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2011 Federal Tax Forms 1040

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2011 Federal Tax Forms 1040

2011 federal tax forms 1040 27. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Tax Benefits for Work-Related Education Table of Contents What's New Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Qualifying Work-Related EducationEducation Required by Employer or by Law Education To Maintain or Improve Skills Education To Meet Minimum Requirements Education That Qualifies You for a New Trade or Business What Expenses Can Be DeductedUnclaimed reimbursement. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Transportation Expenses Travel Expenses No Double Benefit Allowed Reimbursements Deducting Business ExpensesSelf-Employed Persons Employees Performing Artists and Fee-Basis Officials Impairment-Related Work Expenses Recordkeeping What's New Standard mileage rate. 2011 federal tax forms 1040  Generally, if you claim a business deduction for work-related education and you drive your car to and from school, the amount you can deduct for miles driven from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2013, is 56½ cents per mile. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 For more information, see Transportation Expenses under What Expenses Can Be Deducted. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Introduction This chapter discusses work-related education expenses that you may be able to deduct as business expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 To claim such a deduction, you must: Itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040) if you are an employee, File Schedule C (Form 1040), Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), or Schedule F (Form 1040) if you are self-employed, and Have expenses for education that meet the requirements discussed under Qualifying Work-Related Education . 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you are an employee and can itemize your deductions, you may be able to claim a deduction for the expenses you pay for your work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your deduction will be the amount by which your qualifying work-related education expenses plus other job and certain miscellaneous expenses (except for impairment-related work expenses of disabled individuals) is greater than 2% of your adjusted gross income. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 See chapter 28. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you are self-employed, you deduct your expenses for qualifying work-related education directly from your self-employment income. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your work-related education expenses may also qualify you for other tax benefits, such as the American opportunity and lifetime learning credits (see chapter 35). 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You may qualify for these other benefits even if you do not meet the requirements listed earlier. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Also, keep in mind that your work-related education expenses may qualify you to claim more than one tax benefit. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Generally, you may claim any number of benefits as long as you use different expenses to figure each one. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 When you figure your taxes, you may want to compare these tax benefits so you can choose the method(s) that give you the lowest tax liability. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 463 Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses 970 Tax Benefits for Education Form (and Instructions) 2106 Employee Business Expenses 2106-EZ Unreimbursed Employee Business Expenses Schedule A (Form 1040) Itemized Deductions Qualifying Work-Related Education You can deduct the costs of qualifying work-related education as business expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This is education that meets at least one of the following two tests. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The education is required by your employer or the law to keep your present salary, status, or job. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The required education must serve a bona fide business purpose of your employer. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The education maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 However, even if the education meets one or both of the above tests, it is not qualifying work-related education if it: Is needed to meet the minimum educational requirements of your present trade or business, or Is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You can deduct the costs of qualifying work-related education as a business expense even if the education could lead to a degree. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Use Figure 27-A, later, as a quick check to see if your education qualifies. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Education Required by Employer or by Law Once you have met the minimum educational requirements for your job, your employer or the law may require you to get more education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This additional education is qualifying work-related education if all three of the following requirements are met. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 It is required for you to keep your present salary, status, or job, The requirement serves a bona fide business purpose of your employer, and The education is not part of a program that will qualify you for a new trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 When you get more education than your employer or the law requires, the additional education can be qualifying work-related education only if it maintains or improves skills required in your present work. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 See Education To Maintain or Improve Skills , later. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You are a teacher who has satisfied the minimum requirements for teaching. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your employer requires you to take an additional college course each year to keep your teaching job. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If the courses will not qualify you for a new trade or business, they are qualifying work-related education even if you eventually receive a master's degree and an increase in salary because of this extra education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Education To Maintain or Improve Skills If your education is not required by your employer or the law, it can be qualifying work-related education only if it maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This could include refresher courses, courses on current developments, and academic or vocational courses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You repair televisions, radios, and stereo systems for XYZ Store. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 To keep up with the latest changes, you take special courses in radio and stereo service. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 These courses maintain and improve skills required in your work. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Maintaining skills vs. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 qualifying for new job. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Education to maintain or improve skills needed in your present work is not qualifying education if it will also qualify you for a new trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Education during temporary absence. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   If you stop working for a year or less in order to get education to maintain or improve skills needed in your present work and then return to the same general type of work, your absence is considered temporary. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Education that you get during a temporary absence is qualifying work-related education if it maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You quit your biology research job to become a full-time biology graduate student for one year. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you return to work in biology research after completing the courses, the education is related to your present work even if you do not go back to work with the same employer. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Education during indefinite absence. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   If you stop work for more than a year, your absence from your job is considered indefinite. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Education during an indefinite absence, even if it maintains or improves skills needed in the work from which you are absent, is considered to qualify you for a new trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Therefore, it is not qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Education To Meet Minimum Requirements Education you need to meet the minimum educational requirements for your present trade or business is not qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The minimum educational requirements are determined by: Laws and regulations, Standards of your profession, trade, or business, and Your employer. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Once you have met the minimum educational requirements that were in effect when you were hired, you do not have to meet any new minimum educational requirements. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This means that if the minimum requirements change after you were hired, any education you need to meet the new requirements can be qualifying education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You have not necessarily met the minimum educational requirements of your trade or business simply because you are already doing the work. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 1. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You are a full-time engineering student. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Although you have not received your degree or certification, you work part-time as an engineer for a firm that will employ you as a full-time engineer after you finish college. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Although your college engineering courses improve your skills in your present job, they are also needed to meet the minimum job requirements for a full-time engineer. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The education is not qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 2. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You are an accountant and you have met the minimum educational requirements of your employer. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your employer later changes the minimum educational requirements and requires you to take college courses to keep your job. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 These additional courses can be qualifying work-related education because you have already satisfied the minimum requirements that were in effect when you were hired. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Requirements for Teachers States or school districts usually set the minimum educational requirements for teachers. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The requirement is the college degree or the minimum number of college hours usually required of a person hired for that position. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If there are no requirements, you will have met the minimum educational requirements when you become a faculty member. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The determination of whether you are a faculty member of an educational institution must be made on the basis of the particular practices of the institution. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You generally will be considered a faculty member when one or more of the following occurs. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You have tenure. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your years of service count toward obtaining tenure. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You have a vote in faculty decisions. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your school makes contributions for you to a retirement plan other than social security or a similar program. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 1. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The law in your state requires beginning secondary school teachers to have a bachelor's degree, including 10 professional education courses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 In addition, to keep the job a teacher must complete a fifth year of training within 10 years from the date of hire. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If the employing school certifies to the state Department of Education that qualified teachers cannot be found, the school can hire persons with only 3 years of college. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 However, to keep their jobs, these teachers must get a bachelor's degree and the required professional education courses within 3 years. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Under these facts, the bachelor's degree, whether or not it includes the 10 professional education courses, is considered the minimum educational requirement for qualification as a teacher in your state. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you have all the required education except the fifth year, you have met the minimum educational requirements. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The fifth year of training is qualifying work-related education unless it is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Figure 27-A Does Your Work-Related Education Qualify? Please click here for the text description of the image. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Figure 27-A. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Does Your Work-Related Education Qualify?" Example 2. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you have a bachelor's degree and only six professional education courses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The additional four education courses can be qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Although you do not have all the required courses, you have already met the minimum educational requirements. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 3. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you are hired with only 3 years of college. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The courses you take that lead to a bachelor's degree (including those in education) are not qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 They are needed to meet the minimum educational requirements for employment as a teacher. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 4. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You have a bachelor's degree and you work as a temporary instructor at a university. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 At the same time, you take graduate courses toward an advanced degree. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The rules of the university state that you can become a faculty member only if you get a graduate degree. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Also, you can keep your job as an instructor only as long as you show satisfactory progress toward getting this degree. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You have not met the minimum educational requirements to qualify you as a faculty member. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The graduate courses are not qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Certification in a new state. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Once you have met the minimum educational requirements for teachers for your state, you are considered to have met the minimum educational requirements in all states. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This is true even if you must get additional education to be certified in another state. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Any additional education you need is qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You have already met the minimum requirements for teaching. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Teaching in another state is not a new trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You hold a permanent teaching certificate in State A and are employed as a teacher in that state for several years. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You move to State B and are promptly hired as a teacher. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You are required, however, to complete certain prescribed courses to get a permanent teaching certificate in State B. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 These additional courses are qualifying work-related education because the teaching position in State B involves the same general kind of work for which you were qualified in State A. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Education That Qualifies You for a New Trade or Business Education that is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business is not qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This is true even if you do not plan to enter that trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you are an employee, a change of duties that involves the same general kind of work is not a new trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 1. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You are an accountant. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your employer requires you to get a law degree at your own expense. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You register at a law school for the regular curriculum that leads to a law degree. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Even if you do not intend to become a lawyer, the education is not qualifying because the law degree will qualify you for a new trade or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 2. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You are a general practitioner of medicine. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You take a 2-week course to review developments in several specialized fields of medicine. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The course does not qualify you for a new profession. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 It is qualifying work-related education because it maintains or improves skills required in your present profession. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 3. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 While working in the private practice of psychiatry, you enter a program to study and train at an accredited psychoanalytic institute. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The program will lead to qualifying you to practice psychoanalysis. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The psychoanalytic training does not qualify you for a new profession. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 It is qualifying work-related education because it maintains or improves skills required in your present profession. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Bar or CPA Review Course Review courses to prepare for the bar examination or the certified public accountant (CPA) examination are not qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 They are part of a program of study that can qualify you for a new profession. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Teaching and Related Duties All teaching and related duties are considered the same general kind of work. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 A change in duties in any of the following ways is not considered a change to a new business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Elementary school teacher to secondary school teacher. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Teacher of one subject, such as biology, to teacher of another subject, such as art. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Classroom teacher to guidance counselor. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Classroom teacher to school administrator. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 What Expenses Can Be Deducted If your education meets the requirements described earlier under Qualifying Work-Related Education , you can generally deduct your education expenses as business expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you are not self-employed, you can deduct business expenses only if you itemize your deductions. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You cannot deduct expenses related to tax-exempt and excluded income. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Deductible expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   The following education expenses can be deducted. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Tuition, books, supplies, lab fees, and similar items. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Certain transportation and travel costs. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Other education expenses, such as costs of research and typing when writing a paper as part of an educational program. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Nondeductible expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   You cannot deduct personal or capital expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 For example, you cannot deduct the dollar value of vacation time or annual leave you take to attend classes. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This amount is a personal expense. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Unclaimed reimbursement. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   If you do not claim reimbursement that you are entitled to receive from your employer, you cannot deduct the expenses that apply to that unclaimed reimbursement. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your employer agrees to pay your education expenses if you file a voucher showing your expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You do not file a voucher, and you do not get reimbursed. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Because you did not file a voucher, you cannot deduct the expenses on your tax return. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Transportation Expenses If your education qualifies, you can deduct local transportation costs of going directly from work to school. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you are regularly employed and go to school on a temporary basis, you can also deduct the costs of returning from school to home. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Temporary basis. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   You go to school on a temporary basis if either of the following situations applies to you. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less and does indeed last for 1 year or less. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Initially, your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less, but at a later date your attendance is reasonably expected to last more than 1 year. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your attendance is temporary up to the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Note. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you are in either situation (1) or (2), your attendance is not temporary if facts and circumstances indicate otherwise. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Attendance not on a temporary basis. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   You do not go to school on a temporary basis if either of the following situations apply to you. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your attendance at school is realistically expected to last more than 1 year. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 It does not matter how long you actually attend. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Initially, your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less, but at a later date your attendance is reasonably expected to last more than 1 year. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Your attendance is not temporary after the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Deductible Transportation Expenses If you are regularly employed and go directly from home to school on a temporary basis, you can deduct the round-trip costs of transportation between your home and school. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This is true regardless of the location of the school, the distance traveled, or whether you attend school on nonwork days. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Transportation expenses include the actual costs of bus, subway, cab, or other fares, as well as the costs of using your car. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Transportation expenses do not include amounts spent for travel, meals, or lodging while you are away from home overnight. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 1. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You regularly work in a nearby town, and go directly from work to home. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You also attend school every work night for 3 months to take a course that improves your job skills. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Since you are attending school on a temporary basis, you can deduct your daily round-trip transportation expenses in going between home and school. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This is true regardless of the distance traveled. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 2. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that on certain nights you go directly from work to school and then home. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You can deduct your transportation expenses from your regular work site to school and then home. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 3. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you attend the school for 9 months on Saturdays, nonwork days. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Since you are attending school on a temporary basis, you can deduct your round-trip transportation expenses in going between home and school. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 4. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you attend classes twice a week for 15 months. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Since your attendance in school is not considered temporary, you cannot deduct your transportation expenses in going between home and school. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you go directly from work to school, you can deduct the one-way transportation expenses of going from work to school. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you go from work to home to school and return home, your transportation expenses cannot be more than if you had gone directly from work to school. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Using your car. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   If you use your car (whether you own or lease it) for transportation to school, you can deduct your actual expenses or use the standard mileage rate to figure the amount you can deduct. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The standard mileage rate for miles driven from January 1, 2013, through December 31, 2013 is 56½ cents per mile. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Whichever method you use, you can also deduct parking fees and tolls. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 See chapter 26 for information on deducting your actual expenses of using a car. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Travel Expenses You can deduct expenses for travel, meals (see 50% limit on meals , later), and lodging if you travel overnight mainly to obtain qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Travel expenses for qualifying work-related education are treated the same as travel expenses for other employee business purposes. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 For more information, see chapter 26. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You cannot deduct expenses for personal activities, such as sightseeing, visiting, or entertaining. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Mainly personal travel. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   If your travel away from home is mainly personal, you cannot deduct all of your expenses for travel, meals, and lodging. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You can deduct only your expenses for lodging and 50% of your expenses for meals during the time you attend the qualified educational activities. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Whether a trip's purpose is mainly personal or educational depends upon the facts and circumstances. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 An important factor is the comparison of time spent on personal activities with time spent on educational activities. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If you spend more time on personal activities, the trip is considered mainly educational only if you can show a substantial nonpersonal reason for traveling to a particular location. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 1. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 John works in Newark, New Jersey. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 He traveled to Chicago to take a deductible 1-week course at the request of his employer. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 His main reason for going to Chicago was to take the course. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 While there, he took a sight-seeing trip, entertained some friends, and took a side trip to Pleasantville for a day. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Since the trip was mainly for business, John can deduct his round-trip airfare to Chicago. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 He cannot deduct his transportation expenses of going to Pleasantville. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 He can deduct only the meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging connected with his educational activities. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 2. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Sue works in Boston. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 She went to a university in Michigan to take a course for work. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The course is qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 She took one course, which is one-fourth of a full course load of study. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 She spent the rest of the time on personal activities. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Her reasons for taking the course in Michigan were all personal. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Sue's trip is mainly personal because three-fourths of her time is considered personal time. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 She cannot deduct the cost of her round-trip train ticket to Michigan. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 She can deduct one-fourth of the meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging costs for the time she attended the university. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example 3. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Dave works in Nashville and recently traveled to California to take a 2-week seminar. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The seminar is qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 While there, he spent an extra 8 weeks on personal activities. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The facts, including the extra 8-week stay, show that his main purpose was to take a vacation. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Dave cannot deduct his round-trip airfare or his meals and lodging for the 8 weeks. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 He can deduct only his expenses for meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging for the 2 weeks he attended the seminar. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Cruises and conventions. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Certain cruises and conventions offer seminars or courses as part of their itinerary. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Even if the seminars or courses are work-related, your deduction for travel may be limited. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This applies to: Travel by ocean liner, cruise ship, or other form of luxury water transportation, and Conventions outside the North American area. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   For a discussion of the limits on travel expense deductions that apply to cruises and conventions, see Luxury Water Travel and Conventions in chapter 1 of Publication 463. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 50% limit on meals. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   You can deduct only 50% of the cost of your meals while traveling away from home to obtain qualifying work-related education. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You cannot have been reimbursed for the meals. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Employees must use Form 2106 or Form 2106-EZ to apply the 50% limit. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Travel as Education You cannot deduct the cost of travel as a form of education even if it is directly related to your duties in your work or business. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Example. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You are a French language teacher. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 While on sabbatical leave granted for travel, you traveled through France to improve your knowledge of the French language. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You chose your itinerary and most of your activities to improve your French language skills. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You cannot deduct your travel expenses as education expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 This is true even if you spent most of your time learning French by visiting French schools and families, attending movies or plays, and engaging in similar activities. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 No Double Benefit Allowed You cannot do either of the following. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Deduct work-related education expenses as business expenses if you benefit from these expenses under any other provision of the law, for example, the tuition and fees deduction (see chapter 35). 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Deduct work-related education expenses paid with tax-free scholarship, grant, or employer-provided educational assistance. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 See Adjustments to Qualifying Work-Related Education Expenses , next. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Adjustments to Qualifying Work-Related Education Expenses If you pay qualifying work-related education expenses with certain tax-free funds, you cannot claim a deduction for those amounts. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You must reduce the qualifying expenses by the amount of such expenses allocable to the tax-free educational assistance. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 For more information, see chapter 12 of Publication 970. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Tax-free educational assistance includes: The tax-free part of scholarships and fellowships (see chapter 1 of Publication 970), The tax-free part of Pell grants (see chapter 1 of Publication 970), The tax-free part of employer-provided educational assistance (see chapter 11 of Publication 970), Veterans' educational assistance (see chapter 1 of Publication 970), and Any other nontaxable (tax-free) payments (other than gifts or inheritances) received for education assistance. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Amounts that do not reduce qualifying work-related education expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Do not reduce the qualifying work-related education expenses by amounts paid with funds the student receives as: Payment for services, such as wages, A loan, A gift, An inheritance, or A withdrawal from the student's personal savings. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Also, do not reduce the qualifying work-related education expenses by any scholarship or fellowship reported as income on the student's return or any scholarship which, by its terms, cannot be applied to qualifying work-related education expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Reimbursements How you treat reimbursements depends on the arrangement you have with your employer. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 There are two basic types of reimbursement arrangements—accountable plans and nonaccountable plans. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You can tell the type of plan you are reimbursed under by the way the reimbursement is reported on your Form W-2. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 For information on how to treat reimbursements under both accountable and nonaccountable plans, see Reimbursements in chapter 26. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Deducting Business Expenses Self-employed persons and employees report business expenses differently. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 The following information explains what forms you must use to deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as a business expense. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Self-Employed Persons If you are self-employed, report the cost of your qualifying work-related education on the appropriate form used to report your business income and expenses (generally Schedule C, C-EZ, or F). 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If your educational expenses include expenses for a car or truck, travel, or meals, report those expenses the same way you report other business expenses for those items. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 See the instructions for the form you file for information on how to complete it. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Employees If you are an employee, you can deduct the cost of qualifying work-related education only if you: Did not receive (and were not entitled to receive) any reimbursement from your employer, Were reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan (amount is included in box 1 of Form W-2), or Received reimbursement under an accountable plan, but the amount received was less than your expenses for which you claimed reimbursement. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If either (1) or (2) applies, you can deduct the total qualifying cost. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 If (3) applies, you can deduct only the qualifying costs that were more than your reimbursement. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 In order to deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as a business expense, include the amount with your deduction for any other employee business expenses on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 (Special rules for expenses of certain performing artists and fee-basis officials and for impairment-related work expenses are explained later. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 ) This deduction (except for impairment-related work expenses of disabled individuals) is subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit that applies to most miscellaneous itemized deductions. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 See chapter 28. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Form 2106 or 2106-EZ. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   To figure your deduction for employee business expenses, including qualifying work-related education, you generally must complete Form 2106 or Form 2106-EZ. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Form not required. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   Do not complete either Form 2106 or Form 2106-EZ if: If amounts included in box 1 of your Form W-2, are not considered reimbursements, and You are not claiming travel, transportation, meal, or entertainment expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   If you meet both of these requirements, enter the expenses directly on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 (Special rules for expenses of certain performing artists and fee-basis officials and for impairment-related work expenses are explained later. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 ) Using Form 2106-EZ. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   This form is shorter and easier to use than Form 2106. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Generally, you can use this form if: All reimbursements, if any, are included in box 1 of your Form W-2, and You are using the standard mileage rate if you are claiming vehicle expenses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040   If you do not meet both of these requirements, use Form 2106. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Performing Artists and Fee-Basis Officials If you are a qualified performing artist, or a state (or local) government official who is paid in whole or in part on a fee basis, you can deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as an adjustment to gross income rather than as an itemized deduction. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Include the cost of your qualifying work-related education with any other employee business expenses on Form 1040, line 24. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You do not have to itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040), and, therefore, the deduction is not subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 You must complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ to figure your deduction, even if you meet the requirements described earlier under Form not required . 2011 federal tax forms 1040 For more information on qualified performing artists, see chapter 6 of Publication 463. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Impairment-Related Work Expenses If you are disabled and have impairment-related work expenses that are necessary for you to be able to get qualifying work-related education, you can deduct these expenses on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 28. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 They are not subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 To deduct these expenses, you must complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ even if you meet the requirements described earlier under Form not required . 2011 federal tax forms 1040 For more information on impairment-related work expenses, see chapter 6 of Publication 463. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Recordkeeping You must keep records as proof of any deduction claimed on your tax return. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Generally, you should keep your records for 3 years from the date of filing the tax return and claiming the deduction. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 For specific information about keeping records of business expenses, see Recordkeeping in chapter 26. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Social Media Registry API Documentation

About the API

This documentation describes methods to use the Social Media Registry API to access the contents of the Social Media Registry.

The Social Media Registry is an official source of information about social media accounts that represent official U.S. federal government agencies, elected officials, or members of the President’s Cabinet.

If you work for the federal government and have a .gov or .mil e-mail address, you can register official U.S. federal accounts at HowTo.gov.

If you have feedback, questions, or want to tell us about the product you built with the Social Media Registry API, please e-mail us.

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Accessing the API

The interface described here uses the same method URLs and parameters for all response formats, including HTML5, JSON, and XML. If no response format is specified at request time, the results are returned as HTML5 (with the assumption that a user is accessing the API via a web browser). To specify alternate formats, append the result format to the method call:

http://registry.usa.gov/accounts?agency_id=usda
http://registry.usa.gov/accounts.json?agency_id=usda
http://registry.usa.gov/accounts.xml?agency_id=usda

API requests can be called from remote sites via Javascript using the Cross-Origin Resource Sharing mechanism (CORS) supported in most browsers. All published API methods may be called from any domain.

If support for older browsers is required, JSON requests can be made with a callback parameter in order to return JSONP responses:

http://registry.usa.gov/accounts.json?agency_id=usda&callback=listaccounts

API Updates Using Feeds

Some API methods are also available as feeds in the ATOM format. These feeds can be added to any news feed reader to list recent changes.

The ATOM format is an XML feed standard; each entry contains a summary of the Registry change and a link to the Registry API to view more information.

Feed Examples

List the most recently updated official Twitter accounts: http://registry.usa.gov/accounts.atom?service_id=twitter

List the most recently updated official accounts from the U.S. Department of Agriculture: http://registry.usa.gov/accounts.atom?agency_id=usda

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API Methods

/accounts (GET)

List official U.S. government social media accounts entries in the registry. This method is also available as an ATOM feed.

Parameters

  • agency_id: ID (from /agencies)
  • service_id: ID (from /services)
  • tag: text
  • page_size: integer
  • page_number: integer

Output

  • page_count: integer
  • page_number: integer
  • total_items: integer

Accounts

  • service_url: text
  • verified : boolean
  • service_id: ID
  • account: text
  • details_url: text
  • organization: text
  • agencies
    • agency_id: text
    • agency_name: text
    • agency_url: text

Example Calls

List all official accounts from the U.S. Department of Agriculture: http://registry.usa.gov/accounts?agency_id=usda

List all official Twitter accounts from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services:
http://registry.usa.gov/accounts?service=twitter&agency_id=hhs

/accounts/{service ID} (GET)

A synonym for /accounts?service_id={service}, provided for REST-style browsing.

/accounts/{service ID}/{account} (GET)

A synonym for the /accounts/verify method, using a canonical service and account ID provided by that method. For example, the service and account ID for http://twitter.com/JPL_Bear might be twitter/JPL_Bear, making the canonical URL take the form http://registry.usa.gov/accounts/twitter/JPL_Bear

This is provided primarily for REST-style browsing.

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/accounts/verify (GET)

Check whether the provided URL is registered as an official government social media account.

Example: /accounts/verify?service_url=https%3A%2F%2Ftwitter.com%2F%23%21%2FJPL_Bear

Parameters

  • service_url: URL (required)

Output

  • verified: boolean
  • service_url: URL
  • service_id: ID (from /services list)
  • account: text

(if verified is true:)

  • details_url: URL
  • organization: text
  • info_url: text
  • agencies
    • agency_id: text
    • agency_name: text
    • agency_url: text
  • tags: list
  • language: text
  • display_name: text
  • updated_by: text
  • updated_at: ISO 8601 date

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/agencies (GET) 

List the sponsoring agencies that may be specified in the /accounts/add method.

Parameters

  • none

Output

  • page_count: integer
  • total_items: integer
  • page_number: integer
  • agencies: list
    • agency_id: text
    • agency_name: text
    • agency_url: text

/services (GET)

List the social media services that are currently supported in the /accounts/add method.

Parameters

  • none

Output

  • page_count: integer
  • total_items: integer
  • page_number: integer
  • services: list
    • service_id: text
    • service_name: text

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/tags (GET) 

List tags that are suggested for describing an account.

Parameters

  • keywords: text

Output

  • tags: list
  • tag_id: text
  • tag_text: text

Source Code

The code for the Social Media Registry is open source and available on GitHub. It is written in Ruby.

Example Applications

Terms of Service

By using this data, you agree to the Terms of Service.

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The 2011 Federal Tax Forms 1040

2011 federal tax forms 1040 Index A Adoption Child tax credit, Adopted child. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 (see also Child tax credit) Afghanistan, Afghanistan area. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Aliens, Alien Status Amount of exclusion, Amount of Exclusion Arabian peninsula, Arabian peninsula. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Assistance (see Tax help) C Child tax credit, Child Tax Credit Limits Modified adjusted gross income, Modified AGI. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Qualifying child, Qualifying Child Child, qualifying, Qualifying child. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Claims for tax forgiveness, Claims for Tax Forgiveness Codes, W-2, Form W-2 Codes Combat zone Election to include pay for earned income credit, Nontaxable combat pay election. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Exclusion, Combat Zone Exclusion Extension of deadlines, Service That Qualifies for an Extension of Deadline Related forgiveness, Combat Zone Related Forgiveness Community property, Community Property, Residents of community property states. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Contingency operation, Service That Qualifies for an Extension of Deadline Credits Child tax, Child Tax Credit Earned income, Earned Income Credit Excess social security tax withheld, Credit for Excess Social Security Tax Withheld First-time homebuyer, First-Time Homebuyer Credit D Decedents, Forgiveness of Decedent's Tax Liability Deductions, itemized, Itemized Deductions Domicile, Domicile. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Dual-status aliens, Dual-Status Aliens E Earned income credit, Earned Income Credit Social security card, Social security number. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Social security number, Social security number. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Educational expenses, Educational Expenses Employee business expenses, Employee Business Expenses Excess social security tax withholding credit, Credit for Excess Social Security Tax Withheld Excess withholding credit How to take, How to take the credit. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Expenses Employee business, Employee Business Expenses Moving, Moving Expenses Extension of deadlines, Extension of Deadlines Extension of time to file, Extensions F Family, Adopted child. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 (see also Child tax credit) Filing returns, Filing Returns First-time homebuyer credit, First-Time Homebuyer Credit Foreclosures Mortgage settlement payouts, Foreclosures Foreign income, Foreign Source Income Foreign moves, Foreign Moves Forms 1040, Foreign Moves, Itemized Deductions, Where To File 1040A, Where To File 1040EZ, Where To File 1040NR, Nonresident Aliens 2106, Employee Business Expenses, Reimbursement. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 2106-EZ, Employee Business Expenses 2848, Signing Returns, Spouse overseas. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 3903, Moving Expenses 4868, Extensions W-2, Form W-2 Codes, Form W-2. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 , Nontaxable combat pay election. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Foster care Child tax credit, Qualifying Child Free tax services, Free help with your tax return. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 G Gross income, Gross Income H Help (see Tax help) Home Away from, Away from home. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Definition of, Away from home. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Sale of, Sale of Home Homebuyer credit, First-Time Homebuyer Credit Hospitalization, Hospitalized While Serving in a Combat Zone, Hospitalized After Leaving a Combat Zone, Qualified hospitalization. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 I Income Foreign source, Foreign Source Income Gross, Gross Income Individual retirement arrangements, Individual Retirement Arrangements Installment agreement Payment deferment, Request for deferment. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Interest rate (maximum), Maximum Rate of Interest Iraq, Arabian peninsula. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Itemized deductions, Itemized Deductions J Joint returns, Joint returns. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 , Joint returns. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 , Joint returns. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 K Kosovo, The Kosovo area. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 M Military action related forgiveness, Terrorist or Military Action Related Forgiveness Military Spouses Residency Relief Act Domicile, Military Spouses Residency Relief Act (MSRRA) Miscellaneous itemized deductions, Employee Business Expenses Missing status, Missing status. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 , Spouse in missing status. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 , Missing status. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) Child tax credit limits, Modified AGI. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Moving expenses, Moving Expenses N Nonresident aliens, Nonresident Aliens P Permanent change of station, Permanent change of station. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Personal representative, Forgiveness of Decedent's Tax Liability Power of attorney, Signing Returns Professional dues, Professional Dues Publications (see Tax help) Q Qualifying child, Qualifying child. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 R Reimbursements Employee business expenses, Reimbursement. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Moving and storage, Services or reimbursements provided by the government. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Uniforms, Uniforms Reservists, Armed Forces reservists. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Travel, Armed Forces Reservists Uniforms, Uniforms Resident aliens, Resident Aliens Returns Filing, Filing Returns Signing, Signing Returns S Sale of home, Sale of Home Same-sex marriage, Same-Sex Marriage SCRA violation payouts, Foreclosures Separate returns, Separate returns. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, Maximum Rate of Interest Serving in a combat zone, Serving in a Combat Zone Social security numbers (SSNs) Earned income credit, Residency test. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Spouse Deadline extension, Spouses. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Died, Spouse died during the year. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Incapacitated, Spouse incapacitated. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Missing, Spouse in missing status. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Nonresident alien, Treating nonresident alien spouse as resident alien. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Overseas, Spouse overseas. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 State bonus payments, State bonus payments. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 T Tax forgiven, Combat Zone Related Forgiveness Tax help, How To Get Tax Help Temporary work location, Temporary work location. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Terrorist related forgiveness, Terrorist or Military Action Related Forgiveness Transportation, Armed Forces reservists. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Transportation expenses, Transportation Expenses Travel expenses, Travel Expenses TTY/TDD information, How To Get Tax Help U Uniforms, Uniforms W When to file, When To File Where to file, Where To File Y Yugoslavia, The Kosovo area. 2011 federal tax forms 1040 Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications