may wish to consider the following facts. 2012 income tax booklet Using the straight line method provides equal yearly deductions throughout the recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet Using the declining balance methods provides greater deductions during the earlier recovery years with the deductions generally getting smaller each year. 2012 income tax booklet MACRS depreciation chart. 2012 income tax booklet   A 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart and instructions are included in this chapter as Table 4-1 . 2012 income tax booklet Using this table will make it easy for you to figure the 2013 depreciation deduction for your car. 2012 income tax booklet A similar chart appears in the Instructions for Form 2106. 2012 income tax booklet    You may have to use the tables in Publication 946 instead of using this MACRS Depreciation Chart. 2012 income tax booklet   You must use the Depreciation Tables in Publication 946 rather than the 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart in this publication if any one of the following four conditions applies to you. 2012 income tax booklet You file your return on a fiscal year basis. 2012 income tax booklet You file your return for a short tax year (less than 12 months). 2012 income tax booklet During the year, all of the following conditions apply. 2012 income tax booklet You placed some property in service from January through September. 2012 income tax booklet You placed some property in service from October through December. 2012 income tax booklet Your basis in the property you placed in service from October through December (excluding nonresidential real property, residential rental property, and property placed in service and disposed of in the same year) was more than 40% of your total bases in all property you placed in service during the year. 2012 income tax booklet   You placed qualified property in service on an Indian reservation. 2012 income tax booklet Depreciation in future years. 2012 income tax booklet   If you use the percentages from the chart, you generally must continue to use them for the entire recovery period of your car. 2012 income tax booklet However, you cannot continue to use the chart if your basis in your car is adjusted because of a casualty. 2012 income tax booklet In that case, for the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, figure the depreciation without the chart using your adjusted basis in the car at the end of the year of the adjustment and over the remaining recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables in chapter 4 of Publication 946. 2012 income tax booklet    In future years, do not use the chart in this edition of the publication. 2012 income tax booklet Instead, use the chart in the publication or the form instructions for those future years. 2012 income tax booklet Disposition of car during recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet   If you dispose of the car before the end of the recovery period, you are generally allowed a half year of depreciation in the year of disposition unless you purchased the car during the last quarter of a year. 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation deduction for the year of disposition under Disposition of a Car, later, for information on how to figure the depreciation allowed in the year of disposition. 2012 income tax booklet How to use the 2013 chart. 2012 income tax booklet   To figure your depreciation deduction for 2013, find the percentage in the column of Table 4-1 based on the date that you first placed the car in service and the depreciation method that you are using. 2012 income tax booklet Multiply the unadjusted basis of your car (defined earlier) by that percentage to determine the amount of your depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet If you prefer to figure your depreciation deduction without the help of the chart, see Publication 946. 2012 income tax booklet    Your deduction cannot be more than the maximum depreciation limit for cars. 2012 income tax booklet See Depreciation Limits, later. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet Phil bought a used truck in February 2012 to use exclusively in his landscape business. 2012 income tax booklet He paid $9,200 for the truck with no trade-in. 2012 income tax booklet Phil did not claim any section 179 deduction, the truck did not qualify for the special depreciation allowance, and he chose to use the 200% DB method to get the largest depreciation deduction in the early years. 2012 income tax booklet Phil used the MACRS depreciation chart in 2012 to find his percentage. 2012 income tax booklet The unadjusted basis of his truck equals its cost because Phil used it exclusively for business. 2012 income tax booklet He multiplied the unadjusted basis of his truck, $9,200, by the percentage that applied, 20%, to figure his 2012 depreciation deduction of $1,840. 2012 income tax booklet In 2013, Phil used the truck for personal purposes when he repaired his father's cabin. 2012 income tax booklet His records show that the business use of his truck was 90% in 2013. 2012 income tax booklet Phil used Table 4-1 to find his percentage. 2012 income tax booklet Reading down the first column for the date placed in service and across to the 200% DB column, he locates his percentage, 32%. 2012 income tax booklet He multiplies the unadjusted basis of his truck, $8,280 ($9,200 cost × 90% business use), by 32% to figure his 2013 depreciation deduction of $2,650. 2012 income tax booklet Depreciation Limits There are limits on the amount you can deduct for depreciation of your car, truck, or van. 2012 income tax booklet The section 179 deduction and special depreciation allowance are treated as depreciation for purposes of the limits. 2012 income tax booklet The maximum amount you can deduct each year depends on the year you place the car in service. 2012 income tax booklet These limits are shown in the following tables. 2012 income tax booklet   Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars Date       4th & Placed 1st 2nd 3rd Later In Service Year Year Year Years 2012–2013 $11,1601 $5,100 $3,050 $1,875 2010–2011 11,0602 4,900 2,950 1,775 2008–2009 10,9603 4,800 2,850 1,775 2007 3,060 4,900 2,850 1,775 2006 2,960 4,800 2,850 1,775 2005 2,960 4,700 2,850 1,675 2004 10,6103 4,800 2,850 1,675 5/06/2003– 12/31/2003 10,7104 4,900 2,950 1,775 1/01/2003– 5/05/2003 7,6605 4,900 2,950 1,775 2001–2002 7,6605 4,900 2,950 1,775 2000 3,060 4,900 2,950 1,775 1$3,160 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax booklet 2$3,060 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax booklet 3$2,960 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax booklet 4$7,660 if you acquired the car before 5/6/2003. 2012 income tax booklet $3,060 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim any special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax booklet 5$3,060 if you acquired the car before 9/11/2001, the car is not qualified property, or you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax booklet Trucks and vans. 2012 income tax booklet   For 2013, the maximum depreciation deductions for trucks and vans are generally higher than those for cars. 2012 income tax booklet A truck or van is a passenger automobile that is classified by the manufacturer as a truck or van and rated at 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight or less. 2012 income tax booklet For trucks and vans placed in service before 2003, use the Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars table. 2012 income tax booklet Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Trucks and Vans Date       4th & Placed 1st 2nd 3rd Later In Service Year Year Year Years 2013 $11,3601 $5,400 $3,250 $1,975 2012 $11,3601 $5,300 $3,150 $1,875 2011 11,2601 5,200 3,150 1,875 2010 11,1601 5,100 3,050 1,875 2009 11,0601 4,900 2,950 1,775 2008 11,1601 5,100 3,050 1,875 2007 3,260 5,200 3,050 1,875 2005–2006 3,260 5,200 3,150 1,875 2004 10,9101 5,300 3,150 1,875 2003 11,0101,2 5,400 3,250 1,975 1If the special depreciation allowance does not apply or you make the election not to claim the special depreciation allowance, the first-year limit is $3,360 for 2012 and 2013, $3,260 for 2011, $3,160 for 2010, $3,060 for 2009, $3,160 for 2008, $3,260 for 2004, and $3,360 for 2003. 2012 income tax booklet 2If the truck or van was acquired before 5/06/2003, the truck or van is qualified property, and you claim the special depreciation allowance for the truck or van, the maximum deduction is $7,960. 2012 income tax booklet Car used less than full year. 2012 income tax booklet   The depreciation limits are not reduced if you use a car for less than a full year. 2012 income tax booklet This means that you do not reduce the limit when you either place a car in service or dispose of a car during the year. 2012 income tax booklet However, the depreciation limits are reduced if you do not use the car exclusively for business and investment purposes. 2012 income tax booklet See Reduction for personal use , next. 2012 income tax booklet Reduction for personal use. 2012 income tax booklet   The depreciation limits are reduced based on your percentage of personal use. 2012 income tax booklet If you use a car less than 100% in your business or work, you must determine the depreciation deduction limit by multiplying the limit amount by the percentage of business and investment use during the tax year. 2012 income tax booklet Section 179 deduction. 2012 income tax booklet   The section 179 deduction is treated as a depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet If you place a car that is not a truck or van in service in 2013, use it only for business, and choose the section 179 deduction, the special depreciation allowance, and the depreciation deduction for that car for 2013 is limited to $11,160. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet On September 4, 2013, Jack bought a used car for $10,000 and placed it in service. 2012 income tax booklet He used it 80% for his business, and he chooses to take a section 179 deduction for the car. 2012 income tax booklet The car is not qualified property for purposes of the special depreciation allowance. 2012 income tax booklet Before applying the limit, Jack figures his maximum section 179 deduction to be $8,000. 2012 income tax booklet This is the cost of his qualifying property (up to the maximum $500,000 amount) multiplied by his business use ($10,000 × 80%). 2012 income tax booklet Jack then figures that his section 179 deduction for 2013 is limited to $2,528 (80% of $3,160). 2012 income tax booklet He then figures his unadjusted basis of $5,472 (($10,000 × 80%) − $2,528) for determining his depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet Jack has reached his maximum depreciation deduction for 2013. 2012 income tax booklet For 2014, Jack will use his unadjusted basis of $5,472 to figure his depreciation deduction. 2012 income tax booklet Deductions in years after the recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet   If the depreciation deductions for your car are reduced under the passenger automobile limits (discussed earlier), you will have unrecovered basis in your car at the end of the recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet If you continue to use your car for business, you can deduct that unrecovered basis (subject to depreciation limits) after the recovery period ends. 2012 income tax booklet Unrecovered basis. 2012 income tax booklet   This is your cost or other basis in the car reduced by any clean-fuel vehicle deduction (for vehicles placed in service before January 1, 2006), alternative motor vehicle credit, electric vehicle credit, gas guzzler tax, and depreciation (including any special depreciation allowance , discussed earlier, unless you elect not to claim it) and section 179 deductions that would have been allowable if you had used the car 100% for business and investment use. 2012 income tax booklet The recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet   For 5-year property, your recovery period is 6 calendar years. 2012 income tax booklet A part year's depreciation is allowed in the first calendar year, a full year's depreciation is allowed in each of the next 4 calendar years, and a part year's depreciation is allowed in the 6th calendar year. 2012 income tax booklet   Under MACRS, your recovery period is the same whether you use declining balance or straight line depreciation. 2012 income tax booklet You determine your unrecovered basis in the 7th year after you placed the car in service. 2012 income tax booklet How to treat unrecovered basis. 2012 income tax booklet   If you continue to use your car for business after the recovery period, you can claim a depreciation deduction in each succeeding tax year until you recover your basis in the car. 2012 income tax booklet The maximum amount you can deduct each year is determined by the date you placed the car in service and your business-use percentage. 2012 income tax booklet For example, no deduction is allowed for a year you use your car 100% for personal purposes. 2012 income tax booklet Example. 2012 income tax booklet In April 2007, Bob bought and placed in service a car he used exclusively in his business. 2012 income tax booklet The car cost $31,500. 2012 income tax booklet Bob did not claim a section 179 deduction or the special depreciation allowance for the car. 2012 income tax booklet He continued to use the car 100% in his business throughout the recovery period (2007 through 2012). 2012 income tax booklet For those years, Bob used the MACRS Depreciation Chart (200% declining balance method) and the Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars table, earlier, for the applicable tax year to compute his depreciation deductions during the recovery period. 2012 income tax booklet Bob's depreciation deductions were subject to the depreciation limits so he will have unrecovered basis at the end of the recovery period as shown in the following table. 2012 income tax booklet      MACRS     Deprec. 2012 income tax booklet Year % Amount Limit Allowed 2007 20. 2012 income tax booklet 00 $6,300 $3,060 $ 3,060 2008 32. 2012 income tax booklet 00 10,080 4,900 4,900 2009 19. 2012 income tax booklet 20 6,048 2,850 2,850 2010 11. 2012 income tax booklet 52 3,629 1,775 1,775 2011 11. 2012 income tax booklet 52 3,629 1,775 1,775 2012 5. 2012 income tax booklet 76 1,814 1,775 1,775 Total $31,500   16,135 For the correct limit, see Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars under “Depreciation Limits,” earlier, for the maximum amount of depreciation allowed each year. 2012 income tax booklet   At the end of 2012, Bob had an unrecovered basis in the car of $15,365 ($31,500 – $16,135). 2012 income tax booklet If Bob continued to use the car 100% for business in 2013 and later years, he can claim a depreciation deduction equal to the lesser of $1,775 or his remaining unrecovered basis. 2012 income tax booklet   If Bob's business use of the car was less than 100% during any year, his depreciation deduction would be less than the maximum amount allowable for that year. 2012 income tax booklet However, in determining his unrecovered basis in the car, he would still reduce his original basis by the maximum amount allowable as if the business use had been 100%. 2012 income tax booklet For example, if Bob had used his car 60% for business instead of 100%, his allowable depreciation deductions would have been $9,681 ($16,135 × 60%), but he still would have to reduce his basis by $16,135 to determine his unrecovered basis. 2012 income tax booklet Table 4-1. 2012 income tax booklet 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart (Use to Figure Depreciation for 2013. 2012 income tax booklet ) If you claim actual expenses for your car, use the chart below to find the depreciation method and percentage to use for your 2013 return for cars placed in service in 2013. 2012 income tax booklet   First, using the left column, find the date you first placed the car in service in 2013. 2012 income tax booklet Then select the depreciation method and percentage from column (a), (b), or (c) following the rules explained in this chapter. 2012 income tax booklet For cars placed in service before 2013, you must use the same method you used on last year's return unless a decline in your business use requires you to change to the straight line method. 2012 income tax booklet Refer back to the MACRS Depreciation Chart for the year you placed the car in service. 2012 income tax booklet (See Car Used 50% or Less for Business . 2012 income tax booklet )  Multiply the unadjusted basis of your car by your business use percentage. 2012 income tax booklet Multiply the result by the percentage you found in the chart to find the amount of your depreciation deduction for 2013. 2012 income tax booklet (Also see Depreciation Limits . 2012 income tax booklet )   If you placed your car in service after September of any year and you placed other business property in service during the same year, you may have to use the Jan. 2012 income tax booklet 1—Sept. 2012 income tax booklet 30 percentage instead of the Oct. 2012 income tax booklet 1—Dec. 2012 income tax booklet 31 percentage for your car. 2012 income tax booklet               To find out if this applies to you, determine: 1) the basis of all business property you placed in service after September of that year and 2) the basis of all business property you placed in service during that entire year. 2012 income tax booklet If the basis of the property placed in service after September is not more than 40% of the basis of all property (certain property is excluded) placed in service for the entire year, use the percentage for Jan. 2012 income tax booklet 1—Sept. 2012 income tax booklet 30 for figuring depreciation for your car. 2012 income tax booklet See Which Convention Applies? in chapter 4 of Publication 946 for more details. 2012 income tax booklet               Example. 2012 income tax booklet You buy machinery (basis of $32,000) in May 2013 and a new van (basis of $20,000) in October 2013, both used 100% in your business. 2012 income tax booklet You